Window of Archipelago

Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

History of Borneo Tattoos

Illustration of Tatoo
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Borneo is one of the few places in the world where traditional tattooing is still practiced today. Archeological evidence has shown that ancestors of some contemporary native tribes have lived in Borneo for over 50,000 years. The term, "Dayak" is applied to a variety of natives tribes including the Ibans, Kayans and Kenyahs.

Headhunting and tattooing were intricately connected in the magic, ritual and social life of many tribes. The hand tattoo was a symbol of status in life and also served as important function after death. It was supposed to illuminate the darkness as the soul wandered in search of the River of the Dead. Tattooing, piercing, and other traditional Dayak arts are of great antiquity. Many of the traditional tattoo designs resemble decorative motifs found in the art of Bali and Java, and the tattooing instruments and techniques used by the Dayaks are similar to those found throughout Polynesia suggesting that Stone Age voyageurs shared their knowledge throughout the area.

Today, few Dayak women are tattooed but the practice is still popular among men. The designs are mainly traditional but some have commercial elements.

Amongst the Kayans, the men tattoo chiefly for ornament and no special significance can be attached to the majority of designs employed; nor is there any particular ceremonial or tattoo connected to the process of tattooing the male sex.

If a Sarawak Kayan has taken the head of an enemy, he can have the back of his hands and fingers covered with tattoos, but if he only has had a share in the slaughter, one finger only, and generally the thumb, can be tattooed. On the Mendalan River, the Kayan braves are tattooed on the left thumb only, not on the carpals and the backs of the fingers, and the thigh pattern is reserved for head-taking heroes.

Dog designs figure predominantly in Kayan art and the designs have been copied by a lot of other tribes. On the deltoid region of the shoulders and on the breasts, a rosette or star design is found. The rosette might have been derived from the eye in the dog pattern.

Kayan women are tattooed in complicated serial designs over the whole forearm, the backs of the hands, over the whole of the thighs below to below the knees, and on the metatarsal surfaces of the feet. The tattooing of a Kayan girl is a serious and long process taking up to four years. At ten years old a girl would have her fingers and the upper part of her feet tattooed, and about a year later her forearms would be completed, the thighs are partially tattooed during the next year, and in the third or fourth year from the commencement the whole operation should have been accomplished. Her tattoos would be completed before he becomes pregnant because it is considered immodest to be tattooed after she has become a mother.

Tattooing among the Kayan women is universal; they believe the designs act as torches in the next world. The operation of tattooing is always performed by women, never by men but men actually carve designs on wooden blocks.

Kayan wood blocks tattoo designsThe tools used by a tattoo artist are simple, consisting of two or three prickers and an iron striker that are kept in a wooden case. The prickers are wooden rods with a short pointed head projecting at right angles at one end; to the point of the head is attached a lump of resin in which are embedded three or four short needles, their points alone projecting from the resin. The striker is merely a short iron clad, half of which is covered with a string lashing. The pigment is a mixture of soot, water and sugar cane juice, and is kept in a shallow wooden cup. The best soot is believed to be obtained from the bottom of the metal cooking pot. The tattoo designs are carved in high relief on blocks of wood that are smeared with the ink and then pressed on the part of the body to be tattooed, leaving an impression of the designs. The designs tattooed on women are in longitudinal rows or traverse bands, and one or more zigzag lines mark the divisions between the rows or bands.

Borneo Women getting tattooedThe subject who is be tattooed lies on the floor, the artist and an assistant squatting on either side. The artist first dips a piece of fiber from the sugar palm into the pigment and, pressing this on the limb to be tattooed, plots out the arrangement of the rows or bands of the design. The tattooist or her assistant stretches the skin to be tattooed with their feet, and dipping a pricker into the pigment, taps its handle with the striker as she works along a line, driving the needle points into the skin. The operation is painful and there is no antiseptic and often a new tattoo ulcerates.

Universal among the Kenyan-Klemantan of the Upper Mahakam and Batang, Kayan there is a belief that after death the completely tattooed women will be allowed to bathe in the mythical river Teland Julan, and that consequently they will be able to pick up the pearls that are found in its bed; incompletely tattooed women can only stand on the river banks, while un-tattooed will not be able to approach the shores at all.

Source:
  • http://www.vanishingtattoo.com/tattoo_museum/borneo_tattoos.html
Photo: Special

Translated into Indonesian :


Sebagai perbandingan, sejarah tato: Samoa 1722, Philippines 1691, Polynesia Ribuan Tahun, The Marquesas 100 SM, Tattooing in The Marshall Islands 1.000 s/d 500 SM, Arab Religious Tattoos 6.000 tahun yl, 

Tato Borneo (Kalimantan) - Terjemahan bebas, sbb:

Kalimantan adalah salah satu dari sedikit tempat di dunia di mana tato tradisional masih dipraktekkan saat ini. 

Bukti arkeologi menunjukkan bahwa nenek moyang dari beberapa suku asli kontemporer telah tinggal di Kalimantan selama lebih dari 50.000 tahun. 

Istilah, "Dayak" diterapkan untuk berbagai suku pribumi termasuk Iban, Kayans dan Kenyahs.


Pengayauan dan tato yang rumit terhubung dalam sihir, ritual dan sosial kehidupan banyak suku. Tangan tato adalah simbol status dalam kehidupan dan juga menjabat sebagai fungsi penting setelah kematian. 

Itu seharusnya untuk menerangi kegelapan sebagai jiwa mengembara mencari Sungai of the Dead. Tato, piercing, dan seni lainnya Dayak tradisional sangat kuno. 

Banyak dari desain tato tradisional menyerupai motif hias yang ditemukan dalam seni Bali dan Jawa, dan instrumen tato dan teknik yang digunakan oleh orang Dayak mirip dengan yang ditemukan di seluruh Polinesia menunjukkan bahwa Batu voyageurs Umur berbagi pengetahuan di seluruh daerah.

Hari ini, beberapa perempuan Dayak yang bertato tapi praktek masih populer di kalangan pria. Desain terutama tradisional tapi beberapa memiliki unsur komersial.Di antara Kayans, pria tato terutama untuk ornamen dan tidak ada makna khusus dapat dilampirkan ke mayoritas desain dipekerjakan; juga tidak ada tertentu upacara atau tato terhubung ke proses tato jenis kelamin laki-laki.

Jika Sarawak Kayan telah mengambil kepala musuh, ia dapat memiliki bagian belakang tangan dan jari ditutupi dengan tato, tetapi jika ia hanya memiliki saham dalam pembantaian, satu jari saja, dan umumnya ibu jari, bisa ditato

Di Sungai Mendalan, para pemberani Kayan yang ditato pada ibu jari kiri saja, bukan pada carpals dan punggung jari-jari, dan pola paha dicadangkan untuk kepala-mengambil pahlawan.Desain anjing mencari terutama dalam seni Kayan dan desain telah disalin oleh banyak suku-suku lain. Pada daerah deltoid dari bahu dan di dada, roset atau bintang desain ditemukan. 

Roset mungkin telah berasal dari mata dalam pola anjing.Perempuan Kayan yang bertato dalam desain seri rumit atas seluruh lengan, punggung tangan, atas seluruh paha bawah hingga di bawah lutut, dan pada permukaan metatarsal kaki. 

The tato seorang gadis Kayan adalah proses yang serius dan panjang mengambil hingga empat tahun. Pada usia sepuluh tahun seorang gadis akan memiliki jari-jari dan bagian atas kakinya tato, dan sekitar setahun kemudian lengannya akan selesai, paha yang sebagian tato selama tahun depan, dan pada tahun ketiga atau keempat dari dimulainya seluruh operasi harus telah selesai dilaksanakan. 

Tato-nya akan selesai sebelum ia menjadi hamil karena dianggap tidak sopan untuk dibuatkan tato setelah ia menjadi seorang ibu.Tato di antara perempuan Kayan bersifat universal, mereka percaya desain bertindak sebagai obor di dunia berikutnya. 

Pengoperasian tato selalu dilakukan oleh perempuan, tidak pernah oleh manusia tetapi orang benar-benar mengukir desain pada balok kayu.Kayan kayu blok tato alat designsThe digunakan oleh seorang seniman tato yang sederhana, terdiri dari dua atau tiga berduri dan striker besi yang disimpan dalam kasus kayu. 

Para berduri adalah batang kayu dengan kepala runcing pendek memproyeksikan pada sudut kanan di salah satu ujung, ke titik kepala terpasang benjolan resin yang tertanam tiga atau empat jarum pendek, poin mereka sendiri memproyeksikan dari resin. 

Striker hanyalah besi pendek dipalut, setengah dari yang ditutupi dengan memukul senar. Pigmen adalah campuran jelaga, air dan jus tebu, dan disimpan dalam cangkir kayu dangkal. Jelaga terbaik diyakini diperoleh dari bagian bawah dari logam panci masak. Desain tato yang diukir dengan lega tinggi pada balok kayu yang diolesi dengan tinta dan kemudian ditekan pada bagian tubuh yang akan ditato, meninggalkan kesan desain. 

Desain tato di wanita berada di baris memanjang atau melintasi band, dan satu atau lebih garis zigzag menandai perpecahan antara baris atau band.Perempuan Borneo mendapatkan subjek tattooedThe yang dibuatkan tato terletak di lantai, artis dan asisten jongkok di kedua sisi. Artis dips pertama sepotong serat dari Aren menjadi pigmen dan, menekan tombol ini pada anggota badan yang akan ditato, plot keluar susunan baris atau band dari desain. 

The tato atau asistennya membentang kulit yang akan ditato dengan kaki mereka, dan mencelupkan tusuk ke dalam pigmen, keran menangani dengan striker saat ia bekerja sepanjang garis, mengemudi titik jarum ke dalam kulit. 

Operasi ini menyakitkan dan tidak ada antiseptik dan sering ulcerates tato baru.Universal antara Kenya-Klemantan dari Mahakam Hulu dan Batang, Kayan ada keyakinan bahwa setelah kematian benar-benar tato perempuan akan diizinkan untuk mandi di sungai mitos Teland Julan, dan akibatnya mereka akan dapat mengambil mutiara yang ditemukan di tempat tidurnya, tidak lengkap bertato perempuan hanya bisa berdiri di tepi sungai, sedangkan un-tato tidak akan dapat mendekati pantai sama sekali.

Austronesian History

Harry Truman Simanjuntak
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - The theory of migration which says that Sundanese (Archipelago) originated in Yunnan was opposed by two theories, first Theory of Harry Truman and Ario Santos, this theory opposes the theory of Austronesian migration from Yunan and India. This theory says that the ancestors of the Austronesian people came from the Sunda-Land plains that sank in the ice age (Pleistocene).

This population has advanced civilization, they migrated to mainland Asia to Mesopotamia, affecting the local population and developing civilization. This opinion is strengthened by Umar Anggara Jenny, who sees from the point of development of language, he said that Austronesian as a language family is a big phenomenon in human history. This family has the most extensive distribution, covering more than 1,200 languages ​​spread from Madagascar in the west to Easter Island in the East. The language is now spoken by more than 300 million people. Umar Anggara Jenny and Harry Truman's opinion about the distribution and influence of Austronesian language and nation was also justified by Abdul Hadi WM (Samantho, 2009).

The early theory of human civilization in the Sunda Papal Plain (Sunda-Land) was also raised by Santos (2005). Santos applies philological (linguistic), anthropological and archeological analysis. The results of the analysis of reflections on buildings and historic artifacts such as the pyramids in Egypt, sacred temples from Mayan and Aztec civilizations, relics of the Mohenjodaro and Harrapa civilizations, as well as geographical analysis (such as area, climate, natural resources, volcanoes, and farming methods) show that the rice terracing system that is unique to Indonesia is the form adopted by the Borobudur Temple, the Pyramids in Egypt, and the ancient Aztec buildings in Mexico. After doing research for 30 years Santos concluded that Sunda Land was the center of an advanced civilization thousands of years ago known as the Continent of Atlantis. Of the two theories about the origin of humans inhabiting this archipelago, the Sunda-Land continent is the common thread. Philological, anthropological and archaeological analysis approaches from the ancient archipelago kingdoms and the analysis of the relationship between one another are likely to reveal the darkness of the archipelago's past.

The archipelago has crossed centuries of history. The history of the archipelago can be grouped into five phases, namely prehistoric times, Hindu / Buddhist eras, Islamic eras, Colonial eras, and eras. If traced the historical journey of the era of independence, colonialism, and the Islamic era have clear historical evidence and need not be debated. Hindu / Buddhist times have also been found historical evidence, although not as clear as the aftermath. Before the Hindu / Buddhist era is still in a big puzzle, then to answer this obscurity can be done by analyzing the relationship of various relics that exist.

The Sunda-Land Continent is a common thread, the philosophical, anthropological and archaeological approach of the ancient Sundanese kingdom will reveal the darkness of our past

Salakanegara Kingdom, Pandeglang Banten, in 120 AD,
Salakanagara Kingdom (Salaka = Silver) or Rajatapura is a Hindu kingdom. The story or source is listed in the Wangsakerta Manuscript. This kingdom was built in 120 AD which is located on the coast of Teluk Lada (now the area of ​​Pandeglang Regency, Banten). His first king, Aki Tirem, was handed down to Dewawarman who had the title Prabu Darmalokapala Dewawarman Haji Rakja Gapara Sagara who ruled until 168 AD.

The City of Perak was previously ruled by the figure of Aki Tirem Sang Aki Luhur Mulya or Aki Tirem, at that time the city was called Pulasari. Aki Tirem married his daughter named Pohaci Larasati with Dewawarman. Dewawarman is actually a prince originally from the land of Palawa in South India. The kingdom's territory includes all the Sunda Strait coast, namely the Pandeglang coast, Banten to the east to Agrabintapura (Gunung Padang, Cianjur), also to the Sunda Strait to Krakatau or Apuynusa (Nusa api) and to the southern coast of Swarnabumi (Sumatra island). There is also an allegation that the city of Argyre, which he discovered Claudius Ptolemalus in 150 AD, was the city of Perak or Salakanagara. In Chinese news from the Han dynasty, there is a note from the king of Tiao-Pien (Tiao = God, Pien = Warman) from the kingdom of Yehtiao or Java, sending a messenger / ambassador to China in 132 CE

Source: http://www.keajaibandunia.net/1338/piramid-tertua-terdapat-di-bandung.html

Photo: Special

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture