Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

The Final Journey of Maharaja Dharma Setia (1.5 ... AD - 1,605 AD)

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Maharaja Dharma Setia / Maharaja Dermasatia / Maharaja Dharma Setia Warman was the last king of the Kutai Martapura Kingdom, which was Hindu in the Archipelago.

Kutai Martadipura Kingdom, many also refer to the Kingdom of Kutai Mulawarman, this is because during the reign of King Mulawarman, Kutai reached a golden age.

Standing around 301 AD, the Kingdom Center is located in Muara Kaman, East Kalimantan, precisely upstream of the Mahakam river.

The name Kutai was given by experts to take from the name of the place where the inscription was found to show the existence of the kingdom.

While information on the name Martapura was obtained from the book Salasilah Raja in the State of Kutai Kertanegara, which tells the story of the Kutai Kertanegara Kingdom troops from Kutai Lama attacking the capital of this kingdom.

The Kingdom of Kutai Martapura collapsed when the 21st King named Maharaja Dharma Setia suffered defeat, and fell at the hands of King Kutai Kertanegara Aji Prince Sinum Panji,

Raja Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji, then succeeded in uniting the two kingdoms of Kutai,

Then the name of the kingdom was changed to the Kingdom of Kutai Kertanegara Ing Martadipura which later revealed the Dynasty of the Kings of Kutai Kertanegara until now.

From the source of the Yupa inscription the Pallawa script obtained 3 names of the King, while 2 people in the book of the Salasilah of the King in the Country of Kutai Kertanegara had Malay Arabic script.
  • Maharaja Kundungga, posthumous title Dewawarman (Founder)
  • Maharaja Asmawarman (Anak Kundungga)
  • Maharaja Mulawarman (Aswawarman's Child)
  • Maharaja Indera Mulia (14th Century)
  • Maharaja Dermasatia (Last)
The complete sequence of Raja Kutai Martapura (from various sources), namely:
  • Maharaja Kudungga, posthumous title Dewawarman (Founder - The name Kundungga by historians is indicated as the original name of the Archipelago that has not been influenced by the name of Indian culture)
  • Maharaja Aswawarman (Anak Kundungga, with the title Wangsakerta - Warman comes from Sanskrit, Southern India)
  • Maharaja Mulawarman Nala Dewa (Anak Aswawarman - Kingdom of Kutai experienced the Golden Age, where his territory covered almost the entire territory of East Kalimantan. The people of Kutai lived prosperous and prosperous)
  • Maharaja Marawijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Gajayana Warman
  • Maharaja Tungga Warman
  • Maharaja Jayanaga Warman
  • Maharaja Nalasinga Warman
  • Maharaja Nala Parana Tungga
  • Maharaja Gadingga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Indra Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Sangga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Candrawarman
  • Maharaja Sri Rare God
  • Maharaja Guna Parana Dewa
  • Maharaja Wijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Sri Aji Dewa
  • Maharaja Mulia Putera
  • Maharaja Nala Pandita
  • Maharaja Indra Paruta Dewa
  • Maharaja Dharma Setia (Closing the Martadipura Dynasty in 1,605 AD)
In the Research Process

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Kutai Martadipura (301 AD - 1,605 AD)

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Kutai Martadipura is a Hindu-style kingdom in the archipelago that has the oldest historical evidence. Standing around the 4th century. This kingdom is located in Muara Kaman, East Kalimantan, precisely in the upper reaches of the Mahakam river. 

The name Kutai was given by experts to take from the name of the place where the inscription was found to show the existence of the kingdom. There is no inscription that clearly mentions the name of this kingdom and indeed very little information can be obtained.

Yupa inscription
Royal Kutai inscription
Existing information was obtained from Yupa / inscriptions in sacrificial ceremonies dating from the 4th century. There are seven yupa pieces which are the main source for experts in interpreting the history of the Kutai Kingdom. Yupa is a stone monument that serves as a memorial made by the Brahman for the generosity of King Mulawarman. In Hinduism cows are not slaughtered like sacrifices made by Muslims. From one of these yupa it is known that the king who ruled the Kutai kingdom at that time was Mulawarman. His name is recorded in Yupa because of his generosity of donating 20,000 head of cattle to the Brahmins. It can be seen that according to the Indonesian National History Book II: Ancient Times written by Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro and Nugroho Notosusanto published by Balai Pustaka page 36, the transliteration of the inscription above is as follows:

īrīmatah śrī-narendrasya; kuṇḍuṅgasya mahātmanaḥ; putro śvavarmmo vikhyātah; vaṅśakarttā yathāṅśumān; tasya sonā mahātmānaḥ; trayas traya ivāgnayaḥ; teṣān trayāṇām pravaraḥ; tapo-bala-damānvitaḥ; śrī mūlavarmmā rājendro; yaṣṭvā bahusuvarṇnakam; tasya yajñasya yūpo ‘yam; dvijendrais samprakalpitaḥ.

"The Mahārāja Kundungga, who is very noble, has a well-known son, the Aśwawarmman whose name, which, like Ang dewauman (Sun god), grows a very noble family. The Aśwawarmman has three sons, like fire (which is sacred). Prominent of the three sons was the Mūlawarmman, a good, strong and powerful civilized king. The Mūlawarmman had held a very large amount of gold (so-called salvation). To commemorate the feast (salvation) that the stone monument was erected by the Brahmins. "

Mulawarman is a child of Aswawarman and grandson of Kundungga. The names Mulawarman and Aswawarman are very thick with the influence of Sanskrit when viewed from the way of writing. Kundungga is an official from the Kingdom of Campa (Cambodia) who came to Indonesia. Kundungga himself is suspected of not adopting Buddhism.

Aswawarman was the son of King Kudungga. He was also known as the founder of the Kutai Kingdom dynasty so he was given the title Wangsakerta, which means forming a family. Aswawarman has 3 sons, and one of them is Mulawarman.

Aswawarman's son is Mulawarman. From Yupa it is known that during the reign of Mulawarman, the Kingdom of Kutai experienced a golden period. Its territory covers almost the entire territory of East Kalimantan. The people of Kutai live in prosperity and prosperity.

As if the kingdom of Kutai was no longer visible to the outside world due to lack of communication with foreigners, so very few heard of its name.

End up
The kingdom of Kutai ended when the Kutai King named Maharaja Dharma Setia was killed in battle at the hands of the 13th King Kutai Kartanegara, Aji Pangeran Anum Panji Mendapa. Keep in mind that this Kutai (Kutai Martadipura) is different from the Kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara which was the capital of Kutai Lama (Tanjung Kute) at that time.

It was this Kutai Kartanegara, in 1365, mentioned in Javanese Negarakertagama literature. Kutai Kartanegara subsequently became the Islamic kingdom.

Since 1735 the kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara, which was originally the prince of the Prince, turned into a Sultan (Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris) and is now called the Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara.

Names of King Kutai Maharaja Kudungga, posthumous title Dewawarman (founder)

  • Maharaja Aswawarman (Kundungga's son)
  • Maharaja Mulawarman (Aswawarman's son)
  • Maharaja Marawijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Gajayana Warman
  • Maharaja Tungga Warman
  • Maharaja Jayanaga Warman
  • Maharaja Nalasinga Warman
  • Maharaja Nala Parana Tungga
  • Maharaja Gadingga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Indra Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Sangga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Candrawarman
  • Maharaja Sri Rare God
  • Maharaja Guna Parana Dewa
  • Maharaja Wijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Sri Aji Dewa
  • Maharaja Mulia Putera
  • Maharaja Nala Pandita
  • Maharaja Indra Paruta Dewa
  • Maharaja Dharma Setia
Miscellaneous :
The name Maharaja Kundungga is interpreted by historians as the original name of Indonesian people who have not been influenced by the name of Indian culture.

While his son named Asmawarman is believed to have been influenced by Hindu culture.

This is based on the fact that the word Warman comes from Sanskrit. The word is usually used to describe the names of people or residents of southern India.

Source: kingdom_Kutai_Martadipura
Photo: Special

Regarding the Photos of Indonesian Independence

Perjuangan Mempertahankan Kemerdekaan Indonesia
Main Literacy
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Speaking of Indonesian Independence, we also have to see who is actually fighting.
Because at this time, many parties claim that their group has a large share in the struggle for Indonesian Independence.

Incidentally they are people who dress in their own style.

Because these people dare to lie to defend their god, they make paintings that show their existence, and their followers are fooled by the historical story that this group presents.

Let's see if they are ?????

Main Literacy

Photo: Special

Regarding PPKI

Sidang PPKI
Main Literacy
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - invites PPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee - in Japanese: Dokuritsu Zyunbi Inkai) should not be separated from BPUPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Preparatory Efforts Agency - in Japanese: Dokuritsu Junbi Chōsa-kai) who wants to be visited first .

August 7, 1945. This body is asking for help for anyone to solve the past state administration problem.

Then BPUPKI was dissolved by Japan, on the same date, August 7, 1945.

The PPKI Session was first made in order to ratify the Constitution which had been previously drafted in the BPUPKI session, July 1945.

Initially the PPKI consisted of 21 people (12 from Java, 3 from Sumatra, 2 from Sulawesi, 1 from Kalimantan, 1 from Nusa Tenggara, 1 from Maluku, 1 from Chinese). The initial composition of PPKI members is as follows:
  • Ir. Soekarno (Ketua)
  • Drs. Moh. Hatta (Wakil Ketua)
  • Prof. Mr. Dr. Soepomo (anggota)
  • KRT Radjiman Wedyodiningrat (anggota)
  • R. P. Soeroso (anggota)
  • Soetardjo Kartohadikoesoemo (anggota)
  • Kiai Abdoel Wachid Hasjim (anggota)
  • Ki Bagus Hadikusumo (anggota)
  • Otto Iskandardinata (anggota)
  • Abdoel Kadir (anggota)
  • Pangeran Soerjohamidjojo (anggota)
  • Pangeran Poerbojo (anggota)
  • Dr. Mohammad Amir (anggota)
  • Mr. Abdul Maghfar (anggota)
  • Teuku Mohammad Hasan
  • Dr. GSSJ Ratulangi (anggota)
  • Andi Pangerang (anggota)
  • A.A. Hamidhan (anggota)
  • I Goesti Ketoet Poedja (anggota)
  • Mr. Johannes Latuharhary (anggota)
  • Drs. Yap Tjwan Bing (anggota)
Furthermore, unbeknownst to Japan, membership increased by 6 namely:
  • Achmad Soebardjo (Penasihat)
  • Sajoeti Melik (anggota)
  • Ki Hadjar Dewantara (anggota)
  • R.A.A. Wiranatakoesoema (anggota)
  • Kasman Singodimedjo (anggota)
  • Iwa Koesoemasoemantri (anggota)
On 8 August 1945, as the new PPKI leaders, Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat were invited to Dalat to meet Marshal Terauchi.

Matters discussed, and amended at the hearing on 18 August 1945
  • The word Mukadimah is replaced by the preamble
  • The first precept is "Godhead with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for his adherents" changed to "God Almighty"
  • Article 28 of the 1945 Constitution which reads "State based on Divinity with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents" was changed to article 29 of the 1945 Constitution namely "Nagara based on Godhead"
  • In Article 6 Paragraph (1) which originally reads the President is a native Indonesian and Muslim is replaced by the President is a native Indonesian.
PPKI Sessions:
August 18, 1945 trial
  • August 18, 1945 trial
  • Ratify the 1945 Constitution. Select and appoint Sukarno as President and Drs. Mohammad Hatta as Vice President.
  • The temporary task of the President is assisted by the Central Indonesian National Committee before the formation of the MPR and the DPR.
August 19, 1945 trial
  • PPKI held its second session on August 19, 1945.
  • Form 12 Ministries and 4 State Ministers
  • Form Local Government. Indonesia is divided into 8 provinces led by a governor.
August 22, 1945 session
  1. Establish an Indonesian National Committee. Main article: Central Indonesian National Committee
  2. Forming the Indonesian National Party. Main article: Indonesian National Party
  3. Establish a People's Security Agency. The formation of the People's Security Agency (BKR) aims to avoid provoking hostility with foreign troops in Indonesia. BKR members are a group of former PETA members, Heiho, Seinendan, Keibodan, and the like.
The Other Side (Not the Good of Japan)

PPKI was formed to attract the sympathy of groups in Indonesia, to be willing to help Japan in the Pacific War, whose position has been increasingly pressed since 1943. They also promised to give Indonesia independence through the 'Kyoto Agreement'.

When Russia joined the Allies and invaded Japan from Manchuria, the Japanese government accelerated Indonesian independence, which BPUPKI planned for September 17, 1945.

On August 9, 1945 Soekarno, Hatta and Radjiman Wediodiningrat were invited to Dalath, + 300 km north of Saigon, the seat of General Terauchi, commander of the entire Japanese army in Southeast Asia.

The purpose of calling the three figures is to symbolically appoint Ir. Soekarno as chairman of the PPKI, and Drs. Moh. Hatta as the vice chairman. The inauguration ceremony took place on August 12, 1945 when they arrived in Dalat, preceded by a short speech by Terauchi (Approving the creation of a puppet state, red) stating that the Japanese government in Tokyo decided to grant independence to Indonesia.

The contents of the conversation between the three Indonesian leaders with General Terauchi:
  • The Japanese government decided to grant independence to Indonesia as soon as preparations for independence were completed and gradually started from Java and then to other islands.
  • The implementation of independence was handed over to PPKI and it was agreed on August 18, 1945.
  • Indonesian territory will cover the entire former Dutch East Indies.
On August 14, 1945 the three returned to Jakarta, because Japan faced US bombings in Hirosima and Nagasaki.

Soekarno, Hatta, and Radjiman's trip back to Jakarta, stopped in Singapore one night. Arriving in Jakarta welcomed by the people. At that time Sukarno made a short speech as follows:

"If a while ago I said that it would be independent before the corn crop would bear fruit, now I say to you that Indonesia will be independent before the plant blooms."

After the meeting (meeting with Terauchi, ed), PPKI was unable to work because the youths urged that the proclamation of independence not be carried out on behalf of PPKI, which was considered a Japanese-made tool. Even the plan for the August 16, 1945 meeting could not be carried out because of the Rengasdengklok incident.

The freedom fighters were involved in the pros and cons of the bombings in Hirosima and Nagasaki. Where young people believe that Japan is almost outdone, while the older groups continue to take the position to submit decisions to PPKI.

This attitude was not agreed upon by young people, because they considered PPKI to be a Japanese puppet and did not approve the birth of the proclamation of independence in the manner promised by General Terauchi at a meeting in Dalath.

The young group wants the implementation of the proclamation of independence in their own strength, completely separated from the Japanese government.

While Soekarno-Hatta argued that the matter of Indonesian independence that came from the Japanese government or from the results of the struggle of the Indonesian people themselves did not matter, because Japan had already lost.

Sukarno saw it more tactical and strategic, because it would face the Allies who were trying to restore Dutch power in Indonesia.

Therefore to proclaim Indonesia's independence, an organized revolution was needed. They wanted to discuss the proclamation of independence in the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee meeting.

Main Literacy

Sources: From Various Sources
Photo: Special

Seputar BPUPKI

Regarding BPUPKI
Main Literacy
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - On July 17, 1945, the BPUPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Agency for Investigation) completed its trial and accepted the Draft Constitution.

From a historical perspective, it can be said that this is the first time that the Indonesian people have a "Basic State" and "Written Basic Legal Draft".

Furthermore BPUPKI tasks will be forwarded by PPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee) which was formed to continue the BPUPKI tasks. Where the main task of PPKI is to discuss and ratify the draft Basic Law from BPUPKI. This historic event occurred on August 18, 1945.

PPKI is a body formed by Japan to answer Indonesia's promise of independence. This body was designed by Japan's Supreme Military Command at a secret meeting in Saigon, South Vietnam, on August 7, 1945.

"There Is No Free Lunch", that is a saying that is commonly known in a political and business joke. Behind the gift of Japan, Japan wants a guarantee of compensation for the independence granted. They want Indonesia to support Japan against Japan's enemies, who at that time was facing defeat, after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima City on August 6, 1945.

Therefore, Japan approached the nationalists from the old group, especially Sukarno. Marshal Terauchi, Commander in Chief of the Japanese Forces in Southeast Asia, secretly flew Bung Karno to Saigon to be appointed as chairman of the PPKI.

Sukarno was accompanied by Mohammad Hatta and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat, along with dozens of Japanese military authorities. In order, they were later appointed as chairpersons, deputy chairs and representatives of PPKI members.

According to Bung Karno's memory, before being told that one of the most important cities in Japan had been flattened due to the atomic bomb, neither he nor Hatta understood what Japan was planning.

Terauchi only told us that Tenno Heika (Emperor of Japan) gave up the process of full independence to the Indonesian people. For this reason, Terauchi agreed not to involve the Japanese in the PPKI.

Sukarno digested Terauchi's words and according to him the plan to proclaim independence, as well as ratifying the draft Basic Law which was the task of PPKI, had to be carried out slowly without bloodshed.

But after Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat returned to Indonesia, PPKI members agreed to hold the first session on August 16, 1945.

The decision was taken, after determining the names of the management which consisted of 21 people. Where they consist of representatives from all regions of the archipelago.

Sukarno's intention to be cautious in planning independence won strong opposition from young people, such as Sutan Sjahrir, Wikana, and Chairul Saleh, openly opposed the soft attitude shown by the Sukarno-Hatta Dwitunggal. In fact, they began accusing Sukarno of being on the Japanese side.

This continues on 'Rengasdengklok Event'

important information
  • July 17, 1945, BPUPKI completes its trial and accepts the Draft Constitution.
  • August 7, 1945 PPKI is formed by Japan to answer Indonesia's promise of independence, which was drafted by Japan's Supreme Military Command in a secret meeting in Saigon, South Vietnam.
Main Literacy

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture