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Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Declaration of Reform of the Minahasa Government System - 300 AD

Pinawetengan Inscription
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Minahasa (formerly called Tanah Malesung) is a peninsula area in the province of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. This area is located in the northeastern part of the island of Sulawesi, which covers an area of ​​27,515 square km, and consists of four regions, namely: Bolaang Mongondow, Gorontalo, Minahasa and the Sangihe and Talaud islands.

Minahasa is also famous for its fertile land which is home to a variety of plants and animals, land and sea. There are various plants such as coconuts and clove gardens, and also a variety of fruits and vegetables. North Sulawesi's fauna includes among other rare animals such as Maleo, Kuskus, Babirusa, Anoa and Tangkasi (Tarsius Spectrum).

Etymology of Minahasa
The name of the Minahasa land has been changed several times: Batacina-Malesung-Minaesa and finally the current name Minahasa which means "to become one entity". This name comes from the war against the southern Bolaang Mangondow Kingdom. However, other sources say that the original name of the Minahasa Malesung, which means "spinning rice", was later changed to Se Mahasa, which means "those who unite," and finally Minahasa, meaning [3] "to become one entity."

The ancient Minahasa writings called the Malesung Script are found in several stone inscriptions including those in Pinawetengan. Malesung script is a hieroglyphic writing, which until now is still difficult to translate.

Kingdom and Government
The royal government in North Sulawesi developed into a large kingdom that had wide influence outside Sulawesi or Maluku. In 670, the leaders of different tribes, who all spoke different languages, met a stone known as Watu Pinawetengan. There they established an independent state community, which would form a unit and stay together and would fight any outside enemy if they were attacked. The part of Minahasa tribal children who developed their government so that it had broad influence was the children of the Tonsea tribe in the 13th century, whose influence reached Bolaang Mongondow and other areas. Then the mixed descendants of the Pasan Ponosakan and Tombulu children built a royal government and separated from the other four tribes in Minahasa. Read David DS Lumoindong's writings about the Kingdom in North Sulawesi.

The etymology of Minahasa comes from the words Mina-Esa (Minaesa) or Maesa which means to be one or unite, meaning that the hope is to unite various Minahasa sub-ethnic groups consisting of Tontemboan, Tombulu, Tonsea, Tolour (Tondano), Tonsawang, Ponosakan, Pasan and Bantik.

The name "Minahasa" itself was only used later. "Minahasa" generally means "has become one". Palar noted, based on several historical documents that the first time to use the word "minahasa" was J.D. Schierstein, Resident of Manado, in his report to the Governor of Maluku on October 8, 1789. "Minahasa" in the report is interpreted as Landraad or "State Council" (State Council) or also "Regional Council".

The name Minaesa first appeared in the association of the "Tonaas" in Watu Pinawetengan (Batu Pinabetengan). The name Minahasa which was popularized by the Dutch first appeared in the Resident J.D. Schierstein, October 8, 1789, which is about peace that has been carried out by the sub-ethnic groups Bantik and Tombulu (Tateli), the event is remembered as the "Tateli War". The Minahasa tribe consists of various tribes or Pakasaan which means unity: Tonsea (covering North Minahasa Regency, Bitung City, and the Old Tonsea region in Tondano), Toulour tribe children (including Tondano, Kakas, Remboken, Eris, East Lembean and Kombi) , Tontemboan tribe children (including South Minahasa Regency, and parts of Minahasa Regency), Tombulu tribe children (including Tomohon City, part of Minahasa Regency, and Manado City), Tonsawang tribe children (including Tombatu and Toulonde), Ponosakan tribe children (including Belang) , and Pasan (including Ratahan). The only tribal children who have scattered territory are Bantik tribes who inhabit the land of Maras, Molas, Bailang, Talawaan Bantik, Bengkol, Buha, Singkil, Malalayang (Minanga), Kalasey, Tanamon and Somoit (scattered in the northern and western coastal villages North Sulawesi). Each tribe has different languages, vocabularies and dialects, but one can understand the meaning of certain vocabularies, for example the word kawanua, which means the same origin from the village.

The Origin of Minahasa People
The Minahasa region of North Sulawesi is thought to have been first inhabited by humans in thousands of years in the third and second BC. [6] Austronesians originally inhabited southern China before moving and colonizing areas in Taiwan, the northern Philippines, the southern Philippines, and to Kalimantan, Sulawesi and the Moluccas.
According to Minahasa mythology in Minahasa is a descendant of Toar Lumimuut and. Initially, the descendants of Toar Lumimuut-divided into 3 groups: Makatelu-pitu (three times seven), Makaru-siuw (twice nine) and Pasiowan-Telu (nine times three). They are multiplied quickly. But soon there were disputes between people. Their leader named Tona'as then decided to meet and talk about this. They met at Awuan (north of the current Tonderukan hill). The meeting was called Pinawetengan u-nuwu (dividing language) or Pinawetengan um-posan (dividing ritual). At that meeting the descendants were divided into three groups named Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan and according to the groups mentioned above. At the place where this meeting took place a memorial stone called Watu Pinabetengan (Stone Divide) was then built. This is a favorite tourist destination.

The Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan groups and later established their main territories which were Maiesu, Niaranan, and Tumaratas respectively. Soon several villages were established outside the area. The new villages then became the ruling centers of a group of villages called Puak, then walak, comparable to today's districts.

Then a new group of people arrived on the Pulisan peninsula. Due to various conflicts in this area, they then moved inland and established villages around a large lake. These people are therefore called Tondano, Toudano or Toulour (meaning water people). This lake is Lake Tondano now. Minahasa Warriors.

In the following years, more groups came to Minahasa. There were: people from the islands of Maju and Tidore who landed at Atep. These people are the ancestors of Tonsawang subethnic. people from Tomori Bay. This is the ancestor of the subethnic Pasam-Bangko (Ratahan and Pasan) people from Bolaang Mangondow who are the ancestors of Ponosakan (Belang). people from the islands of Bacan and Sangi, who later occupied Lembeh, Talisei Island, Manado Tua, Bunaken and Mantehage. This is Bobentehu subethnic (Bajo). They landed in what is now called Sindulang. They then established an empire called Manado which ended in 1670 and became the Walak of Manado. people from Toli-toli, who in the early 18th century landed first at Panimburan and then went to Bolaang Mangondow - and finally to where Malalayang is now. These people are the ancestors of the subethnic Bantik.

These are the nine sub-ethnic groups in Minahasa, which explain the number 9 in Manguni Maka-9:

Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tonsawang, Ratahan pasan (Bentenan), Ponosakan, Babontehu, Bantik.

Eight of the ethnic groups are also separate linguistic groups.

The name Minahasa itself appeared when the Minahasa Bolaang Mangondow fought against. Among the Minahasa heroes in the war against the Mangondow Bolaang were: Porong, Wenas, Dumanaw and Lengkong (in the war near the Lilang village), Gerungan, Korengkeng, Walalangi (near Panasen, Tondano), Wungkar, Sayow, Lumi, and Worotikan (in the war with Amurang Bay).

Most Minahasa residents are Christians, and it is also one of the ethnic groups that is most closely related to western countries. The first contact with Europeans occurred when Spanish and Portuguese traders arrived there. When the Dutch arrived, Christianity spread throughout. Old traditions became influenced by the existence of the Dutch. The word Minahasa comes from the confederation of each tribe and the existing statues are proof of the old tribal system.

Bunaken Marine Park
In front of the coast of the city of Manado is the island of Manado Tua with a very beautiful diving area where the island of Bunaken is one of the famous islands around this environment.

Minahasa people known as descendants of Toar Lumimuut around the 1st century (first) ancestral settlements first settled around the coast of Likupang, then moved to the mountains of Wulur Mahatus, the southern region of Minahasa then developed and moved to Nieutakan (the area around the new tompaso at this time). At this time the government used the royal system. A king reigns according to lineage.

The history of the Minahasa people is generally written by foreigners who came to this land are mostly missionaries. Some of them: Rev. Scwarsch, J. Albt. T. Schwarz, Dr. JGF Riedel, Ps. Wilken, Ps. J. Wiersma. There are three central figures associated with the ancestors of the Minahasa people, namely Lumimuut, Toar and Karema.

Karema, understood as "man of the sky", and Lumimuut and Toar are the ancestors and forerunners of the Minahasa people. The early humans in Minahasa came from Lumimuut and Toar, the original place of Lumimuut and Toar and their descendants was called Wulur Mahatus. These early groups then proliferated and migrated to several areas in the Minahasa land.

Minahasa people at that time were divided into 3 (three) groups namely: Makarua Siow (2x9): regulators of Worship and Customary Makatelu Pitu (3x7): governing the government of Pasiowan Telu (9x7): People

Classification based on blood descent. When present leaders who were increasingly corrupt and arbitrary government, then there was a popular revolution that overthrew the monarchy.

Pinawetengan Inscription
Batu Pinawetengan is located in West Tompaso District. It is a natural stone on top of which is written in hieroglyphic letters, which has not yet been solved how to read it. This stone is the place of the Toar Peace Conference and is a milestone in the history of changes in the government system of the Toar Lumimuut descendants. According to Paulus Lumoindong, the Deliberation took place around 300-400 AD. According to David DS Lumoindong, even the writing of this inscription is parallel or even older than the Kutai Inscription in 450 AD

Declaration of Governance System Reform
When the number of Lumimuut-Toar descendants increases, they once held a meeting at a place with a large stone (the stone which was later called Watu Pinawetengan). Deliberation was led by Tonaas Wangko Kopero and Tonaas Wangko Muntu-untu I (old / first).

The system of social governance finally changed after going through a deliberation that declared an electoral system, an ancient democratic state government, the results of the deliberations were written on a stone inscription which came to be known as Watu Pinawetengan. According to Paulus Lumoindong the incident occurred around 400-500 AD.

Dr. research results J.P.G. Riedel, that it happened around the year 670 in Minahasa there had been a deliberation at the Pinawetengan watu meant to uphold the customs and division of the Minahasa area.

There they established an independent state association, which would form a unity and stay together and would fight any enemy from outside if they were attacked, Ratahan later joined the Minahasa union around 1690. The Tou-Ure Assembly probably did not take part in the deliberations at Pinawetengan to vow one descendant of Toar and Lumimuut where all Pakasa'an call themselves Mahasa as long as the word Esa means one, until Tou-Ure is forgotten in the old Minahasa story.

The division of the Minahasa region is divided into several sub-tribes, namely: Tontewoh tribe (Tonsea): northeast region of the Tombulu tribe: territory to the north big tombasian At that time the Minahasa mainland was not yet populated, only a few areas were populated, in the Ranoyapo River line, Soputan Mountain, Kawatak Mountain, Rumbia River, Kalawatan. The development of tribal children such as Tonsea, Tombulu, Toulour, Tountemboan, Tonsawang, Ponosakan and Bantik tribes.

Tribal Development {Expansion}
It cannot yet be traced in what century the Tountewo broke in two into Pakasa 'Toundanou and Tounsea until Minahasa had four Pakas'an. Namely Toumpakewa changed to Tontemboan, Toumbulu ', Tonsea and Toundanou. The condition of Pakasa'an in Minahasa in Dutch times seems to have changed again where the Tontemboan Pakasa'an has divided the Pakasa'an area of ​​Toundanouw and the Tondano, Touwuntu and Toundanou were born. Tondano's Pakasa'an consists of walas Kakas, Romboken and Toulour. The Touwuntu Pakasa'an consists of the walaks of Tousuraya and Toulumalak which are now called Pasan and Ratahan. Toundanou's clothing consists of the wal Tombatu and Tonsawang.

Walak and Pakasa'an The Toulour walak region is somewhat different because besides covering the mainland it also lakes at Lake Tondano between the Tounour sub-walak namely Touliang and Toulimambot. Those who do not have Pakasa'an are the Bantik walaks scattered in Malalayang, Kema and Ratahan even in Mongondouw - although the ethnic Bantik are also descendants of Toar and Lumimuut. According to the ethnic legends of the late Bantik, it was too late to come to the deliberations at the Pinawetengan Inscription. There are three names of Muntu-Untu dotu in the Minahasa legend namely 7th-century Muntu-Untu from Toungkimbut (Tontemboan). Muntu-12th-century origin of Tonsea-according to Tonsea terms. And Muntu-Untu in the 15th century in Spain meant that there were three large deliberations on the Pinawetengan stone to pledge to remain united.

Government system
The system of government in the four main tribes consists of: Walian: Religious / traditional leader and shaman Tonaas: Hard people, experts in agriculture, women, those who are elected as chief walter Teterusan: Commander of the War Potasan: Advisor

In the History of Ratahan, Pasan, Ponosakan from the data book published in 1871. In the early 16th century the Ratahan area was bustling with trade with Ternate and Tidore, its port called Mandolang Benten (Bentenan), now called Belang. This port at that time was more crowded than the port of Manado. The formation of Lords and Pasans is told as follows; at the time of the Mongondouw king named Mokodompis occupied the area of ​​Tompakewa, then Lengsangalu from the country of Pontak brought his taranak to the "Pikot" region south of Mandolang-Bentenan (Belang). Lengsangalu had two sons namely Raliu who later founded the Pelolongan country which later became Ratahan, and Potangkuman married a Towuntu girl and then founded the Pasan state. The State of Toulumawak was headed by the head of the country of a woman married to a Kema Tonsea named Londok who could no longer return to Kema because of a boat of Tolour people. Because [Kingdom of Ratahan] was friendly with the Portuguese, the area was attacked by "Shell" pirates (South Philippines) and Tobelo pirates.

Expel colonization movements against Spain

The Minahasa also fought a war with Spain which began in 1617 and ended in 1645. This war was triggered by the Spanish injustice against the Minahasa people, especially in terms of rice trade, as the main commodity at that time. Open war occurred later in the year 1644-1646. The end of the war was a complete defeat of Spain, so it was successfully expelled by the waranei (Minahasa knights.

Movement to drive out colonialism against the Dutch Company with the VOC

In the span of 1679 to 1809, it was the period of the Dutch Company with its VOC. During this period, there was quite a tension between the customary law of the Minahasa people and Dutch law. The meeting between the Dutch people and the Minahasa did not happen well, because the motivation of the Dutch people was certainly there to colonize. While the Minahasa people do not like being colonized. A number of agreements were made to try to conquer the Minahasa people. But, resistance must also occur, the peak is the Tondano War which occurred in 1808 to 1809.

The Tondano War, which lasted for 11 months and 4 days, was a heresy. For the sake of maintaining the sovereignty of the Land of Minahasa, the Minahasa warriors were willing to die. On the evening of the evening of August 5, 1809, the war fiercely fought, and ended with the defeat of the Minahasa people. This historical fact, as well as proving that the Minahasa people are people who are willing to risk their lives for the independence of their land, read the book "Heroes of the Minahasa War Against the Dutch" by David DS Lumoindong. At the same time it also corrected the stigma of many people to the Minahasa people, that "the Minahasa people were lickers of the Netherlands". That stigma is certainly not true, because the Tondano War, is the Minahasa War against the Dutch.

Expel occupation of Japanese opponents
The Minahasa struggle for independence since 1808 continues to flare up and begin waging guerrilla warfare throughout Indonesia. Minahasa warriors entered the Dutch army to learn everything in order to form a great force that could finally win the war. In the era leading up to Indonesian Independence, the Minahasa struggle movement had moved nationally by utilizing all Dutch and Japanese facilities. Minahasa people build Christian Forces, Associations of intellectuals, cultural associations. The Minahasa succeeded in gaining Dutch trust, even the Dutch army leaders were entrusted to the Minahasa people, such as the KNIL Army. The position held by the Minahasa people was a great force united with fighters from other regions so that Indonesia was independent. Great figures who were instrumental in giving birth to the Indonesian nation include Dr.G.S.J.Sam Ratulangi, A.Maramis, Kawilarang, Ventje Sumual,

There are a small number of Minahasa people who use the Japanese surname because some Minahasa people are married to Japanese people. The Land of Minahasa in ancient times was called [Land of Malesung] because of its shape like dimples or overflowing and bumpy soil. Minahasa slogan: "Si Tou Tumou Tou" which means humans live to humanize other humans, with the slogan of the struggle "I Yayat U Santi" which means going forward to develop the country.

Movement to drive out the colonial era of independence

The Minahasa struggle for independence continues to flare up while maintaining independence. War 14 February 1946.


Photo: Special

#references libraries

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