Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

History of Nahdlatul 'Ulama 1926 AD

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Nahdlatul 'Ulama (Awakening' Ulama or Awakening of Islamic Scholars), abbreviated as NU, was established on January 31, 1926

NU is the largest Islamic organization in Indonesia, one of the efforts to institutionalize the insight of religious traditions that were held long before, namely the Ahlussunnah wal Jamaah.

The organization is engaged in religious, educational, social and economic fields.

In addition, other indigenous organizations whether social, cultural or religious in nature that were born during the occupation, basically constituted resistance to the invaders.

Famous kiai from East Java, Madura, Central Java and West Java, as the initiators, held a meeting at the residence of K.H. Wahab Chasbullah in Surabaya.

Besides K.H. Wahab Chasbullah, the meeting of the kiai was also an initiative of K.H. Hasyim Ash'ari as the initiator

What was discussed at the time was the effort to maintain traditional Islam in Indonesia.

Therefore, a special container needs to be formed, which Kiai Wahab had pioneered long before. With K.H. Mas Mansur, as written by Ahmad Zahro in the book Intellectual Tradition of NU: Lajnah Bahtsul Masail 1926-1999 (2004),

Kiai Wahab founded Nahdlatul Wathan ("revival of the motherland") in 1914. Martin van Brulnessen in a book entitled NU: Tradition, Power Relations, the Search for New Discourse (1994) mentions that, it can be said that Nahdlatul Wathan is a religious education institution with a pattern of the first moderate nationalist in the archipelago.

The Nahdlatul Wathan version of Kiai Wahab and Kiai Mas Mansur differed from the same-named institution established by Mr. Guru Kiai Haji (TGKH) Muhammad Zainuddin Abdul Madjid in Lombok, East Nusa Tenggara, in 1953.

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

The Final Journey of Maharaja Dharma Setia (1.5 ... AD - 1,605 AD)

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Maharaja Dharma Setia / Maharaja Dermasatia / Maharaja Dharma Setia Warman was the last king of the Kutai Martapura Kingdom, which was Hindu in the Archipelago.

Kutai Martadipura Kingdom, many also refer to the Kingdom of Kutai Mulawarman, this is because during the reign of King Mulawarman, Kutai reached a golden age.

Standing around 301 AD, the Kingdom Center is located in Muara Kaman, East Kalimantan, precisely upstream of the Mahakam river.

The name Kutai was given by experts to take from the name of the place where the inscription was found to show the existence of the kingdom.

While information on the name Martapura was obtained from the book Salasilah Raja in the State of Kutai Kertanegara, which tells the story of the Kutai Kertanegara Kingdom troops from Kutai Lama attacking the capital of this kingdom.

The Kingdom of Kutai Martapura collapsed when the 21st King named Maharaja Dharma Setia suffered defeat, and fell at the hands of King Kutai Kertanegara Aji Prince Sinum Panji,

Raja Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji, then succeeded in uniting the two kingdoms of Kutai,

Then the name of the kingdom was changed to the Kingdom of Kutai Kertanegara Ing Martadipura which later revealed the Dynasty of the Kings of Kutai Kertanegara until now.

From the source of the Yupa inscription the Pallawa script obtained 3 names of the King, while 2 people in the book of the Salasilah of the King in the Country of Kutai Kertanegara had Malay Arabic script.
  • Maharaja Kundungga, posthumous title Dewawarman (Founder)
  • Maharaja Asmawarman (Anak Kundungga)
  • Maharaja Mulawarman (Aswawarman's Child)
  • Maharaja Indera Mulia (14th Century)
  • Maharaja Dermasatia (Last)
The complete sequence of Raja Kutai Martapura (from various sources), namely:
  • Maharaja Kudungga, posthumous title Dewawarman (Founder - The name Kundungga by historians is indicated as the original name of the Archipelago that has not been influenced by the name of Indian culture)
  • Maharaja Aswawarman (Anak Kundungga, with the title Wangsakerta - Warman comes from Sanskrit, Southern India)
  • Maharaja Mulawarman Nala Dewa (Anak Aswawarman - Kingdom of Kutai experienced the Golden Age, where his territory covered almost the entire territory of East Kalimantan. The people of Kutai lived prosperous and prosperous)
  • Maharaja Marawijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Gajayana Warman
  • Maharaja Tungga Warman
  • Maharaja Jayanaga Warman
  • Maharaja Nalasinga Warman
  • Maharaja Nala Parana Tungga
  • Maharaja Gadingga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Indra Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Sangga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Candrawarman
  • Maharaja Sri Rare God
  • Maharaja Guna Parana Dewa
  • Maharaja Wijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Sri Aji Dewa
  • Maharaja Mulia Putera
  • Maharaja Nala Pandita
  • Maharaja Indra Paruta Dewa
  • Maharaja Dharma Setia (Closing the Martadipura Dynasty in 1,605 AD)
In the Research Process

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Kutai Martadipura (301 AD - 1,605 AD)

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Kutai Martadipura is a Hindu-style kingdom in the archipelago that has the oldest historical evidence. Standing around the 4th century. This kingdom is located in Muara Kaman, East Kalimantan, precisely in the upper reaches of the Mahakam river. 

The name Kutai was given by experts to take from the name of the place where the inscription was found to show the existence of the kingdom. There is no inscription that clearly mentions the name of this kingdom and indeed very little information can be obtained.

Yupa inscription
Royal Kutai inscription
Existing information was obtained from Yupa / inscriptions in sacrificial ceremonies dating from the 4th century. There are seven yupa pieces which are the main source for experts in interpreting the history of the Kutai Kingdom. Yupa is a stone monument that serves as a memorial made by the Brahman for the generosity of King Mulawarman. In Hinduism cows are not slaughtered like sacrifices made by Muslims. From one of these yupa it is known that the king who ruled the Kutai kingdom at that time was Mulawarman. His name is recorded in Yupa because of his generosity of donating 20,000 head of cattle to the Brahmins. It can be seen that according to the Indonesian National History Book II: Ancient Times written by Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro and Nugroho Notosusanto published by Balai Pustaka page 36, the transliteration of the inscription above is as follows:

īrīmatah śrī-narendrasya; kuṇḍuṅgasya mahātmanaḥ; putro śvavarmmo vikhyātah; vaṅśakarttā yathāṅśumān; tasya sonā mahātmānaḥ; trayas traya ivāgnayaḥ; teṣān trayāṇām pravaraḥ; tapo-bala-damānvitaḥ; śrī mūlavarmmā rājendro; yaṣṭvā bahusuvarṇnakam; tasya yajñasya yūpo ‘yam; dvijendrais samprakalpitaḥ.

"The Mahārāja Kundungga, who is very noble, has a well-known son, the Aśwawarmman whose name, which, like Ang dewauman (Sun god), grows a very noble family. The Aśwawarmman has three sons, like fire (which is sacred). Prominent of the three sons was the Mūlawarmman, a good, strong and powerful civilized king. The Mūlawarmman had held a very large amount of gold (so-called salvation). To commemorate the feast (salvation) that the stone monument was erected by the Brahmins. "

Mulawarman is a child of Aswawarman and grandson of Kundungga. The names Mulawarman and Aswawarman are very thick with the influence of Sanskrit when viewed from the way of writing. Kundungga is an official from the Kingdom of Campa (Cambodia) who came to Indonesia. Kundungga himself is suspected of not adopting Buddhism.

Aswawarman was the son of King Kudungga. He was also known as the founder of the Kutai Kingdom dynasty so he was given the title Wangsakerta, which means forming a family. Aswawarman has 3 sons, and one of them is Mulawarman.

Aswawarman's son is Mulawarman. From Yupa it is known that during the reign of Mulawarman, the Kingdom of Kutai experienced a golden period. Its territory covers almost the entire territory of East Kalimantan. The people of Kutai live in prosperity and prosperity.

As if the kingdom of Kutai was no longer visible to the outside world due to lack of communication with foreigners, so very few heard of its name.

End up
The kingdom of Kutai ended when the Kutai King named Maharaja Dharma Setia was killed in battle at the hands of the 13th King Kutai Kartanegara, Aji Pangeran Anum Panji Mendapa. Keep in mind that this Kutai (Kutai Martadipura) is different from the Kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara which was the capital of Kutai Lama (Tanjung Kute) at that time.

It was this Kutai Kartanegara, in 1365, mentioned in Javanese Negarakertagama literature. Kutai Kartanegara subsequently became the Islamic kingdom.

Since 1735 the kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara, which was originally the prince of the Prince, turned into a Sultan (Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris) and is now called the Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara.

Names of King Kutai Maharaja Kudungga, posthumous title Dewawarman (founder)

  • Maharaja Aswawarman (Kundungga's son)
  • Maharaja Mulawarman (Aswawarman's son)
  • Maharaja Marawijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Gajayana Warman
  • Maharaja Tungga Warman
  • Maharaja Jayanaga Warman
  • Maharaja Nalasinga Warman
  • Maharaja Nala Parana Tungga
  • Maharaja Gadingga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Indra Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Sangga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Candrawarman
  • Maharaja Sri Rare God
  • Maharaja Guna Parana Dewa
  • Maharaja Wijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Sri Aji Dewa
  • Maharaja Mulia Putera
  • Maharaja Nala Pandita
  • Maharaja Indra Paruta Dewa
  • Maharaja Dharma Setia
Miscellaneous :
The name Maharaja Kundungga is interpreted by historians as the original name of Indonesian people who have not been influenced by the name of Indian culture.

While his son named Asmawarman is believed to have been influenced by Hindu culture.

This is based on the fact that the word Warman comes from Sanskrit. The word is usually used to describe the names of people or residents of southern India.

Source: kingdom_Kutai_Martadipura
Photo: Special

Regarding the Photos of Indonesian Independence

Perjuangan Mempertahankan Kemerdekaan Indonesia
Main Literacy
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Speaking of Indonesian Independence, we also have to see who is actually fighting.
Because at this time, many parties claim that their group has a large share in the struggle for Indonesian Independence.

Incidentally they are people who dress in their own style.

Because these people dare to lie to defend their god, they make paintings that show their existence, and their followers are fooled by the historical story that this group presents.

Let's see if they are ?????

Main Literacy

Photo: Special

Regarding PPKI

Sidang PPKI
Main Literacy
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - invites PPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee - in Japanese: Dokuritsu Zyunbi Inkai) should not be separated from BPUPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Preparatory Efforts Agency - in Japanese: Dokuritsu Junbi Chōsa-kai) who wants to be visited first .

August 7, 1945. This body is asking for help for anyone to solve the past state administration problem.

Then BPUPKI was dissolved by Japan, on the same date, August 7, 1945.

The PPKI Session was first made in order to ratify the Constitution which had been previously drafted in the BPUPKI session, July 1945.

Initially the PPKI consisted of 21 people (12 from Java, 3 from Sumatra, 2 from Sulawesi, 1 from Kalimantan, 1 from Nusa Tenggara, 1 from Maluku, 1 from Chinese). The initial composition of PPKI members is as follows:
  • Ir. Soekarno (Ketua)
  • Drs. Moh. Hatta (Wakil Ketua)
  • Prof. Mr. Dr. Soepomo (anggota)
  • KRT Radjiman Wedyodiningrat (anggota)
  • R. P. Soeroso (anggota)
  • Soetardjo Kartohadikoesoemo (anggota)
  • Kiai Abdoel Wachid Hasjim (anggota)
  • Ki Bagus Hadikusumo (anggota)
  • Otto Iskandardinata (anggota)
  • Abdoel Kadir (anggota)
  • Pangeran Soerjohamidjojo (anggota)
  • Pangeran Poerbojo (anggota)
  • Dr. Mohammad Amir (anggota)
  • Mr. Abdul Maghfar (anggota)
  • Teuku Mohammad Hasan
  • Dr. GSSJ Ratulangi (anggota)
  • Andi Pangerang (anggota)
  • A.A. Hamidhan (anggota)
  • I Goesti Ketoet Poedja (anggota)
  • Mr. Johannes Latuharhary (anggota)
  • Drs. Yap Tjwan Bing (anggota)
Furthermore, unbeknownst to Japan, membership increased by 6 namely:
  • Achmad Soebardjo (Penasihat)
  • Sajoeti Melik (anggota)
  • Ki Hadjar Dewantara (anggota)
  • R.A.A. Wiranatakoesoema (anggota)
  • Kasman Singodimedjo (anggota)
  • Iwa Koesoemasoemantri (anggota)
On 8 August 1945, as the new PPKI leaders, Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat were invited to Dalat to meet Marshal Terauchi.

Matters discussed, and amended at the hearing on 18 August 1945
  • The word Mukadimah is replaced by the preamble
  • The first precept is "Godhead with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for his adherents" changed to "God Almighty"
  • Article 28 of the 1945 Constitution which reads "State based on Divinity with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents" was changed to article 29 of the 1945 Constitution namely "Nagara based on Godhead"
  • In Article 6 Paragraph (1) which originally reads the President is a native Indonesian and Muslim is replaced by the President is a native Indonesian.
PPKI Sessions:
August 18, 1945 trial
  • August 18, 1945 trial
  • Ratify the 1945 Constitution. Select and appoint Sukarno as President and Drs. Mohammad Hatta as Vice President.
  • The temporary task of the President is assisted by the Central Indonesian National Committee before the formation of the MPR and the DPR.
August 19, 1945 trial
  • PPKI held its second session on August 19, 1945.
  • Form 12 Ministries and 4 State Ministers
  • Form Local Government. Indonesia is divided into 8 provinces led by a governor.
August 22, 1945 session
  1. Establish an Indonesian National Committee. Main article: Central Indonesian National Committee
  2. Forming the Indonesian National Party. Main article: Indonesian National Party
  3. Establish a People's Security Agency. The formation of the People's Security Agency (BKR) aims to avoid provoking hostility with foreign troops in Indonesia. BKR members are a group of former PETA members, Heiho, Seinendan, Keibodan, and the like.
The Other Side (Not the Good of Japan)

PPKI was formed to attract the sympathy of groups in Indonesia, to be willing to help Japan in the Pacific War, whose position has been increasingly pressed since 1943. They also promised to give Indonesia independence through the 'Kyoto Agreement'.

When Russia joined the Allies and invaded Japan from Manchuria, the Japanese government accelerated Indonesian independence, which BPUPKI planned for September 17, 1945.

On August 9, 1945 Soekarno, Hatta and Radjiman Wediodiningrat were invited to Dalath, + 300 km north of Saigon, the seat of General Terauchi, commander of the entire Japanese army in Southeast Asia.

The purpose of calling the three figures is to symbolically appoint Ir. Soekarno as chairman of the PPKI, and Drs. Moh. Hatta as the vice chairman. The inauguration ceremony took place on August 12, 1945 when they arrived in Dalat, preceded by a short speech by Terauchi (Approving the creation of a puppet state, red) stating that the Japanese government in Tokyo decided to grant independence to Indonesia.

The contents of the conversation between the three Indonesian leaders with General Terauchi:
  • The Japanese government decided to grant independence to Indonesia as soon as preparations for independence were completed and gradually started from Java and then to other islands.
  • The implementation of independence was handed over to PPKI and it was agreed on August 18, 1945.
  • Indonesian territory will cover the entire former Dutch East Indies.
On August 14, 1945 the three returned to Jakarta, because Japan faced US bombings in Hirosima and Nagasaki.

Soekarno, Hatta, and Radjiman's trip back to Jakarta, stopped in Singapore one night. Arriving in Jakarta welcomed by the people. At that time Sukarno made a short speech as follows:

"If a while ago I said that it would be independent before the corn crop would bear fruit, now I say to you that Indonesia will be independent before the plant blooms."

After the meeting (meeting with Terauchi, ed), PPKI was unable to work because the youths urged that the proclamation of independence not be carried out on behalf of PPKI, which was considered a Japanese-made tool. Even the plan for the August 16, 1945 meeting could not be carried out because of the Rengasdengklok incident.

The freedom fighters were involved in the pros and cons of the bombings in Hirosima and Nagasaki. Where young people believe that Japan is almost outdone, while the older groups continue to take the position to submit decisions to PPKI.

This attitude was not agreed upon by young people, because they considered PPKI to be a Japanese puppet and did not approve the birth of the proclamation of independence in the manner promised by General Terauchi at a meeting in Dalath.

The young group wants the implementation of the proclamation of independence in their own strength, completely separated from the Japanese government.

While Soekarno-Hatta argued that the matter of Indonesian independence that came from the Japanese government or from the results of the struggle of the Indonesian people themselves did not matter, because Japan had already lost.

Sukarno saw it more tactical and strategic, because it would face the Allies who were trying to restore Dutch power in Indonesia.

Therefore to proclaim Indonesia's independence, an organized revolution was needed. They wanted to discuss the proclamation of independence in the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee meeting.

Main Literacy

Sources: From Various Sources
Photo: Special

Seputar BPUPKI

Regarding BPUPKI
Main Literacy
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - On July 17, 1945, the BPUPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Agency for Investigation) completed its trial and accepted the Draft Constitution.

From a historical perspective, it can be said that this is the first time that the Indonesian people have a "Basic State" and "Written Basic Legal Draft".

Furthermore BPUPKI tasks will be forwarded by PPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee) which was formed to continue the BPUPKI tasks. Where the main task of PPKI is to discuss and ratify the draft Basic Law from BPUPKI. This historic event occurred on August 18, 1945.

PPKI is a body formed by Japan to answer Indonesia's promise of independence. This body was designed by Japan's Supreme Military Command at a secret meeting in Saigon, South Vietnam, on August 7, 1945.

"There Is No Free Lunch", that is a saying that is commonly known in a political and business joke. Behind the gift of Japan, Japan wants a guarantee of compensation for the independence granted. They want Indonesia to support Japan against Japan's enemies, who at that time was facing defeat, after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima City on August 6, 1945.

Therefore, Japan approached the nationalists from the old group, especially Sukarno. Marshal Terauchi, Commander in Chief of the Japanese Forces in Southeast Asia, secretly flew Bung Karno to Saigon to be appointed as chairman of the PPKI.

Sukarno was accompanied by Mohammad Hatta and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat, along with dozens of Japanese military authorities. In order, they were later appointed as chairpersons, deputy chairs and representatives of PPKI members.

According to Bung Karno's memory, before being told that one of the most important cities in Japan had been flattened due to the atomic bomb, neither he nor Hatta understood what Japan was planning.

Terauchi only told us that Tenno Heika (Emperor of Japan) gave up the process of full independence to the Indonesian people. For this reason, Terauchi agreed not to involve the Japanese in the PPKI.

Sukarno digested Terauchi's words and according to him the plan to proclaim independence, as well as ratifying the draft Basic Law which was the task of PPKI, had to be carried out slowly without bloodshed.

But after Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat returned to Indonesia, PPKI members agreed to hold the first session on August 16, 1945.

The decision was taken, after determining the names of the management which consisted of 21 people. Where they consist of representatives from all regions of the archipelago.

Sukarno's intention to be cautious in planning independence won strong opposition from young people, such as Sutan Sjahrir, Wikana, and Chairul Saleh, openly opposed the soft attitude shown by the Sukarno-Hatta Dwitunggal. In fact, they began accusing Sukarno of being on the Japanese side.

This continues on 'Rengasdengklok Event'

important information
  • July 17, 1945, BPUPKI completes its trial and accepts the Draft Constitution.
  • August 7, 1945 PPKI is formed by Japan to answer Indonesia's promise of independence, which was drafted by Japan's Supreme Military Command in a secret meeting in Saigon, South Vietnam.
Main Literacy

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Atlantis - 9600 Years BC

Manado (Dreamland Library) - According to Santos, the sinking of the Atlantis continent took place around 11,600 years ago. This event caused the disappearance of Atlantis, and destroyed around 20 million inhabitants, who at that time had adopted modern culture.

Meanwhile residents who can still survive save themselves by boat. Migration events with this boat, also depicted in the symbols of ancient Egyptian tribes, Inca Maya Aztecs and some ancient traditions.

Because of the magnitude of these events, the Pleistocene ice age which took place for several thousand years ended. The ice that had covered the majority of the earth's surface melted because it was covered with ash.

Ashes were the result of the eruption of the Hercules pillar which, after further researching literally, especially Plato's work, according to Santos, the so-called "Pillar" was the mountain "Krakatau Purba". The other pillar of Hercules is the mountain "Dempo".

The size of the Krakatoa eruption resulted in the division of Java and Sumatra (which was once an island). The Krakatau incident, like a giant fountain that spewed water into the sky, created massive rains and storms, resulting in a Tsunami, melting Ice, thus raising the sea level to about 200 meters.

This resulted in Atlantis sinking around 150 - 200 meters below the surface of the water ..

Some features mentioned by Santos, from Plato's written literature are as follows:

Atlantis is in the tropics with warm temperatures, harvests grains twice a year, the land is very fertile. As for the evidence that the sinking is only in the range of 200 meters, is believed by Santos from the Indonesian Bathymetry map which has shallow waters around the islands, especially Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Sulawesi.

Santos's conviction, that the location of Atlantis was the one in Indonesia, became even stronger, was after the massive tsunami that struck Aceh 26 December 2004.

To prove this, Santos suggested, to conduct underwater research at a depth of 150-200 meters in Indonesian waters, especially in the Java ocean.

If indeed it is ultimately proven that Atlantis is Indonesia. According to Santos, this would overturn the claim of the Western world, especially Europe, that all Culture and Progress originated there.

Main Literacy

Source:,, and various other sources

Source 9,500 BC:

Photo: Special

Atlantis on the Bottom of the Java Sea

Main Literacy
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - For months Captain Hans Berekoven roamed the waters of the Java Sea in the mid-1990s. He commanded the Australian Navy seismic survey ship, which works for two international oil companies, Arco and Conoco. Seismic surveys are a common method for examining subsurface structures, especially those related to oil, natural gas and other mineral exploration.

"Wow, how shallow the Java Sea is. The depth is about 60 meters everywhere. According to my scientific knowledge, there must be a dry plain during the Ice Age here," Hans said at the end of October in Jakarta.

The Java Sea is part of the Sunda Exposure that was submerged after the Ice Age ended. Sundanese Exposure is a stretch of land that is an extension to the south of the plains of Southeast Asia. Most of the plains are now covered by shallow seas, including the South China Sea, the Gulf of Thailand and the Java Sea, with an average depth of less than 100 meters.

Exposure area is estimated at 1.8 million square kilometers. During the Ice Age, which lasted thousands of years ago to end abruptly 12 thousand years ago, all exposure was at sea level. This can be seen from the remnants of the river channel that has been recognized. One path crosses north to the South China Sea. One route to the east to the Sunda Shelf and the Flores Canal. The existence of this exposure was first reported by G.W. Earl in 1845.

Hans already knew about this exposure and some scientists' estimates that this was the speculation of Atlantis, the city of legend mentioned by the philosophers of Plato in Timaeus and Critias, located. Hans has compared the results of research conducted by several scientists, including the analysis of Arysio Santos and Stephen Oppenheimer in Eden in the East, regarding the Ice Age.

According to Hans, the Ice Age occurred because of the volcanic eruption in Sumatra 70,000 years ago. Lake Toba is the remaining crater of this eruption. Its volcanic ash is thrown into the atmosphere and surrounds the world, which prevents sunlight from entering and results in a global temperature drop. The Arctic ice cap widens south to 50 degrees North Latitude. Most of Europe is covered with a thick layer of ice, which in some parts reaches a thickness of two thousand meters.

"When the world's climate is very cold, the Asian region is very warm and fertile. Sea levels are 150 meters lower than they are now. This is encouraging nomadic humans in China, India and other Asian regions to migrate to the Sunda Exposure, so this exposure becomes a center of concentration civilization, "Hans said.

Image Source:

The limited fertile land in the Sunda Exposure forced the nomadic tribes to change their culture, from a nomadic nation to a resident nation that developed ways of farming and raising animals. "So agriculture and animal husbandry are found here, in Indonesia, not in Mesopotamia," he said. During this organized civilization is considered the first time developing in Mesopotamia in 5,500 years ago.

However, after lasting more than 60 thousand years, the Ice Age suddenly ended. Ice melted on a large scale that began 10 thousand years before Christ. Why is that? Scientists differ on the answer. Hans chose the asteroid impact theory. In this theory, a giant asteroid is thought to have hit the coast of North America in the Atlantic Ocean 12,000 years ago. This eruption resulted in global warming which melted the Arctic ice cap, which caused flash floods that submerged some of the Sundanese Exposure.

The sinking of some of these fertile areas drowned the signs of early civilization in Asia. How far the civilization has developed is also unknown. However, from the seismic data obtained when investigating the Java Sea, Hans saw signs of the beginning of civilization. The problem, he said, was that the data focused on 1,000 meters below the seabed. "But, if you manipulate the data with special software, you can see the 'bump' of 10 meters, although it is blurred and the quality is not good," Hans said.

In addition, he said, the survey was conducted not at the best points, namely along the ancient river at the bottom of the Java Sea. "Because my data are inadequate and the oil company also has a different mission and is concerned about the data, I decided to research it myself," he said.

Hans Berekoven then spent his annual bonus money and his 2,000 fine Morinos wool to buy a Southern Sun ship and sail to the Java Sea. He and his wife, Rose, and their two children, Tristan, 15, and Hannah, 8, left for Bali, where they built a base for refueling, supplies and schools for their two children in 2005.

The Sunda Exposure Archeology Project, as the project is called, uses a 19 meter long vessel equipped with sonar equipment and a long distance mini submarine. The sonar can record an area of ​​200 square meters and a depth of around 60 meters. The mini-submarine helps to record and approach objects in the sea. "I run it like a farmer working on the fields, piece by piece, to map the surface of the sea floor," Hans said.

He then approached the Indonesian Institute of Sciences and the Indonesian government to help with his efforts. Initially, according to him, Indonesia was less interested in the offer. "Later, the Indonesians agreed that the project must use their large research vessel," he said.

The text of the collaboration between the National Spatial Survey and Mapping Coordinating Board (Bakosurtanal) and Southern Sun Sonar and Mapping was signed on March 22, 2006 by Bakosurtanal Chief Secretary Sukendra Martha and Hans Berekoven. The problem, said Hans, is using a large boat and then the costs will increase. "I don't have enough funds for that," he said. Finally the cooperation was canceled.

Unable to obtain a survey permit from the Indonesian government, Hans and his small ship, Southern Sun, turned to Malaysia and built a base in Miri, Sarawak. Hans and Rose are now exploring the waters of Malaysia and Kalimantan. But Hans is still convinced that the evidence of ancient civilization is stored behind a mud pile at the bottom of the Java Sea.

This conviction grew thicker when he heard about the discovery of an ancient city under water in the Gulf of Cambay on the west coast of India in 2002. He was soon there. The National Institute of Ocean Technology, the Indian government-owned agency that handles marine research, has conducted surveys with sonar in Cambay Bay since 1999. Badrinaryan, head of the research team, noted that he discovered unusual forms of sonar imagery. "The shapes of circles and squares in the geometric order could not exist in the sea," Badrinaryan wrote on the Graham Hancock site, a site which contains many analyzes of the mysteries of ancient civilizations.

The artifact is at a depth of 40 meters and 20 kilometers from the coast. What is surprising is the results of carbon testing for determining the age of the artifact, which was carried out by several institutions in India; Oxford University, United Kingdom; and Hannover, Germany. Some of these artifact objects prey until 19 thousand years ago, which means they are in the Ice Age. Some pottery shards studied by Oxford University are estimated to have been 16 thousand years old. This makes it the oldest pottery, which shifts Jomon's pottery position from Fukui Cave in Kyushu, Japan, which is 12 thousand years old.

The findings also reveal that ancient civilizations in the Gulf of Cambay were able to make pottery and burn it 16 thousand years ago. They have also built cities on the banks of the river and houses in an orderly arrangement. In the ancient city also found seeds of food that has become fossilized, which shows that they do agricultural cultivation. Hans twice went to India and photographed the artifacts. "Mesopotamia as the oldest civilization has no meaning now," he said.

"The city under the sea of ​​Cambay Bay is a part of the continent that sank in the Ice Age. Every country has something like this and Indonesia has the largest share," Hans said. He still hopes his ship, the Southern Sun, can scan the Java Sea and find an ancient city at its base.

Main Literacy


Photo: Special

Nusantara - Indonesia Timeline

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - To make it easier to see the history of the archipelago, then with this timeline, it is hoped that you can arrange your own years of the Archipelago Civilization
  • Early History of Humans
  • 1998,100 BC: Pithecanthropus Erectus - in the Sangiran site area
  • 92,000 to 11,000 BC: Hobbits - Homo Floresiensis
  • 2,000 BC World History - History of the Prophets
  • 500 BC: Buni Site - Bekasi, West Java
  • Century 1 - The kingdom in Banten - in Banten
  • 130 - 362 AD - Kingdom of Salakanagara - in Banten
  • 4th Century: Kutai Kingdom - in East Kalimantan
  • ***** 476 AD World History - Collapse of the Roman Empire
  • 5th Century: Kingdom of Tarumanegara in West Java
  • 564 AD Sawerigading (Book of La Galigo) - Epic of La Galigo
  • ***** 571 AD World History - Prophet Muhammad 571 AD (Kitab Al Quran)
  • 682 AD: Kedukan Bukit Inscription - Sriwijaya, Palembang, South Sumatra
  • 732 AD: Canggal Inscription - Sanjaya Dynasty was founded
  • 824 AD: Borobudur Temple was built by Samaratungga from the Syailendra Dynasty
  • 850 M: Prambanan Temple or Rara Jonggrang built
  • ***** 12th Century World History - Kingdom of Singapore Originating from Cirebon
  • 1,300 M Sultanate of Kutai - in Kalimantan
  • ***** 1,773 - 1,795 AD World History - First Malaysian King of West Sumatra People
  • etc.
900 AD:
900: Establishment of the Sumedang Larang Kingdom

901: Establishment of the Luwu Sultanate

923: Establishment of the Kingdom of Pajajaran Bogor, West Java

932 AD - 1579 AD: The Kingdom of Sunda (Sunda Wiwitan, Hinduism, Buddhism)

960 AD: 
Pura Tirta Empul, located to the east under Tampaksiring Palace. An inscription stored in Manukkaya Village explains that this temple was built by the Queen Sri Candra Bhayangkasha Warmadewa in the Manukkaya area. This inscription is written number 960 AD (882 Saka).

1000 AD:

1009 AD: Establishment of the East Java Kahuripan Kingdom

1042 AD: Establishment of the Janggala Sidoarjo Kingdom, East Java

1042 AD - 1221 AD: Establishment of the Kadiri / Panjalu Kediri Kingdom, East Java

1076 AD: 
Establishment of the Kingdom of Tidung Tarakan, East Kalimantan

1100 AD:
Kingdom of Singapore Beginning of the Kingdom of Cirebon

1200 AD:
Islam began to emerge in Aceh

1222 AD: 
Ken Arok attacks the Kingdom of Kediri, and kills Kertajaya, then founded the Singhasari Kingdom

1257 AD: 
Baab Mashur Malamo founded the Kingdom of Ternate in Maluku

1275-1290 AD: 
Kertanegara carries out a "PaMalayu" Expedition against the Malay Kingdom in Sumatra

1292 AD: 
Jayakatwang killed Kertanegara, and the Singhasari Kingdom ended

1293 AD: Majapahit was founded by Raden Wijaya in East Java. Mongolia (Kublai Khan of the Yuan Dynasty) intends to attack Kertanegara which incidentally has been replaced by Jayakatwang;

With Raden Wijaya's war tactics, he finally defeated the Mongols

1300 AD:

1309 AD: Raja Jayanegara replaces Raden Wijaya as ruler of Majapahit

1328 AD: Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi replaces Jayanegara as king of Majapahit

1350 AD: 
Hayam Wuruk, replaces Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi. "The Golden Era", Patih Gajah Mada united the Archipelago

1365 AD: 
Old Javanese Kakawin Nagarakertagama written

1377 AD: 
Majapahit sent a punitive expedition against Palembang. The Palembang prince, Parameswara (later known as Iskandar Syah) escaped, and found his way to Malacca and built it as an international port

1389 AD: 
Wikramawardhana replaces Sri Rajasanagara as ruler of Majapahit

1400 AD:

1404-1406 AD:
Paregreg War between Bhre Wirabhumi and Wikramawardhana

1415 AD: Admiral Zheng He's fleet is anchored at Muara Jati, Cirebon

1429 AD: Ratu Suhita replaces Wikramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit

1447 AD: Kertawijaya, having the title Brawijaya I, replaces Suhita as the ruler of Majapahit.

1451 AD: Rajasawardhana, holds the title Brawijaya II replaces Kertawijaya as ruler of Majapahit

1453 AD: Rajasawardhana's reign ends.

1456 AD: Girindrawardhana (or Purwawisesa) becomes ruler of Majapahit.

1466 AD: Singhawikramawardhana (or Bhre Pandansalas, or Suraprabhawa), replaces Purwawisesa as ruler of Majapahit

1468 AD: Bhre Kertabhumi (Prabu Brawijaya) or known as Brawijaya V becomes the ruler of Majapahit

1500 M:

1509 - 1595 AD: The Portuguese only colonized Maluku, and were driven out in 1595.

1511 AD: Portuguese conquer the city of Melaka

1582 AD: The founding of the kingdom of Mataram led by Panembahan Senopati

1596 AD: The Dutch first arrived in the Archipelago when a fleet led by Cornelius de Houtman anchored in Banten

1600 M:

1602 - 1942 AD: Dutch colonize all of Indonesia, and successfully expelled in 1942

1602 AD: British fleet reaches Banten and succeeds in establishing Loji there.

1613 M: England trades with Makassar (kingdom of Gowa)

1614 AD: The British founded a lodge in Batavia (Jakarta).

1641 AD: The slaughter of the population of the Banda Islands by the VOC in order to obtain a nutmeg monopoly

1667, 18 November M: The Bungaya Agreement was signed at Bungaya, Gowa between the Sultanate of Gowa and the Dutch East Indies.

1700 AD:

1740, October 9 AD: Chinese massacre at Kaliangke in Batavia

1755, February 13 AD: Giyanti Agreement whereby the kingdom of Mataram is divided into Surakarta Sunanate and Ngayogyakarta Sultanate

1799, December 31 AD: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compaigne (VOC) was dissolved

1800 AD:

1803 - 1838 AD: Padri War

1806 - 1811 AD: France indirectly conquered Java, because the Dutch kingdom was subject to French power. It ended in 1811, when the British defeated the Dutch-French forces on Java. A debt agreement is applied.

1811 - 1816 AD: The British officially colonized Indonesia through the Tuntang agreement, where the agreement contained the Dutch power over Indonesia handed over by Janssens (governor General of the Dutch East Indies) to the British. The British appoint Thomas Stanford Raffles as Lieutenant Governor-General in Indonesia.

1825-1830 AD: Diponegoro War

1873, March 26 AD: Commencement of the Aceh War

1894 AD: Lombok War

1900 AD:

1904 AD: British trade with Ambon and Banda

1909 AD: The British establish a post in Sukadana, Kalimantan

1942 AD:
1942 - 1945 AD: Japan conquered Indonesia 3.5 years, and ended in 1945, since Japan's defeat to the allies.

January 11: Japanese troops arrive in the Tarakan City area, East Kalimantan

March 5: The Dutch surrender to defeat from Japan

1945 AD:

June 1: The day of birth of the Pancasila

August 16: Rengasdengklok incident

August 17: Sukarno and Hatta proclaim Indonesia's independence

18 August: PPKI's first session results in three decisions; First, ratifying the 1945 Constitution. Second, appointing Sukarno as President of Indonesia and Hatta as his deputy. Third, establish a Central Indonesian National Committee (KNIP) to assist the work of the president

1947 AD:

July 21-August 5 M: The Netherlands launched its first military aggression

1948 AD:
January 17: Renville Agreement

December 19 - 1949, January 5: The Netherlands launched its second military aggression

1949 AD:
August 23-November 2: Round Table Conference held in The Hague, the Netherlands between Indonesia and the Netherlands as a way to reduce Indonesian independence by violence

1950 AD:
29 January: General Sudirman dies at the age of 34

April 25: Republic of South Maluku is proclaimed in Ambon

27 September: Indonesia becomes the 60th member of the United Nations

1953 AD:
Borneo was renamed the Province of Kalimantan

1955 AD:
April 18-April 24: The Asia-Africa Summit is held in Bandung

1956 AD:
Kalimantan is divided into the provinces of East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and West Kalimantan

1962 AD:
August 24-September 4 M: Indonesia hosts the Asian Games IV

1963-1965 AD:
Confrontation with Malaysia

1964 AD
August 27: Sukarno forms the Dwikora Cabinet

1965 AD:
7 January: Indonesia withdraws from UN membership

30 September: 30 September Movement

December 13: Rupiah devaluation to control inflation

October 1965 CE - March 1966 CE: PKI suppression resulted in an estimated 500,000 lives being killed

1966 AD:
February 24: Soekarno forms the Enhanced Dwikora Cabinet or Dwikora II Cabinet

March 11: Signing of Supersemar

March 28: Sukarno forms the Dwikora III Cabinet

11 August: Indonesia and Malaysia agree to restore diplomatic relations

September 28: Indonesia rejoined the United Nations

12 March: Suharto is appointed President of Indonesia, ironically Sukarno is under house arrest

1968 AD:
March 27: Suharto officially becomes President of Indonesia

1969 AD:
Papua joins Indonesia, after the determination of the people's opinion (Pepera)

1970 AD:
21 June: Sukarno dies and is buried in Blitar, East Java

1971 AD:
July 3: The second Indonesian Legislative Election (the first time under the New Order) was held. Golkar wins.

1973 AD:
The government has reduced the number of political parties to three. PDI (nationalist and Christian parties). PPP (Islamic party). The three-party system is dominated by Golkar

1975 AD:
April: There is a civil war in East Timor

7 December: Indonesia launches invasion of Timor Leste

1976 AD:
17 July: East Timor unites with Indonesia, becoming East Timor Province

Commencement of the Free Aceh Movement

1980 AD:
May: Petition 50 launched by President Soeharto is published

1982-1983 AD:
The mysterious shooting (Peter) that killed thousands of criminal suspects

1985 AD:
The government requires all organizations to adopt Pancasila as a single principle

1988 AD:
Suharto was re-elected as President for the fifth time

1989 AD:
The Free Aceh Movement (GAM) began to reactivate after being muted

1992-1993 AD:
East Timor resistance leader Xanana Gusmao was arrested by Prabowo Subianto and tried and convicted

1993 AD:
Suharto was re-elected as President for the sixth time

1996 AD:
27 July: The attack on the office of the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) (27 July)

1998 AD:
March 11: Suharto is re-elected for the sixth time

May 12: Four students are killed in a demonstration against the Suharto regime at Trisakti University

13 May-15 May: Major riots broke out in Jakarta and several other areas which left thousands dead, a number of Chinese women were raped, and looting in shopping centers

May 21: Suharto steps down, and Habibie takes over as President

1999 AD:
June 7, 1999: First elections held in the Reformation era

September: Referendum in the Province of East Timor under the auspices of the United Nations with the results of four-fifths choosing to separate from Indonesia rather than united with Indonesia

October 20: Wahid was officially appointed as President of the Republic of Indonesia

2001 AD:
February: Ethnic riots occur in Sampit, Central Kalimantan, between Dayak and Madura.

July 23: Megawati officially becomes the 5th President of Indonesia, replacing Gus Dur, who was dismissed by the MPR.

23 September: a bomb explodes in the Plaza Atrium area, Senen, Jakarta.

2002 AD:

May 20: East Timor officially becomes independent with the name Timor Leste.

October 12: Bali Bombing
December: Government and GAM sign a peace agreement in Geneva, Switzerland

2003 AD:
May 19: Peace talks between the Government and GAM fail, the Indonesian military launches a military operation in Aceh

5 August: A car bomb explodes in front of the Mariott Hotel in Jakarta

2004 AD:
April: General Election of Members of the 2004 DPR, DPD and DPRD

July: Election of President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia 2004. Won by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Vice President Jusuf Kalla

9 September: Australian Embassy bombing.

30 November: Lion Air Flight 538 plane crash in Solo kills 26 people. The safety of low-cost airlines in Indonesia is starting to be highlighted

26 December: Tsunami hits Sumatra and kills more than 160,000 people.

2005 AD:
28 May: Two bomb blasts rock the Tentena Central Market, Tentena, Poso, Central Sulawesi, killing at least 20 people

17 July: The Indonesian government enters into a peace agreement with the Free Aceh Movement.

15 August: The Indonesian government and GAM return to negotiations. The peace agreement was signed and officially ended the GAM separatist movement

October 1: Bali Bomb II

29 October: Three high school students in Poso who are walking to a Christian school are beheaded by a group of unknown people

November 9: Police ambush in a villa in Batu City; killed Dr. Azahari, a terrorist fugitive from Malaysia

31 December: Bomb in Palu kills six people

2006 AD:

6 January: The Second East Timor border incidents occur

13-15 February: seven members of Bali Nine were sentenced to life imprisonment and two were sentenced to death. After going through appeal and cassation finally seven were sentenced to death and two to life

May 27: An earthquake shakes Yogyakarta and its surroundings resulting in at least six thousand deaths.

Since May 27: The Lapindo mudflow disaster struck Sidoarjo

2009 AD:
30 September: A magnitude 7.6 earthquake shakes West Sumatra, killing at least 1,117 people

October 20: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was re-elected as President of the Republic of Indonesia for the period 2009-2014. Accompanied by Prof. Dr. Boediono, M.Ec., as vice president

October 22: Inauguration of the United Indonesia Cabinet II

2010 AD:
April 14: Koja riots cause at least three deaths and hundreds of injuries

May 1 - June 15: Indonesian Population Census 2010, which is the 6th population census of Indonesia after Indonesia's independence

26 September - 29 September: Riot Tarakan, is a riot between tribes, namely the Tidung tribe as a native tribe and a migrant tribe, the Bugis tribe

October 25: An earthquake with a magnitude of 7.7 SR accompanied by a Tsunami struck Mentawai resulting in 286 deaths and 252 missing

October 26: Mount Merapi erupts resulting in 28 deaths, including its key interpreter, Mbah Maridjan

2011 AD:

February 6: Attack on Ahmadiyya congregation in Cikeusik killed at least 3 people.

18 October: Reform of the United Indonesia Cabinet II

November 11: Opening of the 2011 SEA Games

Sources: From Various Sources

Photo: Istimewa

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Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture