Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Salakanagara - 130 AD

Pandeglang (Dreamland Library) - Salakanagara, based on Wangsakerta Manuscript - Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Library (which was organized by a committee with its chairman Prince Wangsakerta) is thought to be the earliest kingdom in the archipelago.

The names of experts and historians who prove that the Banten Tatars have high historical values ​​include Husein Djajadiningrat, Tb. H. Achmad, Hasan Mu'arif Ambary, Halwany Michrob and others.

Many of their findings have been compiled in writings, reviews and in books. Not to mention names like John Miksic, Takashi, Atja, Saleh Danasasmita, Yoseph Iskandar, Claude Guillot, Ayatrohaedi, Wishnu Handoko and others who added insight about Banten to become more extensive and open with his works made both in Indonesian and English.

Indian ancestry
The founder of Salakanagara, Dewawarman was a traveling ambassador, merchant and immigrant from Pallawa, Bharata (India) who eventually settled because he married a local prince, while Tarumanagara's founder was Maharesi Jayasingawarman, a refugee from the Calankayana region, Bharata because his territory was controlled by another kingdom. While Kutai was founded by refugees from Magada, Bharata after the area was also controlled by another kingdom.

The initial figure in power here was Aki Tirem. That said, this city was called Argyre by Ptolemy in 150, located in the Lada Pandeglang Bay area. It was Aki Tirem, the ruler or ruler of the local village that eventually became Dewawarman's father-in-law when the daughter of Sang Aki Luhur Mulya named Dewi Pwahaci Larasati was married to Dewawarman. This made all of Dewawarman's followers and troops married to local women and did not want to return to his hometown.

When Aki Tirem died, Dewawarman received a scepter. In 130 AD he then founded an empire named Salakanagara (Silver Country) with a capital in Rajatapura. He became the first king with the title Prabu Darmalokapala Dewawarman Aji Raksa Sagura Gapura. Several small kingdoms around him became his territory, including the Kingdom of Agnynusa (Land of Fire) on Krakatau Island.

Rajatapura is the capital of Salakanagara which until 362 was the seat of the government of the Kings of Dewawarman (from Dewawarman I - VIII). Salakanagara stood only for 232 years, precisely from 130 AD to 362 AD. King Dewawarman I himself only ruled for 38 years and was replaced by his son who became King Dewawarman II with the title Prabu Digwijayakasa Dewawarmanputra. Prabu Dharmawirya was listed as King Dewawarman VIII or the last king of Salakanagara until 363 because since then Salakanagara has become a kingdom under the authority of Tarumanagara which was founded in 358 AD by Maharesi who came from Calankayana, India named Jayasinghawarman. During the reign of Dewawarman VIII, the economic condition of the population was very good, prosperous and peaceful, while religious life was very harmonious.

While Jayasinghawarman, founder of Tarumanagara, was the son-in-law of King Dewawarman VIII. He himself was a Maharesi from Calankayana in India who fled to the archipelago because his area was attacked and conquered by Maharaja Samudragupta from the Maurya Kingdom.

Later on after Jayasinghawarman founded Tarumanagara, the seat of government shifted from Rajatapura to Tarumanagara. Salakanagara then changed to the Regional Kingdom.

Order of King Salakanagara

The list of names of the kings who ruled the Kingdom of Salakanagara are:
Tahun berkuasaNama rajaJulukanKeterangan
130-168 MDewawarman IPrabu Darmalokapala Aji Raksa Gapura SagaraPedagang asal Bharata (India)
168-195 MDewawarman IIPrabu Digwijayakasa DewawarmanputraPutera tertua Dewawarman I
195-238 MDewawarman IIIPrabu Singasagara BimayasawiryaPutera Dewawarman II
238-252 MDewawarman IVMenantu Dewawarman II, Raja Ujung Kulon
252-276 MDewawarman VMenantu Dewawarman IV
276-289 MMahisa Suramardini WarmandewiPuteri tertua Dewawarman IV & isteri Dewawarman V, karena Dewawarman V gugur melawan bajak laut
289-308 MDewawarman VISang Mokteng SamuderaPutera tertua Dewawarman V
308-340 MDewawarman VIIPrabu Bima Digwijaya SatyaganapatiPutera tertua Dewawarman VI
340-348 MSphatikarnawa WarmandewiPuteri sulung Dewawarman VII
348-362 MDewawarman VIIIPrabu Darmawirya DewawarmanCucu Dewawarman VI yang menikahi Sphatikarnawa, raja terakhir Salakanagara
Mulai 362 MDewawarman IXSalakanagara telah menjadi kerajaan bawahan Tarumanagara

    ^ Ayatrohaedi: Sundakala, Cuplikan Sejarah Sunda Berdasar Naskah-naskah "Panitia Wangsakerta" Cirebon. Pustaka Jaya, 2005.

Souce :

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100 AD and Beyond

Pandeglang (DreamLandLibrary) - Salakanagara is the oldest (Sunda) Kingdom in Indonesia. 130 AD, the founding of the Salakanagara Kingdom
Tanjung Lesung (Dreamland Library) - Based on the Wangsakerta Text - this kingdom is thought to be the earliest kingdom in the archipelago. While Salakanagara itself is Sanskrit, it means "Silver Country".

Salakanagara is also believed to be a Sundanese Ancestor, this is because the Salakanagara civilization territory is exactly the same as the Sundanese civilization territory for centuries.

The foregoing is reinforced by the similarity of vocabulary, between Sundanese and Salakanagara. In addition, other evidence was found in the form of Sundanese Clock or Salakanagara Clock, the way they refer to Time / Clock in Sundanese.

All references to discussions regarding Salakanagara, must have originated from the original figure in power here, namely Aki Tirem. He was the chief, or local village ruler, who eventually became the in-laws of the "Ambassador from Pallawa" named Dewawarman.

A little mystery that has not been solved, even still a matter of debate, where Aki Tirem is also known as Aki Luhurmulya, even he is also called Angling Dharma according to Hinduism, and Wali Jangkung according to Islam. However, there are also stories about the people who mention the name Prabu Angling Dharma or Wali Jangkung as another name from Dewawarman.

This figure named Angling Dharma is also recognized as being in another region, not only in Salakanagara.

So that the Salakanagara story can still be conveyed, then from various sources, we decided to temporarily take the historical storyline that is commonly developing in Banten society.

When the daughter of Sang Aki Luhur Mulya named "Dewi Pohaci Larasati" married to Dewawarman, made all followers, and Dewawarman's troops married to a local woman, and did not want to return to her hometown.

When Aki Tirem died, Dewawarman was appointed king, as a substitute for his father-in-law. Then in 130 AD, Dewawarman founded an empire named "Salakanagara", whose capital was in "Rajatapura". It is said that this city was called Argyrè by Claudius Ptolemaeus the Greek scientist in his book, Geographia, written about 150 AD, located in the Lada Bay area, Pandeglang, Banten.

In Greek, argyre is "silver", while Salaka, in Sundanese, also means "silver". The question arises, whether the Argyre referred to by Ptolemaeus is the Kingdom of Salakanagara?

Departing from Argyre from the statements of Claudius Ptolemaeus whose book was released 150 AD, temporarily

Salakanagara Kingdom was founded in 130 AD, or 20 years before Ptolemaeus published Geographia, this is still a debate among researchers and historians.

The historical debate, if it is related to the Kingdom of Kutai which before the disclosure of Salakanagara became the Oldest Kingdom in Indonesia, remembering before the disclosure of the Kingdom of Salakanagara, the Kingdom of Kutilah which stood in the 4th century was the oldest in Indonesia.

One proof of Salakanagara being a Kingdom older than the Kingdom of Kutai is, the discovery of travel records from China, where the Kingdom of Salakanagara had established trade relations with the Han Dynasty. Where, the Sundanese kingdom once sent a messenger to China in the 3rd century.

Dewawarman became the first king with the title "Prabu Darmalokapala Dewawarman Aji Raksa Sagara Gapura". Several small kingdoms around it became his territory, including the Kingdom of Agninusa (Land of Fire) located on Krakatau Island.

Until 362 Rajatapura was the capital of Salakanagara which was the seat of the government of the Kings of Dewawarman (of Dewawarman I - VIII). Salakanagara remained a kingdom for 232 years, or rather from 130 AD to 362 AD.

King Dewawarman I ruled for 38 years, then was replaced by his son who became King Dewawarman II with the title "Prabu Digwijayakasa Dewawarmanputra.

While the last king of Salakanagara was "Prabu Dharmawirya" recorded as King Dewawarman VIII, who ruled until 363. During the reign of Dewawarman VIII, the economic conditions of the population were very good, prosperous and peaceful, and the diversity of life was very harmonious.

In the period 130 - 362 AD, the Kingdom of Salakanagara was twice led by the Queen, namely Mahisa Suramardini Warmandewi (276-289 AD) and Sphatikarnawa Warmandewi (340-348 AD).

After 363 AD, Salakanagara had become a kingdom under the authority of Tarumanagara which was founded in 358 AD by Maharesi who came from Calankayana, India named "Jayasinghawarman". (SSM)

YSN Literacy

Source: from various sources

Photo: Special

Note: this article is still in the process of being refined

1000 AD and Beyond

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Until now we only discovered the years of the establishment of kingdoms in the archipelago.

1009 AD
The founding of the Kahuripan Kingdom in East Java

1042 AD
The establishment of Janggala Kingdom, Sidoarjo, East Java

Year 1042 AD - 1221 AD
Establishment of Kadiri / Panjalu Kediri Kingdom, East Java

1076 AD
The establishment of the Kingdom of Tidung Tarakan, East Kalimantan

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Kahuripan - 1009 AD

Surabaya (Dreamland Library) - Kahuripan is a name commonly used for a kingdom in East Java which was founded by Airlangga in 1009. This kingdom was built as a continuation of the Medang Kingdom which collapsed in 1006.

The collapse of the Medang Kingdom
The last King of Medang was named Dharmawangsa Teguh, the arch-rival of the Srivijaya Kingdom. In 1006 Raja Wurawari of Lwaram (an ally of Srivijaya) attacked Watan, the capital of the Medang Kingdom, which was holding a wedding party. Dharmawangsa Teguh was killed, while his nephew named Airlangga escaped the attack.

Airlangga is the son of the couple Mahendradatta (sister of Dharmawangsa Teguh) and Udayana king of Bali. He escaped accompanied by his assistant named Narotama. Since then Airlangga has lived as an ascetic in the mountain forests (wanagiri).

Airlangga Founding the Kingdom
In 1009, the people's envoys came to ask for Airlangga to rebuild the Medang Kingdom. Because the city of Watan was destroyed, then, Airlangga also built a new capital city named Watan Mas near Mount Penanggungan.

In the beginning the royal territory governed by Airlangga only covered the Mount Penanggungan and surrounding areas, because many subordinate areas of the Medang Kingdom were free. Only after the Srivijaya Kingdom was defeated by Rajendra Coladewa, the king of Colamandala from India in 1023. Airlangga felt free to rebuild the glory of the Isyana Dynasty.

War for battle waged by Airlangga. One by one the kingdoms in East Java could be conquered. But in 1032 Airlangga lost the city of Watan Mas to being attacked by a powerful female king like a giant. Airlangga then built a new capital city called Kahuripan in the present Sidoarjo area. Female enemies can be defeated, even then King Wurawari can be destroyed too. At that time the kingdom covered almost all of East Java.

The name Kahuripan is then commonly used as the name of the kingdom led by Airlangga, just like the name Singhasari which is actually just the name of the capital, commonly used as the name of the kingdom led by Kertanagara.

The center of the Airlangga kingdom was then moved again to Daha, based on the inscription Pamwatan, 1042 and Serat Calang Arang.

Kahuripan as the capital of Janggala
At the end of his reign, Airlangga was confronted with the problem of competing for the throne between his two sons. The actual king's nominee, Sanggramawijaya Tunggadewi, chose to become a hermit instead of ascending the throne.

At the end of November 1042, Airlangga was forced to divide his kingdom into two parts, namely the western part of Kadiri with thousands of cities in Daha, handed over to Sri Samarawijaya, and the eastern part named Janggala with thousands of cities in Kahuripan, submitted to Mapanji Garasa.

After abdication, Airlangga lived as an ascetic until he died around 1049.

Kahuripan in the history of Majapahit
The name Kahuripan reappears in the historical record of the Majapahit Kingdom which was founded in 1293. Raden Wijaya, the founder of the kingdom, seems to have noticed that there were two kingdoms that were created by Airlangga.

The two kingdoms are Kadiri alias Daha, and Janggala alias Kahuripan or Jiwana. Both by Raden Wijaya made as the most important subordinate area. Daha in the west, Kahuripan in the east, while Majapahit as the center.

Pararaton recorded several names that had served as Bhatara i Kahuripan, or abbreviated as Bhre Kahuripan. The first is the daughter of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Raden Wijaya. After 1319, his government was assisted by Gajah Mada who was appointed as the Kahuripan governor, because he was credited with fighting the Ra Kuti rebellion.

Hayam Wuruk while serving as yuwaraja was also the king of Kahuripan with the title Jiwanarajyapratistha. After ascending to the throne of Majapahit, the title of Bhre Kahuripan was held again by his mother, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi.

After the death of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi who served Bhre Kahuripan was his grandson, named Surawardhani. Then his son, Ratnapangkaja, was replaced.

After Ratnapangkaja's death, the title of Bhre Kahuripan was carried by his wife's nephew (Suhita) named Rajasawardhana. When Rajasawardhana became king of Majapahit, the title of Bhre Kahuripan was inherited by his eldest son, named Samarawijaya.

    Poesponegoro & Notosusanto (ed.). 1990. Indonesian National History Volume II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
    Slamet Muljana. 1979. Nagarakretagama and Historical Interpretation. Jakarta: Bhratara
    Slamet Muljana. 2005. The Collapse of the Jindu-Javanese Kingdom and the Emergence of Islamic States in the Archipelago (republished 1968). Yogyakarta: LKIS

Source: kingdom_Kahuripan

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Kediri - 1042 AD

Surabaya (Dreamland Library) - Kediri Kingdom or Panjalu Kingdom, is a kingdom that was found in East Java between 1042-1222. The kingdom is centered in the city of Daha, which is located in the vicinity of Kediri now.

Background on Kediri Kingdom
In fact, the city of Daha existed before the kingdom of Kadiri was established. Daha is an abbreviation of Dahanapura, which means city of fire. This name is contained in the Pamwatan inscription issued by Airlangga in 1042. This is in accordance with the news in the Calang Arang Fiber that, at the end of Airlangga's reign, the center of the kingdom was no longer in Kahuripan, but instead moved to Daha.

At the end of November 1042, Airlangga was forced to divide his kingdom because his two sons competed for the throne. The son named Sri Samarawijaya got a western kingdom named Panjalu centered in the new city, namely Daha. Whereas the son named Mapanji Garasakan received an eastern kingdom named Janggala centered on the old city, namely Kahuripan.

According to Nagarakretagama, before being split into two, the name of the kingdom led by Airlangga was named Panjalu, which was centered in Daha. So, the Kingdom of Janggala was born as a fraction of Panjalu. The Kahuripan is the name of the old city that Airlangga had left and later became the capital of Janggala.

At first, the name Panjalu or Pangjalu was indeed more often used than the name Kadiri. This can be found in the inscriptions published by the Kadiri kings. In fact, the name Panjalu is also known as Pu-chia-lung in Chinese chronicles titled Ling wai tai ta (1178).

The Development of Kediri
The early days of the Panjalu or Kadiri Kingdom are not well known. The Inscription of Turun Hyang II (1044) published by Janggala Kingdom only reported the existence of a civil war between the two kingdoms after the death of Airlangga.

The history of the Panjalu Kingdom began to be known with the Sirah Keting inscription in 1104 in the name of Sri Jayawarsa. The kings before Sri Jayawarsa were only Sri Samarawijaya who were known, while the order of the kings after Sri Jayawarsa was clearly known based on the inscriptions found.

The Panjalu Kingdom under the rule of Sri Jayabhaya succeeded in conquering the Janggala Kingdom with its famous slogan in the Ngantang inscription (1135), namely Panjalu Jayati, or Panjalu Menang.

During the reign of Sri Jayabhaya, the Kingdom of Panjalu experienced its heyday. This royal territory covered all of Java and several islands in the archipelago, even to the point of defeating the influence of the Srivijaya Kingdom in Sumatra.

This is reinforced by Chinese chronicles titled Ling wai tai ta by Chou Ku-fei in 1178, that at that time the richest countries besides China in succession were Arabia, Java, and Sumatra. At that time the ruling in Arabic was the Bani Abbasiyah, in Java there was the Panjalu Kingdom, while Sumatra was controlled by the Srivijaya Kingdom.

The discovery of the Tondowongso Site in early 2007, believed to be a legacy of the Kadiri Kingdom, is expected to help provide more information about the kingdom.

Kadiri Period Literary Works
Literary arts received a lot of attention during the Panjalu-Kadiri Kingdom. In 1157 Kakawin Bharatayuddha was written by MPU Sedah and was completed by MPU Panuluh. This book is sourced from the Mahabharata which contains the Pandavas victory over the Kauravas, as a figure of Sri Jayabhaya's victory over Janggala.

In addition, Mpu Panuluh also wrote Kakawin Hariwangsa and Ghatotkachasraya. There is also a poet from the reign of Sri Kameswara named Mpu Dharmaja who wrote Kakawin Smaradahana. Then in the reign of Kertajaya there was a poet named Mpu Monaguna who wrote Sumanasantaka and Mpu Triguna who wrote Kresnayana.

The collapse of Kadiri
The Panjalu-Kadiri Kingdom collapsed during the reign of Kertajaya, and is told in Pararaton and Nagarakretagama.

In 1222 Kertajaya was at loggerheads with the Brahmins who later sought the protection of Ken Arok akuwu Tumapel. Incidentally Ken Arok also aspired to free Tumapel which was a subordinate area of ​​Kadiri.

The war between Kadiri and Tumapel took place near the village of Ganter. Ken Arok's forces managed to destroy the Kertajaya army. Thus ended the kingdom of Kadiri, which from then on became subordinate to Tumapel or Singhasari.

After Ken Arok defeated Kertajaya, Kadiri became an area under Singhasari's authority. Ken Arok appointed Jayasabha, Kertajaya's son as Kadiri regent. In 1258 Jayasabha was succeeded by his son, Sastrajaya. In 1271 Sastrajaya was replaced by his son, Jayakatwang. Jayakatwang rebelled against Singhasari, led by Kertanegara, because of a vengeful past where his ancestor Kertajaya was defeated by Ken Arok. After successfully killing Kertanegara, Jayakatwang rebuilt the Kadiri Kingdom, but only lasted one year due to a joint attack launched by the Mongol forces and Kertanegara's son-in-law's forces, Raden Wijaya.

Kings Who Had Governed Kediri
Here are the names of the kings who once ruled in Daha, the capital of Kadiri:
1. At the time when Daha became the capital of the kingdom which was still intact
Airlangga, is the founder of the city of Daha as a relocation of the city of Kahuripan. When he abdicated in 1042, the royal estate was split into two. Daha later became the capital of the western kingdom, Panjalu.

According to Nagarakretagama, the kingdom that was led by Airlangga before it was split was already named Panjalu.

2. When Daha became the capital of Panjalu
    Sri Samarawijaya, was the son of Airlangga whose name was found in the Pamwatan inscription (1042).
    Sri Jayawarsa, based on the inscription Sirah Keting (1104). It is not known for certain whether he was a direct replacement for Sri Samarawijaya or not.
    Sri Bameswara, based on the Padelegan I inscription (1117), Panumbangan inscription (1120), and Tangkilan inscription (1130).
    Sri Jayabhaya, was the largest king of Panjalu, based on the Ngantang inscription (1135), the Talan inscription (1136), and Kakawin Bharatayuddha (1157).
    Sri Sarweswara, based on the Padelegan II inscription (1159) and the Kahyunan inscription (1161).
    Sri Aryeswara, based on the Wind inscription (1171).
    Sri Gandra, based on the Jaring inscription (1181).
    Sri Kameswara, based on the inscriptions of Ceker (1182) and Kakawin Smaradahana.
    Sri Kertajaya, based on Galunggung inscription (1194), Kamulan Inscription (1194), Palah inscription (1197), Wates Kulon inscription (1205), Nagarakretagama, and Pararaton.

3. When Daha was Singhasari's subordinate
Panjalu Kingdom collapsed in 1222 and became subordinate to Singhasari. Based on the inscription of Mula Malurung, it is known that the Daha kings of the Singhasari era, namely:
    Mahisa Wunga Teleng, son of Ken Arok
    Guningbhaya's younger sister Mahisa Wunga Teleng
    Tohjaya, Guningbhaya's brother
    Kertanagara grandson of Mahisa Wunga Teleng (from the mother's side), who later became king of Singhasari

4. When Daha became the capital of Kadiri
Jayakatwang, is a descendant of Kertajaya who became the Regent of the Bracelets. In 1292 he rebelled, causing the collapse of the Singhasari Kingdom. Jayakatwang then rebuilt the Kadiri Kingdom. But in 1293 he was defeated by Raden Wijaya, founder of Majapahit.

5. When Daha was subordinate to Majapahit
Since 1293, Daha has been the most important Majapahit subordinate country. The king who led the title Bhre Daha but only symbolic, because the daily administration carried out by the governor of Daha. Bhre Daha who had served was:
    Jayanagara 1295-1309 Nagarakretagama.47: 2; Sukamerta inscription - accompanied by Patih Lembu Sora.
    Rajadewi 1309-1375 Pararaton.27: 15; 29:31; Nag.4: 1 - accompanied by Patih Arya Tilam, then Gajah Mada.
    Indudewi 1375-1415 Pararaton.29: 19; 31: 10,21
    Suhita 1415-1429?
    Jayeswari 1429-1464 Pararaton.30: 8; 31:34; 32:18; Waringin Pitu
    Manggalawardhani 1464-1474 Trailokyapuri Inscription

6. When Daha became the capital of Majapahit
According to Suma Oriental by Tome Pires, in 1513 Daha became the capital of Majapahit, led by Bhatara Wijaya. The name of this king is identical with Dyah Ranawijaya who was defeated by Sultan Trenggana, king of Demak in 1527.

Since then the name Kediri is more famous than Daha. Graaf and T.H. Bibliography Pigeaud 2001. First Islamic Kingdom in Java. Terj. Jakarta: Graffiti Main Library
    Slamet Muljana. 1979. Nagarakretagama and Historical Interpretation. Jakarta: Bhratara
    Poesponegoro & Notosusanto (ed.). 1990. Indonesian National History Volume II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Source: court_Kadiri
Photo: Special

Jenggala - 1042 AD

Surabaya (Dreamland Library) - Janggala is one of two royal fractions led by Airlangga from the House of Isyana. This kingdom was founded in 1042, and ended around the 1130s. The central location of this kingdom is now estimated to be in the Sidoarjo Regency, East Java

The name Janggala is thought to originate from the word "Hujung Galuh", or "Jung-ya-lu" based on Chinese records. Hujung Galuh is located in the area of ​​the Brantas river estuary which is estimated to now be part of the city of Surabaya. This city has been an important port since the days of the Kahuripan, Janggala, Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit kingdoms. During the Singhasari and Majapahit kingdoms the port was again referred to as Hujung Galuh.

The division of the kingdom by Airlangga
The central government of Janggala is located in Kahuripan. According to the inscription of Terep, the city of Kahuripan was founded by Airlangga in 1032, because the old capital city, namely Watan Mas was captured by a female enemy.

Based on the inscription Pamwatan and the Arang Candidate Fiber, in 1042 the center of the Airlangga government had moved to Daha. It is not known exactly why Airlangga left Kahuripan.

In 1042, Airlangga abdicated. Her crown princess, Sanggramawijaya Tunggadewi, first chose life as a hermit, resulting in a power struggle between the other two sons of Airlangga, namely Sri Samarawijaya and Mapanji Garasa.

End of November 1042, Airlangga was forced to divide the two kingdoms. Sri Samarawijaya got the Kadiri Kingdom in the west centered in the new city, namely Daha. Whereas Mapanji Garasakan gets the kingdom of Janggala in the east centered in the old city, namely Kahuripan.

Raja of Janggala
The division of the kingdom after the death of Airlangga seemed futile, because between the two sons still involved in a civil war for mutual control.

At the beginning of its establishment, the Kingdom of Janggala left more historical evidence than the Kadiri Kingdom. Some of the kings who are known to rule Janggala include:

Mapanji Garasakan, based on the inscription Turun Hyang II (1044), the Kambang Putih inscription, and the Malenga inscription (1052).
    Alanjung Ahyes, based on the Banjaran inscription (1052).
    Samarotsaha, based on Sumengka inscriptions (1059).

End of the Kingdom of Janggala
Although the king of Janggala whose name is known only three people, but this kingdom is able to survive in competition until more or less 90 years. According to the inscription Ngantang (1035), the Kingdom of Janggala was finally conquered by Sri Jayabhaya king of Kadiri, with its famous motto, Panjalu Jayati, or Kadiri Menang.

Since then Janggala has been subordinate to Kadiri. According to Kakawin Smaradahana, the king of Kadiri named Sri Kameswara, who ruled around 1182-1194, had a consort of a Janggala princess named Kirana.

Janggala as Majapahit Subordinate
After Kadiri was conquered by Singhasari in 1222, and subsequently by Majapahit in 1293, Janggala was automatically controlled.

In the Majapahit era the name Kahuripan was more popular than Janggala, as the name Daha was more popular than the Kadiri. Nevertheless, in the Trailokyapuri inscription (1486), Girindrawardhana, the king of Majapahit, at that time called himself the ruler of Wilwatikta-Janggala-Kadiri.

Bhre Kahuripan
    Tribhuwana 1309-1328, 1350-1375 Pararaton.27: 18,19; 29:32 Nagarakretagama.2: 2
    Hayam Wuruk 1334-1350 Tribhuwana Inscription
    Wikramawardhana 1375-1389 Suma Oriental (?)
    Surawardhani 1389-1400 Pararaton.29: 23.26; 30:37
    Ratnapangkaja 1400-1446 Pararaton .30: 5,6; 31:35
    Rajasawardhana 1447-1451 Pararaton.32: 11; Waringin Pitu Inscription
    Samarawijaya 1451-1478 Pararaton .32: 23

Janggala in Literary Works The existence of Janggala Kingdom also appeared in Nagarakretagama written in 1365. Then it also appeared in literary texts that developed during the Islamic kingdoms in Java, such as the Babad Tanah Jawi and Pranitiradya Fibers.

In these texts, the first king of Janggala was named Lembu Amiluhur, son of Resi Gentayu alias Airlangga. Amiluhur Ox also holds the title Jayanegara. He was replaced by his son named Panji Asmarabangun, who had the title Prabu Suryawisesa.

Panji Asmarabangun is what is very famous in the Panji stories. His wife named Galuh Candrakirana from Kediri. In the performance of Ketoprak, the Panji figure after becoming king of Janggala is also often called Sri Kameswara. This clearly contradicts the news in Smaradahana which says Sri Kameswara is the king of Kadiri, and Kirana is the daughter of Janggala.

Furthermore, Panji Asmarabangun was replaced by his son named Kuda Laleyan, titled Prabu Surya Amiluhur. After only two years of power, the Kingdom of Janggala was drowned by the flood disaster. Surya Amiluhur was forced to move west to establish the Kingdom of Pajajaran.

This Surya Amiluhur figure later sent down Jaka Sesuruh, the founder of the fabled Majapahit version. That's a little story about the Kingdom of Janggala Chronicle and fiber version whose truth is difficult to prove with historical facts.

    Andjar Any. 1989. The Secret Prediction of Jayabaya, Ranggawarsita & Sabdopalon. Semarang: Various Sciences
    Babad Tanah Jawi. 2007. (trans.). Yogyakarta: Narrative
    Poesponegoro & Notosusanto (ed.). 1990. Indonesian National History Volume II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
    Slamet Muljana. 1979. Nagarakretagama and Historical Interpretation. Jakarta: Bhratara

Source: kingdom_Janggala
Photo: Special


Singhasari - 1222 AD

Jakarta (Dreamjand Library) - Singhasari Kingdom or often written Singasari or Singosari, is a kingdom in East Java that was founded by Ken Arok in 1222. The location of this kingdom is now estimated to be in the Singosari area, Malang.

Capital name
Based on the Kudadu inscription, the official name of the Singhasari Kingdom is actually the Kingdom of Tumapel. According to Nagarakretagama, when it was first established in 1222, the capital of the Kingdom of Tumapel was named Kutaraja.

In 1253, Raja Wisnuwardhana adopted his son Kertanagara as yuwaraja and changed the capital's name to Singhasari. The name Singhasari which is the name of the capital city is even more famous than the name Tumapel. Thus, the Kingdom of Tumapel was also well-known by the name of the Kingdom of Singhasari.

The name Tumapel also appears in Chinese chronicles from the Yuan Dynasty with the spelling Tu-ma-pan.

Early stand up
According to Pararaton, Tumapel was originally only a subordinate area of ​​the Kadiri Kingdom. The one who served as akuwu (equivalent to the camat) of Tumapel at that time was Tunggul Ametung. He was killed by a ruse by his own bodyguard named Ken Arok, who later became the new Akuwu. Ken Arok also married Tunggul Ametung's wife named Ken Dedes. Ken Arok then intends to release Tumapel from Kadiri's power.

In 1254 there was a feud between the Kertajaya king and the Kadiri against the Brahmins. The Brahmins then merged with Ken Arok who made himself the first king of Tumapel with the title Sri Rajasa the Amurwabhumi. The war against Kadiri erupted in the village of Ganter which was won by the Tumapel.

Nagarakretagama also mentioned the same year for the establishment of the Kingdom of Tumapel, but did not mention the name Ken Arok. In the text, the founder of the kingdom of Tumapel named Ranggah Rajasa Sang Girinathaputra who succeeded in defeating Kertajaya king Kadiri.

Mula Malurung inscription on behalf of Kertanagara in 1255, said that the founder of the Kingdom of Tumapel was Bhatara Siwa. Perhaps this name is a posthumous title from Ranggah Rajasa, because in Nagarakretagama the spirit of the founder of the Tumapel kingdom was worshiped as Shiva. In addition, Pararaton also mentioned that, before advancing the war against Kadiri, Ken Arok first used the nickname Bhatara Shiva.

Rajasa Dynasty Lineage
House of Rajasa founded by Ken Arok. This royal family became the ruler of Singhasari, and continued in the Majapahit kingdom. There is a difference between Pararaton and Nagarakretagama in mentioning the order of Singhasari's kings.

The Pararaton version is:
    Ken Arok aka Rajasa the Amurwabhumi (1222 - 1247)
    Anusapati (1247 - 1249)
    Tohjaya (1249 - 1250)
    Ranggawuni alias Wisnuwardhana (1250 - 1272)
    Kertanagara (1272 - 1292)

The Nagarakretagama version is:
    Rangga Rajasa the Girinathaputra (1222 - 1227)
    Anusapati (1227 - 1248)
    Wisnuwardhana (1248 - 1254)
    Kertanagara (1254 - 1292)

The story of the succession of the Pararaton version of Tumapel kings was colored by bloodshed which was backed by revenge. Ken Arok was killed by Anusapati (his stepson). Anusapati was killed by Tohjaya (son of Ken Arok from concubine). Tohjaya died due to the Ranggawuni rebellion (Anusapati's son). Only Ranggawuni was replaced by Kertanagara (his son) peacefully. Meanwhile, the Nagarakretagama version does not mention the murder of the successor king to the previous king. This is understandable because Nagarakretagama is a book of praise for the king of Majapahit Hayam Wuruk. The bloody events that befell the ancestors of Hayam Wuruk are considered a disgrace.

Among the kings above only Vishnuwardhana and Kertanagara were found to publish inscriptions as proof of their history. In the Mula Malurung Inscription (issued by Kertanagara on Wisnuwardhana's order) it turns out that Tohjaya was the king of Kadiri, not the king of Tumapel. This reinforces the truth of the news in Nagarakretagama. The inscription was issued by Kertanagara in 1255 as a subordinate king in Kadiri. Thus, the news that Kertanagara ascended to the throne in 1254 can be debated. The possibility is that Kertanagara became the viceroy of Kadiri first, then in 1268 he was enthroned at Singhasari. The genealogical diagram beside this is the order of the rulers of the Rajasa Dynasty, which originated from Pararaton.

Mula Malurung Inscription
The discovery of the Mula Malurung inscription provides another perspective that is different from the Pararaton version that has been known for the history of Tumapel.

Tumapel Kingdom is said to have been founded by Rajasa, nicknamed "Bhatara Shiva", after conquering Kadiri. After his death, the kingdom was split into two, Tumapel led by Anusapati while Kadiri was led by Bhatara Parameswara (aka Mahisa Wonga Teleng). Parameswara was replaced by Guningbhaya, then Tohjaya. Meanwhile, Anusapati was replaced by Seminingrat who was entitled Wisnuwardhana. Mula Malurung Inscription also mentions that after the death of Tohjaya, the Kingdom of Tumapel and Kadiri were reunited by Seminingrat. Kadiri later became a subordinate kingdom led by his son, namely Kertanagara.

Joint government
Pararaton and Nagarakretagama mentioned the existence of a joint government between Wisnuwardhana and Narasingamurti. In Pararaton, Narasingamurti's real name is Mahisa Campaka.

If the bloody coup story in Pararaton really happened, then it can be understood that the purpose of this joint government is an attempt at reconciliation between the two competing groups. Wisnuwardhana is the grandson of Tunggul Ametung while Narasingamurti is the grandson of Ken Arok.

Kertanagara was the last king and greatest king in the history of Singhasari (1268 - 1292). He was the first king to shift his insight outside of Java. In 1275 he sent Pamalayu Expeditionary troops to make Sumatra a stronghold in the face of the expansion of the Mongols. At that time the ruler of Sumatra was the Kingdom of Dharmasraya (continuation of the Kingdom of Malayu). The kingdom was finally considered to have been subdued, by sending proof of the Amoghapasa statue from Kertanagara, as a sign of friendship between the two countries.

In 1284, Kertanagara also held an expedition to conquer Bali. In 1289 Emperor Kubilai Khan sent an envoy to Singhasari asking Java to recognize Mongol sovereignty. But the request was refused firmly by Kertanagara. Nagarakretagama mentions Singhasari's subordinate areas outside Java during the Kertanagara period, among others, Malay, Balinese, Pahang, Desert, and Bakulapura.

The Singhasari Kingdom, which was busy sending its army outside of Java, finally experienced a loss on the inside. In 1292 there was an uprising of Jayakatwang, the Regent of Gelang-Gelang, which was a cousin, as well as brother-in-law, as well as a father-in-law from Kertanagara himself. In the attack Kertanagara was killed.

After the collapse of Singhasari, Jayakatwang became king and built a new capital in Kadiri. The history of the Tumapel-Singhasari Kingdom ends.

Relationship with Majapahit
Pararaton, Nagarakretagama, and Kudadu inscriptions tell the story of Raden Wijaya, grandson of Narasingamurti who became Kertanagara's son-in-law escaped death. With the help of Aria Wiraraja (political opponent of Kertanagara), he was later forgiven by Jayakatwang and given the right to establish the village of Majapahit.

In 1293 came the Mongol army led by Ike Mese to conquer Java. They were used by Raden Wijaya to defeat Jayakatwang in Kadiri. After Kadiri collapsed, Raden Wijaya with an ingenious strategy to expel the Mongol army out of the land of Java.

Raden Wijaya then founded the Majapahit Kingdom as a continuation of Singhasari, and declared himself a member of the Rajasa Dynasty, a dynasty founded by Ken Arok.

    Poesponegoro & Notosusanto (ed.). 1990. Sejarah Nasional Indonesia Jilid II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka
    Purwadi. 2007. Sejarah Raja-Raja Jawa. Yogyakarta: Media Ilmu
    R.M. Mangkudimedja. 1979. Serat Pararaton Jilid 2. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Proyek Penerbitan Buku Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah
    Slamet Muljana. 2005. Menuju Puncak Kemegahan (terbitan ulang 1965). Yogyakarta: LKIS
    Slamet Muljana. 1979. Nagarakretagama dan Tafsir Sejarahnya. Jakarta: Bhratara

^ Bullough, Nigel (22 Oktober 1995). Historic East Java: Remains in Stone. Jakarta: ADLine Communications. hlm. 116–117.

Source: kingdom_Singhasari

Photo: Special

AD - Year 1 AD (The Birth of Jesus)

Mosaic of the Birth of Jesus Christ
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - The Christian calendar is a calendar that began to be used by early Christians.

They use the year of Jesus' birth as the initial stepping year or 1 AD.

As for calculating the date and month, they used a Roman calendar system called the Julian calendar (which is inaccurate) which has been used since 45 BC.

This system began to be designed in 525 AD, but until the 11th century to the 14th century its use was not so widespread.

Furthermore, the calendar and month system of the Julian Calendar, was further refined in AD 1,582, later referred to as the Gregorian calendar.

Finally, this date is widely used in the world to facilitate communication.

In English, this CE is called "Anno Domini" / AD (Latin, meaning "The Year of Our Lord"). The term for AD is also known as CE from the synonym "Common Era" for the era of AD.

Because 1 CE is known as the year of Jesus Christ's birth, so before Christ it was called "Before Christ" / BC (before the birth of Jesus Christ), also called "Before Common Era" / BCE (Before the General Era).

This calendar system was just beginning to be introduced to the general public, by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus (or "Short Denis"), starting from being used to calculate the date of Easter (Computus), which is based on the founding year of Rome.

Then, because its use is increasingly popular, the dating system is also used by non-Christians, by using the abbreviations M (CE) and BC (BC), without referring to Christian connotation as the historical foundation of its use for the first time.

The dating system that refers to the beginning of the year of Christ began to be adopted in Western Europe during the 8th century.

Historians do not know year 0, year 1 AD is the first year of the Christian system, and exactly the year before was 1 BC.

While in terms of scientific / astronomical calculations, this poses a problem because the year before Christ was calculated using the number 0, therefore there is a difference of 1 year between the two systems.

On the other hand, experts date the birth of Jesus in various ways, from 18 BC to 7 BC.

While Dionysius Exiguus does not take into account the year 0 and the year when Emperor Augustus ruled the Roman Empire using the name Octavian.

Use in Indonesia
In Indonesia, besides the AD year that is used officially, the community is also unofficially familiar with the Javanese, Hijriyah / Islamic year, and also Chinese year / Chinese year.

the term AD uses the Latin Anno Domini / AD (the year of our Lord), and before Christ it is referred to as BC / Before Christ.

In 1422 AD, Portugal became the last European country to implement this calendar system. After that, all countries in the world began to participate, which recognized the use of this convention to facilitate communication.

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture