Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Religious Timeline

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - With the timeline, it makes us more open to see each of the religions in this world.
  1. Agami Jawi (Javanese Local Religion) - 10,481 BC
  2. Hinduism - Century 3.102 BC
  3. Buddhism - Ages 563 BC
  4. Christianity - 1st Century AD - Year 1 AD
  5. Christianity - 29 CE (When Jesus was 29)
  6. Syrian Orthodox Christian Religion - 52 CE
  7. To Lotang Religion (Sulawesi Local Religion) - 564 AD (Birth of Sawerigading)
  8. Islam - 571 CE (Birth of the Prophet Muhammad)
  9. Islam - Year 611 (When the Prophet Muhammad was 40 Years Old)

The Original Local Religion of the Archipelago - 10481 Years BC

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - The list below is a temporary collection that may increase in the future.

  • Kapitayan
  • Kedjawen (Central Java and East Java) - 10,481 BC
  • Sundanese Javanese Religion (Kuningan, West Java)
  • Mulajadi Flow Nabolon
  • Basora
  • Bolim
  • Nobility
  • Buhun (West Java)
  • Kaharingan (Kalimantan)
  • Parmalim (North Sumatra)
  • Tolottang (South Sulawesi) - Year 564 AD
  • Tonaas Walian (Minahasa, North Sulawesi)
  • Marapu (Sumba)
  • Naurus (Seram Island, Maluku)
  • Pahkampetan
  • Purwaduksina
  • Samawi
  • Sirnagalih
  • Sunda Wiwitan (Kanekes, Banten)

Wetu Telu (Lombok)

For adherents of "Local Religion", based on Law Number 23 Year 2006, Article 61 Paragraph 02, regarding Population Administration, regulates for Residents whose religion has not been recognized as a religion in accordance with the provisions of the Legislation or for the followers of the faith, then their religious status in KTP is not filled in, but is still being served and recorded in the Population database.

Countries that implement their Local Religion, as their National Religion, include:

  • India
  • Israel
  • China
  • Japan
  • Saudi Arabia

Regarding Local Theory of Religion, you can get it in Sociology Theory


The entry of Buddhism in Indonesia - 400 AD

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Buddhism arrived in the archipelago quite early and a lot of information about this we get from Chinese sources. Fa Xien, who came from Sri Lanka in 414, was stranded because of a strong typhoon to Yeh p'o t'i (Yawadwîpa, whether this is Java or Sumatra, is unclear), feeling rather disappointed with his religious situation (= Buddhism) in there, especially when compared to the Brahmins and 'infidels'. But before 424, according to Chinese sources again, Buddhism spread in the country of Shê p’o (= Java). The missionary or preacher who spread this religion is said to be Gunawarman, a prince's son from Kashmir. He came to Java from Sri Lanka and in 424 left for China, where he died seven years later. He translated a text from the Dharmagupta school

In the 7th, 8th, 9th centuries Indonesian Buddhists, or at least some Buddhist centers in Sumatra and Java, were already part of the cosmopolitan nature of this religion. This impression is mainly obtained from the work of I Ching. In his memory book, he recounts that the pilgrim Hui Ning decided on his three-year journey on the island of Java (664/5 - 667/8) to translate a sutra, most likely from the Hinayana school, about the great Nirvana. His translation was assisted by a Javanese expert named Jñânabhadra. Whereas I Ching himself highly valued Buddhist studies centers in Sumatra. This is evident from the fact that he lived for six months in Sriwijaya and two months in Malayu (Jambi) on his trip to India in 671 and after that for ten years in Sriwijaya (685-695).

In addition he also summarized that Buddhism was embraced in the countries he visited and for the most part, the Hinayan school of thought was followed, except in Malayu where there were also some Mahayana adherents.

But on Java, less than a century after this, the most widely adopted form of Buddhism is a combination of Mahayana and Vajrayana. Borobudur Temple which is considered by some to be a giant mandala, in its thousands of bas-reliefs, it shows scenes or scenes contained in a number of texts in Sanskrit that breathe or form the basis of Mahayana understanding. These texts are: Mahakarmawibhangga, Lalitawistara, Diwyawadana and Gandawyuha.
Sumber :

*) Other information
Buddhism in Indonesia
Buddhism in Indonesia has a long history. In Indonesia during the New Order administration era, there were five official religions in Indonesia, according to the state ideology of the Pancasila, one of which included Buddhism. President Soeharto has considered Buddhism and Hinduism as classical Indonesian religions. [Citation needed] Buddhism is one of the oldest religions in the world. Buddhism originated in India, precisely Nepal since the 6th century BC and still survives until now. Buddhism developed quite well in the Asian region and has become the majority religion in several countries, such as Taiwan, Thailand, Myanmar and others. Buddhism later also entered the archipelago (now Indonesia) and became one of the oldest religions in Indonesia today.

Buddhism that spread in the archipelago was originally an intellectual belief, and has little to do with the supernatural. But in the process, the political need, and personal emotional desire to be protected from the dangers in the world by a powerful deity, has caused modifications in Buddhism. In many ways, Buddhism is very individualistic, that is, all individuals, both men and women, are responsible for their own spirituality. Anyone can meditate alone; the temple is not needed, and no priest is needed to act as an intermediary. The community provides pagodas and temples just to inspire the right frame of mind to help people in their devotion and self-awareness.

Although various schools of Islam approach Buddhism in different ways, the main feature of Buddhism in Indonesia is the recognition of the "Four Noble Truths" and "The Main Path of the Eightfold". The Four Noble Truths involve the recognition that all being is filled with suffering; the origin of suffering is the desire for worldly objects; suffering ceases when desire ceases; and the Eightfold Path leads to enlightenment. The Main Path of the Eightfold brings perfect vision, resolution, speech, behavior, livelihood, effort, attention and concentration.

The period of Hindu-Buddhist kingdom
Buddhism first entered the archipelago (now Indonesia) around the 5th century AD when viewed from the relics of the existing inscriptions. Allegedly first brought by a traveler from China named Fa Hsien [1]. The first Buddhist kingdom that flourished in the archipelago was the Kingdom of Srivijaya which stood in the 7th century to 1377. The Kingdom of Srivijaya was once one of the centers of Buddhist development in Southeast Asia. This can be seen in the notes of a scholar from China named I-Tsing who traveled to India and the Archipelago and noted the development of Buddhism there. Other Buddhist monks who visited Indonesia were Atisa, Dharmapala, a professor from Nalanda, and Vajrabodhi, a Buddhist from South India.

In Java also stands the Buddhist kingdom, namely the Kingdom of Syailendra, precisely in Central Java now, although not as big as the Kingdom of Srivijaya. The kingdom was founded in 775-850, and left behind a number of Buddhist temples that still stand today include the Borobudur Temple, Mendut Temple and Pawon Temple. After that in the years 1292 to 1478, Majapahit Kingdom was established which was the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Indonesia. The Majapahit Kingdom reached its heyday when it was led by Hayam Wuruk and his Great Patih, Gajah Mada. However, due to internal divisions and also the absence of a successor to match the glory of Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada, the Majapahit Kingdom began to decline. After the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom, the Hindu-Buddhist kingdom began to be displaced by Islamic empires.

From the beginning of the entry of Buddhism in the archipelago, especially during the Kingdom of Srivijaya, the majority of the population in the area were Buddhists, especially in the Nusantara regions of Java and Sumatra. However, after the development of the Islamic empires in Indonesia, the number of Buddhists decreased as they were replaced by new Islamic religions that were brought into the archipelago by traders residing in the coastal areas. The number of Buddhists in Indonesia also did not develop during the Dutch and Japanese occupations. Even during the Portuguese occupation, Buddhists in Indonesia were diminishing because Europeans also brought missionaries to spread Christianity in the archipelago.

Kingdom of Srivijaya
The main article for this section is: The Kingdom of Srivijaya
The territory of the Srivijaya Kingdom around the 8th century.
Buddhist stupa at Borobudur Temple, which was built by Syailendra Dynasty.

Srivijaya is a maritime kingdom located in Sumatra, but its power reaches Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Cambodia and others. Srivijaya is derived from Sanskrit, Sri is "glowing" and Vijaya is "victory". The Kingdom of Srivijaya was first established around 600 and survived until 1377. The Kingdom of Srivijaya was one of the kingdoms that had been forgotten, which was then reintroduced by a French scholar, George Cœdès in the 1920s [2] [3]. George Cœdès reintroduced sriwijaya based on his findings from inscriptions and news from China. The discovery of George Coedes was later published in Dutch and Indonesian language newspapers [3]. And since then the kingdom of Sriwijaya began to be known again by the public. The loss of news about the existence of Srivijaya was due to the small number of relics left by the Srivijaya kingdom before it collapsed. Some of the causes of the collapse of the Kingdom of Srivijaya, namely:

    Attack of the Chola Dynasty from Coromandel, South India (1017 & 1025)
This attack succeeded in capturing the king of Srivijaya and later the Chola Dynasty became in power over the kingdom of Srivijaya. As a result of this attack, the position of the Srivijaya kingdom in the archipelago began to sway.

    The Malay kingdom, Dharmasraya, emerged

After the weakening of the Chola Dynasty's power, the Dharmasraya kingdom emerged which took over the Malay Peninsula and also suppressed the existence of the Srivijaya kingdom.

    Defeat the war of another kingdom

Another reason that caused the collapse of Srivijaya was war with other kingdoms such as Singosari, Majapahit and Dharmasraya. Apart from being the cause of the collapse of Srivijaya, this war also caused many relics of Sriwijya that were damaged or lost, so that the existence of the Srivijaya Kingdom was forgotten for several centuries.

The development of Buddhism during the Srivijaya period can be known based on the I-Tsing report. Before conducting a study at Nalanda University in India, I-Tsing visited the kingdom of Srivijaya. Based on I-tsing's records, Srivijaya was home to Buddhist scholars, and became a center of Buddhist learning. This proves that during the Srivijaya kingdom, Buddhism developed very rapidly. Besides that I-tsing also reported that in Sriwijaya there were Theravada Buddhist schools (sometimes called Hinayana) and Mahayana. And then the longer Buddhism in Srivijaya was influenced by the Vajrayana sect from India.

The rapid development of Buddhism in Srivijaya was also supported by a Buddhist professor in Srivijaya, namely Sakyakirti, Sakyakirti's name comes from I-tsing who became acquainted when he stopped at Sriwijaya. [8] In addition to the Buddhist Grand Master, I-tsing also reported that there were Buddhist schools that had good relations with Nalanda University, India, so that there were quite a number of people who studied Buddhism in this kingdom. In his notes, I-tsing also wrote that there were more than 1,000 priests who studied Buddhism in Sriwijaya.

Majapahit kingdom
Majapahit is an ancient kingdom in Indonesia that stood from around 1293 to 1500 AD This kingdom reached its heyday during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, who ruled from 1350 to 1389. The Majapahit Kingdom was the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom to rule the Malay Peninsula and was considered as one of the biggest countries in the history of Indonesia.

Majapahit left many holy places, the remnants of religious ritual facilities at that time. These sacred buildings are known as temples, holy baths (pertirtan) and hermitage caves. The survey buildings are mostly Shiva religion, and a few are Buddhist, including Jago, Bhayalangu, Sanggrahan, and Jabung temples which can be known from architectural characteristics, abandoned statues, temple reliefs, and textual data, for example Kakawin Nagarakretagama, Arjunawijaya, Sutasoma, and a little news inscription.

Based on written sources, the Majapahit kings are generally Shiva from the Siwasiddhanta school except Tribuwanattungadewi (mother of Hayam Wuruk) who is a Mahayana Buddhist. Even so Shiva and Buddhism remained official kingdoms until the end of 1447. Official religious officials during the reign of Raden Wijaya (Kertarajasa) there were two high officials of Shiva and Buddhism, namely Dharmadyaksa ring Kasiwan and Dharmadyaksa ring Kasogatan, then five Shiva officials in under it is called Dharmapapati or Dharmadihikarana.

In Majapahit times there were two books describing the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism, namely Sanghyang Kamahayanan Mantrayana which contains teachings aimed at ordained monks, and Sanghyang Kamahayanikan which contains a collection of teachings on how one can attain deliverance. The main teaching in the Sanghyang Kamahayanikan is to show that the various forms of release are basically the same. It seems that the syncretism of the author Sanghyang Kamahayanikan is reflected in the identification of Shiva with the Buddha and refers to it as "Shiva-Buddha", no longer Shiva or Buddha, but Shiva-Buddha as the highest consciousness.

In the Majapahit era (1292-1478), syncretism had reached its peak. It seems like the Hindu-Shiva, Hindu-Vishnu and Buddhism styles can live together. All three are seen as various forms of the same truth. Shiva and Vishnu are seen as equal in value and they are described as "Harihara" which is a statue (statue) half Shiva and half Vishnu. Shiva and Buddha are considered the same. In Arjunawijaya's book kakawin Mpu Tantular, for example, it is told that when Arjunawijaya entered the Buddhist temple, the women explained that the Jinas from the corners of nature depicted on the statues were the same as the manifestation of Shiva. Vairocana is the same as Sadasiwa who occupies the middle position. Aksobya is the same as Rudra who occupies the eastern position. Ratnasambhava is the same as Brahma who occupies the southern position, Amitabha is equal to Mahadewa who occupies the western position and Amogasiddhi is the same as Vishnu who occupies the northern position. Therefore the monks said there was no difference between Buddhism and Shiva. In the Kunjarakarna book it is stated that no one, both followers of Shiva and Buddha can get liberated if he separates the real one, namely Shiva-Buddha.

Renewal of Shiva-Buddhism in the Majapahit era, among others, was seen in the way of bringing the king and his family to death in two temples with different religious characteristics. This can be seen in the first king of Majapahit, namely Kertarajasa, who was celebrated in Sumberjati Temple (Simping) as a form of Shiva (Siwawimbha) and in Antahpura as Buddha; or the second king of Majapahit, namely Raja Jayabaya who was sent to the Shila Ptak (ed. Sila Petak) as Vishnu and in Sukhalila as Buddha. This shows that beliefs where the Supreme Reality in Shiva and Buddhism are no different.

Although Buddhism and Hinduism have spread in East Java, it seems that ancestral beliefs still play a role in people's lives. This is indicated by the structure of the temple in which there is a place of worship of ancestors, which is megalith stone, which is placed on the highest terrace of the holy place.

After the Majapahit Kingdom suffered a setback at the end of the reign of King Brawijaya V (1468-1478) and collapsed in 1478, the Buddhist and Hindu religions were gradually displaced by Islam.

The Period of Modern Indonesia

The period before and after Indonesia's independence

After Indonesian independence, there were people who cared about and preserved Buddhism in Indonesia, starting with a monk from Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) named Narada Maha Thera. In 1934 he visited the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) as the first Theravada monk who came to spread Buddhism after more than 450 years of the fall of the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom on the archipelago. [11] His arrival began to regain interest in studying Buddhism in the Dutch East Indies. This interest was later strengthened by a bhikku from Indonesia who was ordained in Burma (now Myanmar) named bhikkhu Ashin Jinarakkhita, and resumed the development of Buddhism in Indonesia, where Buddhism gradually began to be recognized again.

Post September 30 Movement

After the failed 30 September Movement coup attempt in 1965, any indication of deviations from the monotheistic teachings of Pancasila was considered as betrayal. To maintain Buddhism in Indonesia, Perbuddhi's founder, Bhikkhu Ashin Jinarakkhita, proposed an adjustment in the dogma of Buddhism in Indonesia, namely the existence of a single supreme deity, "Sang Hyang Adi Buddha". He sought evidence and confirmation for this distinctive version of Indonesian Buddhism in ancient Javanese texts, and even from the complex form of Buddhist temples in Borobudur in Central Java Province. In the years that followed after the failed 1965 coup attempt, when all Indonesian citizens were required to register with certain religious denominations or were suspected of being communist sympathizers, the number of people registered as followers of Buddhism rose sharply, several dozen new Buddhist monasteries were built. In 1987 there were seven schools of Buddhism affiliated with Representatives of Indonesian Buddhists (Walubi), namely: Theravada, Buddhayana, Mahayana, Tridharma, Kasogatan, Maitreya, and Nichiren.

According to estimates in 1987, there were around 2.5 million Buddhists, of which 1 million were affiliated with Theravada Buddhism and around 0.5 million with Buddhayanaism founded by Jinarakkhita. Other estimates place Buddhists in only about 1 percent of Indonesia's population, or less than 2 million. At that time Buddhism got that number because of the uncertain status of Confucianism or Confucianism. Confucianism was officially tolerated by the government since the fall of the New Order administration, but because Confucianism was considered only as a system of ethical relations, not religion, this religion was not represented in the Ministry of Religion.

Buddhism in Indonesia in the early 1990s was an unstable product of a complex accommodation between Eastern religious ideologies, traditional Chinese ethnic culture, and political policy. Traditionally, Chinese Taoism, Confucianism ("Confucianism" in Indonesian) and Buddhism, as well as Buddhism, which is more indigenous to Perbuddhi, all have followers in the ethnic Chinese community.

The period of commencement of the Population Census

The population census that began in 1961 shows the population growth of Indonesia based on quantitative data 1961-1971 = 2.1%, 1971-1980 = 2.32%, 1980-1990 = 1.97%, 1990-2000 = 1.48%, 2000-2010 = 1.3% [12]. Based on these data, we can find out the average rate of population growth every 10 years, i.e. 1,834%. So, we can predict the population of Indonesia in 1100 which is the majority of Buddhists, which is around 24.1 million inhabitants.

According to the 1990 national census, more than 1% of Indonesia's total population is Buddhist, around 1.8 million people. Most Buddhists are in Jakarta, although there are also in other provinces such as Riau, North Sumatra and West Kalimantan. However, this number is not the actual number because at that time Confucianism and Taoism were not considered as the official religion in Indonesia so they were deliberated as Buddhists. In 2008, the number of Buddhists was around 1.3 million inhabitants out of 217,346,140 Indonesians or around 0.6%. In 2010, the number of Buddhists was around 961,086 inhabitants out of 240,271,522 residents of Indonesia, or around 0.4%.

Based on these data, it can be concluded that the total population of Indonesia who adheres to Buddhism is in contrast to the growth of Indonesia's population.
Buddhism in Indonesia is the most widely practiced by the Chinese community and some indigenous groups of Indonesia, with a percentage of the amount of 1% (Buddhism only) to 2.3% (including Taoism and Confucianism) Indonesian population which includes Buddhists.

The development of Buddhism in Indonesia

The revival of Buddhism after the Majapahit empire was begun in 1954 by Bhikkhu Ashin Jinarakkhita. He was the first monk from Indonesia to be ordained since the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom.

Bhante Ashin Jinarakkhita contributed a lot to the development of Buddhism in Indonesia. In 1954, to help the development of Buddhism nationally, the Upasaka Upasika Indonesian Fraternity (PUUI) was established, celebrating the Vesak holy day at Borobudur Temple in 1956, then the formation of Perbuddhi (Indonesian Buddhist Association) in 1958.

In 1959, for the first time since the end of the Majapahit Hindu-Buddhist Kingdom, an ordination of monks was held in Indonesia, as many as 13 senior monks from various countries came to Indonesia to witness the ordination of two monks named Bhikkhu Jinaputta and Bhikkhu Jinapiya.

In 1974, Bhikkhu Ashin Jinarakkhita led the Great Indonesian Sangha from the Indonesian Sangha and the combined Indonesian Sangha. GUBSI (All Indonesian Buddhist Association) was formed in 1976 as a single organization of Indonesian Buddhists originating from Perbuddhi, Indonesian Buddhist Dharma, and so on.

Mahayana Development

Mahayana Buddhism is thought to have come from the 1st century BC to 1 CE, the term Mahayana is found in the Lotus Sutra of Pundarika. The Mahayana school only came to be clearly known in the 2nd century AD, when the Mahayana teachings were explained in the writings.

The development of Mahayana teachings in Indonesia is generally divided into two namely Mahayana Buddhism and Tridharma Buddhism. Mahayana Buddha is a fusion of the Zen and Sukhavati sects (the Chinese elements are still strong). The Buddhist Tridharma (Buddhist Temple) in Indonesia is a blend of Mahayana Buddhism with Taoism and Confucianism (Confucianism), namely the Chinese culture of Dao Jiao, Run Jiao, and local culture. Where developers include Kwee Tek Hoay, Khoe Soe Khiam, Ong Kie Tjay, and Aggi Tje Tje.

In 1978, monks from the Mahayana school formed the Indonesian Mahayana Sangha, chaired by Bhikkhu Dharmasagaro. This Mahayana Indonesian Sangha sparked the idea of ​​developing the Mahayana Indonesian Buddhist Pusdikiat. The goal of the Sangha is to spread the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism in Indonesia by using Indonesian and translating Buddhist scriptures into Indonesian.

Vajrayana Development

The Vajrayana Buddhist School or also called Tantrayana in Indonesia was first pioneered by Father Giriputre Soemarsono and Father Dharmesvara Oke Diputhera in 1953 - 1956 by forming a Tantrayana group called Kasogatan.

Kasogatan was formed because of the drive to restore Buddhism so that it could expand again as it was during the days of the Majapahit kingdom. Kasogatan has an important meaning and history in terms of national personality. In the Majapahit era, kasogatan was the word used to refer to Buddhahood.

Kasogatan comes from the word "sugata", one of the great titles of the Buddha which means "the happy one". The teachings of Buddhism that developed at that time were found in the Sanghyang Kamahayanikan holy book which was embraced by Buddhists at that time.

The second Tantrayana sect group is the Satya Dharma Surya Indonesia Foundation which was founded in 1987. This group is a Tantrayana group of Zhanfo Zong followers, led by a Buddhist named Harsono (now named Vajracarya Harsono). At that time the Tantrayana Zhenfo Zong people numbered around 200, they performed a devotional service by hitching a ride to one temple to another because there were no permanent facilities available. Eventually the Satya Dharma Surya Indonesia Foundation was formed with the construction of a temple in the Muara Karang area under the name Vajra Bumi Jayakarta Vihara as the first Zhenfo Zong place of worship in Indonesia. In October 1988, all the leaders of the Satya Dharma Surya Indonesia Foundation with members of the Indonesian Kasogatan Ambassador Dharma Assembly met and merged the two foundations. This merger is intended to assimilate the community properly through religion and socio-culture and the realization of Buddhism which is oriented towards the personality and culture of Indonesia.

With the merging of the Buddhist schools into sangha-sangha and Buddhist assemblies becoming members of the Indonesian Buddhist Representative, the Indonesian Kasogatan Ambassador Dharma Council changed its name to the Tantrayana Kasogatan Indonesian Buddhist Council, inaugurated in October 1994 and then became the Tantrayana Zhenfo Buddhist Council Zong Kasogatan Indonesia in 2001.

Theravada development
The development of the Theravada Buddhist school was pioneered by Bante Vidhurdhammabhorn (Bhante Vin). During the rapid development of Buddhism, young monks were ordained at Wat Bovoranives, Thailand, with the help of Bhante Vin. This dedication was given permission by Bhante Vin himself, not through Bhante Ashin. Bhikkhubhikkhu who were ordained at Wat Bovoranives have a Dhammayuttika bloodline, this means that if the bloodline is different, then it is not allowed to follow the Patimokkha ceremony from another lineage.

With differences in view, then in January 1972, Bhikkhu - Bhikkhu who were graduates of Wat Bovoranives finally separated and formed the Indonesian Sangha, but in 1974, the Indonesian Sangha finally rejoined the Indonesian Sangha under the leadership of Bhante Ashin. The name of the Indonesian Sangha was changed to the Indonesian Great Sangha (SAGIN). In 1976, a Bhikkhubhikkhu graduate from Wat Bovoranives who was a pupil of Bhante Vin, decided to leave the Great Sangha of Indonesia and establish the Sangha Theravada Indonesia (STI).

Literature of Buddhism in the Archipelago

Two important Javanese Buddhist texts are Sang hyang Kamahaanikan and Kamahayanan Mantranaya.

Borobudur temple
The Lalitavistara Sutra is well known by Mantranaya masons from Borobudur, see: The Birth of Buddha (Lalitavistara). The term Mantranaya is not a spelling error of Mantrayana although most of it is the same. Mantranaya is a term for the mantra esoteric tradition, certain derivatives of Vajrayana and Tantra in Indonesia. The term in Sanskrit Mantranaya has clearly been proven in Old Javanese Basa tantra literature, especially those documented in the oldest esoteric Buddhist tantra text in Old Java, Sang Kyang Kamahayanan Mantranaya, see Kazuko Ishii (1992).
Factors in the decline of Buddhists in Indonesia

Factors that cause the shortage of Buddhists in Indonesia include:

    Buddhism itself teaches that we must do ehipassiko, which is to come, see and prove yourself. This is what causes many people who do not know the teachings of Buddhism because they do not know when they can learn it.

    Many consider that the teachings of Buddhism are identical to incense, flowers, candles, etc. that make people think about the large enough capital to be spent.

    In Buddhism there is no agreement that binds a person to continue to follow Buddhism, so after marriage, quite a lot of Buddhists change religion because they have to follow the religion of their partners.

    Many people think that Buddhism does not give them the promise to enter heaven because the majority needs security and guarantees that they will go to heaven.

    The lack of Buddhism in the family so that their children who attend non-Buddhist schools will follow the ways and rules in their schools that cause them to be influenced.

    Factors from parents who do not really understand the teachings of Buddhism so that there are parents who only carry out the traditions of the Chinese and there are also only the status of Buddhism, but do not know anything about Buddhism. This is also due to the lack of belief in Buddhism.


Photo: Special

The Origin of the Betawi Tribe

One of Betawi Art which is widely known by the public
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) The Betawi tribe is one of the ethnic groups of Indonesia, the initial inhabitants of the city of Jakarta and its surroundings.

Historian Sagiman MD, stated that the existence of the Betawi tribe had existed, since the New Stone Age (Neoliticum), where the native Betawi originated from Nusa Java; Javanese, Sundanese and Madurese.

A similar opinion came from Uka Tjandarasasmita who issued the monograph "Greater Jakarta and Surrounding Areas from the Prehistoric Period to the Kingdom of Pajajaran (1977)," revealing that, the Indigenous Peoples of Jakarta existed around 3,500 - 3,000 BC (BC).

In addition to the above research, there is also research by Lance Castles, which focuses on four historical sketches, namely:

Daghregister, the 1673 diary made by the Dutch who lived in the fortress city of Batavia

Thomas Stanford Raffles notes in History of Java in 1815

Population records for the 1893 Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch Indie

Population Census made by the Dutch East Indies colonizers in 1930

In all the historical sketches of Lance Castles, which began in 1673 (At the End of the 17th Century), these sketches are felt by many other historians to be incomplete, for an explanation of the origin of the Betawi Tribe. This is because in the Chronicle of the Land of Java in the 15th century (1400 AD), the word "Betawi Country" was discovered.

Betawi etymology
Regarding the origin of the word Betawi, according to historians there are several references:

Pitawi (Old Polynesian Malay Language) which means "Prohibition." This vocabulary refers to a complex of sites in the "Batu Jaya," Karawang area.

This was confirmed by historian Ridwan Saidi, by linking that the Building Complex was a Holy City that was previously closed.

Betawi (Brunei Malay) means ear stud. This name refers to the excavation in Babelan, Bekasi Regency. Where in this region until the 1990s there were still many gold studs from the 11th century AD.

Betawi Guling Flora (Cassia Glauca), Family Papilionaceae is a type of Shrub plant, whose wood is sturdy round like a bolster, but easy to grind. In ancient times this type of wood was widely used for making arms; Kris or knife handle. This plant is widely grown in Nusa Kelapa, several areas on the islands of Java and Kalimantan.

Whereas in Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan, the Betawi Guling is called Kayu Bekawi. Differences in pronunciation on the use of the vocabulary "k" and "t" between Kapuas Hulu and Betawi Malay, this is common, like the question word "whether" or "apatah" which has the same meaning.

It is possible that the name Betawi came from the type of plant could be true. Historian Ridwan Saidi; some names of flora species have been used in giving names to places or regions in Jakarta.

As an example; Gambir, Krekot, Bintaro, Grogol etc. "Like the Makassar District, this name has nothing to do with the Makassar people, but rather is taken from the type of grass."

Thus the vocabulary of "Betawi" is not derived from the word "Batavia".

While Batavia is the Latin name for the Land of Batavia, which in Roman times was thought to be located around the city of Nijmegen, the Netherlands, where today the remnants of the location are known as "Betuwe".

During the Renaissance, Dutch historians tried to legitimize Batavia as a status of their "Progenitor", henceforth calling themselves the Batavians.

This led to the emergence of the Batavian Republic, and took the name "Batavia" for the name of their colony.

As happened in Indonesia, where they changed the name of the City of Jayakarta to Batavia from 1619-1942.

After 1942 the name Batavia was changed again to Djakarta.

The name Batavia is also used in Suriname, and in the United States, because they also founded the city of Batavia, New York, to the west of the United States, such as; Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, and Batavia, Ohio.

Whereas the use of the word Betawi as a tribe, during the Dutch East Indies, began with the establishment of an organization called "Perawempoelan Kaoem Betawi" in 1923, initiated by Husni Thamrin.

3500 - 3000 BC (BC)

According to Historian Sagiman MD, Betawi history has existed since the Stone Age (Neolithic).

According to Yahya Andi Saputra, the indigenous Betawi people are residents of Nusa Java, which is a Cultural Unity. Language, Art, and Traditional Faith, but then made them their own tribe. Which may be caused by, among others:

First, the rise of kingdoms.
Second, the arrival of the nation and the influence of the nation from outside Nusa Java.
Third, there is the Development of Economic Progress from each region.

2nd century
According to Yahya Andi Saputra, Jakarta and its surroundings, including the territory of the Salakanagara, located at the foot of Mount Salak, Bogor.

5th century
The indigenous Betawi people were the people of the Salakanagara kingdom, where trade with China had advanced, which was marked by the sending of a Trade Envoy to China from Salakanagara in 432.

At the end of the 5th century the Hindu kingdom of Tarumanagara stood on the edge of the Citarum River, which is considered by some historians, that Tarumanagara was a continuation of the Salakanagara Kingdom, which moved its royal capital from the foot of Mount Salak to the Citarum River Bank.

The indigenous Betawi people became the people of the Tarumanagara kingdom, with the Royal Capital located on the banks of the Candrabagha River, which by Poerbatjaraka was identified with the Bekasi river.

Candra means moon or sasi, becoming Bhagasasi / Bekasi, which is located on the eastern edge of Jakarta. It was here, according to Poerbatjaraka estimates, the location of the Tarumanengara (Hindu) Royal Palace.

7th century
In the 7th century the Kingdom of Tarumanagara was conquered by the Kingdom of Srivijaya (Buddha).

At this time came the Malay population from Sumatra, then they established a settlement on the coast of Jakarta, which then gradually (with a pattern of assimilation) Malay language replaced the position of Kawi as the language of daily communication.

Malay was first only used in coastal areas, but later extended to the footlands of Mount Salak and Mount Gede.

For the Betawi community the family has an important meaning. Family life is considered sacred. Family members must uphold family dignity.

10th century
Around the 10th century, there was competition between the Malays (the Srivijaya Kingdom) and the Javanese Wong who were none other than the Kediri Kingdom.

Competition that led to the war, where the Chinese people for the sake of the continuation of their trade, they stand on two legs, or partly sided with the Kingdom of Srivijaya, and partly sided with the Kingdom of Kediri.

After the war, control of the sea is divided in two;
West side starting from Cimanuk, also the Sunda Port is controlled by Srivijaya.

The east side of Kediri is controlled by Kediri.
Sriwijaya asked Syailendra in Central Java to help oversee Sriwijaya's territorial waters in western Java. But Syailendara was gradually unable, finally Sriwijaya was forced to bring migrants from the western part of the Malay ethnic group to Kalapa.

It was during this period that there was a significant spread of Malay in the Kalapa Kingdom, due to a larger wave of immigration than the native population who used Sundanese Kawi as the lingua franca in the Kalapa Kingdom.

European Colonial Period

16th century
The agreement between Surawisesa (King of the Kingdom of Pajajaran) with the Portuguese in 1512, allowed the Portuguese to build a community in Sunda Kalapa, which resulted in a mixed marriage between the local population and the Portuguese, which in turn lowered the blood of the Portuguese mixture.

It was from this mixed community that Keroncong music was born, or known as Keroncong Tugu.

After the VOC made Batavia as the center of its commercial activities, the VOC needed a lot of manpower to open agricultural land, and build the city's economic wheels.

That's when the VOC bought a lot of slaves from the Balinese authorities, because at that time in Bali there were still slavery practices.

Therefore there is still Balinese vocabulary and grammar remaining in the Betawi language today.

The progress of the Batavian trade attracted various ethnic groups from all over the world, as well as; China, Arabia and India to work in this city.

The influence of foreign tribes who come here, is seen from the Betawi wedding dress that many elements of Arabic and Chinese.

Various place names in Jakarta leave historical clues about the arrival of various other ethnic groups to Batavia, such as; Kampung Melayu, Kampung Bali, Kampung Ambon, Kampung Jawa, Kampung Makassar and Kampung Bugis.

Bugis house in the northern part of Jl. Mangga Dua in the Bugis village area that began in 1690. At the beginning of the 20th century there were still several houses like this in the City area.

20th century
According to Uka Tjandarasasmita, the original inhabitants of Jakarta had existed since 3500-3000 BC.

Another anthropologist, Prof. Dr. Parsudi Suparlan, stated that awareness as a Betawi people at the beginning of the formation of the ethnic group had not yet taken root.

In everyday relationships, they more often call themselves based on the locality of their residence, such as Kemayoran people, Senen people, or Rawabelong people.

Recognition of the existence of Betawi people as an ethnic group and as a social and political unit in a broader scope (at that time was the Dutch East Indies), namely with the emergence of the Kaoem Betawi Shop in 1923, initiated by Husni Thamrin, as a Betawi community figure.

Only then did all the Betawi people realize that they were a group, namely the Betawi group.

There are also those who argue that the Betawi people not only included a mixed society in the Batavia fort built by the Dutch, but also included residents outside the fort, who were called the Betawi proto community.

Local residents outside the fortress Batavia, at that time already used the Malay language, which is commonly used in Sumatra.

Since the end of the last century and especially after independence (1945), Jakarta has been flooded with immigrants from all over Indonesia, so that Betawi people have become minority host citizens.

In 1961, Betawi 'tribes' numbered approximately 22.9 percent of the + 2.9 million population of Jakarta at the time, this showed that the Betawi people were increasingly pushed to the periphery, even displaced out of Jakarta.

Art and culture
Indigenous art and culture of Jakarta or Betawi residents can be seen from archaeological findings, such as earrings that were found in excavations in Babelan, Bekasi District dating from the 11th century AD.

In addition, Betawi culture also occurs from a process of cultural mix between indigenous tribes with a variety of ethnic migrants, or commonly known as Mestizo.

Since ancient times, the area of ​​the former Salakanagara kingdom, which came to be known as "Kalapa" (now Jakarta), has been an area that attracted migrants from within and outside the archipelago.

Mixed culture, has existed since the leadership of King Pajajaran, Prabu Surawisesa, where Prabu Surawisesa entered into an agreement with Portugal, from the result of the mixing of cultures between Indigenous people, and this Portuguese was born Keroncong Tugu.

The tribes that inhabit Jakarta now include Javanese, Sundanese, Malay, Minang, Batak, and Bugis. Apart from the inhabitants of the archipelago, Betawi culture also absorbs many foreign cultures, such as Arabic, Chinese, Indian, and Portuguese cultures.

The Betawi tribe, as a native of Jakarta, have been marginalized by migrants. They left Jakarta and moved to areas in the provinces of West Java and Banten.

Betawi culture was eliminated by other cultures, both from Indonesia and Western and Middle Eastern Culture.

Native Betawi people speak Kawi (ancient Javanese), using hanacaraka letters. Betawi natives have lived in Jakarta, and its surroundings since the Stone Age.

The mixed nature of Betawi or Malay dialect in Jakarta, or Batavia Malay is a reflection of the Betawi culture in general, which is the result of the marriage of various cultures, both originating from other regions in the archipelago and foreign cultures.

Until now, there are still many regional names, and river names that still use Sundanese, such as; Ancol, Pancoran, Cilandak, Ciliwung, Cideng (which originated from Cihideung, and later changed to Cideung, and tearkhir became Cideng), and others which are still in accordance with the naming described in the ancient Bujangga Manik script which is currently stored in the Bodleian library , Oxford, England.

The Betawi dialect is divided into two types, namely the central Betawi dialect and the edge Betawi dialect. The middle Betawi dialect generally reads "é" while the edge Betawi dialect is "a".

Central or central Betawi dialects are often considered to be true Betawi dialects, because they originate from where Jakarta began, namely the Betawi neighborhoods around Jakarta Kota, Sawah Besar, Tugu, Cilincing, Kemayoran, Senen, Kramat, to the southernmost boundary in Meester (Jatinegara ).

Betawi dialect fringe starting from Jatinegara to the South, Condet, Jagakarsa, Depok, Rawa Belong, Ciputat to the southern edge, and the edge of West Java. Examples of speakers in the middle Betawi dialect are Benyamin S., Ida Royani and Aminah Cendrakasih, because they are indeed from the Kemayoran and Kramat Sentiong areas.

While examples of peripheral Betawi dialect speakers are Mandra, and Pak Tile. The clearest example is when they say kenape / why (why). The Betawi dialect clearly states "é", while the Betawi edge is "a".

In the arts, Betawi people have the Kromong Gambang from Chinese music, but there is also Rebana which is rooted in Arabic music traditions, Samrah orchestra comes from Malay, Keroncong Tugu with a Portuguese background, and Tanjidor with a Dutch background.

Nowadays, Betawi tribes are famous for the art of Lenong, Gambang Kromong, Rebana Tanjidor, and Keroncong. Betawi also has traditional songs such as "Kicir-kicir".

Betawi dance art is a combination of cultural elements within the community. Example: Topawi Betawi dance, Yapong influenced by Jaipong Sunda dance, Cokek and others.

In the beginning, Betawi dance art was influenced by Sundanese and Chinese culture, such as Yapong dance with dancers' costumes typical of Beijing Opera performers.

Betawi traditional drama, among others: Lenong and Tonil. This traditional play usually portrays the daily lives of Betawi people, interspersed with songs, rhymes, jokes, and humorous jokes. Sometimes lenong actors can interact directly with the audience.

The folklore that developed in Jakarta in addition to well-known folklore such as Si Pitung, is also known by other folklore such as the jampang series which tells the Betawi champions, both in their struggles and in their lives that are known as "hard".

In addition to telling the world champion or warrior martial arts, the story of Nyai Dasima is also known, which illustrates colonial life. Other stories are Mirah from Marunda, Murtado Macan Kemayoran, Juragan Boing and others.

Traditional weapon
Jakarta's special weapon is a bendo, or a machete that is sheathed made of wood.

Traditional house
Betawi traditional / traditional house is a kebaya house

Most of the Betawi people follow Islam, but those who follow Christianity; Protestants and Catholics also exist but very few.

Among the Betawi ethnic groups who are Christians, some claim that they are a mixed offspring of the local population and the Portuguese.

This is reasonable because in the early 16th century, Surawisesa, Raja Pajajaran entered into an agreement with the Portuguese which allowed the Portuguese to build a fort and a warehouse in the port of Sunda Kalapa, so that the Portuguese community was formed in Sunda Kalapa.

This Portuguese community still exists today, and settled in the Kampung Tugu area, North Jakarta.

In Jakarta, Betawi people are now as a result of assimilation between ethnic groups, before the era of the development of the New Order, divided into several professions according to the scope of their respective regions (villages).

In the Kemanggisan village and around Rawabelong, many are farmers who work as flowers (orchids, Japanese frangipani, etc.).

In general, many become teachers, instructors and educators, among others K.H. Djunaedi, K.H. Suit, etc. Profession of traders, and batik also much involved.

Kampung Kuningan is a place for dairy farmers.
Kemandoran village where the land is not as fertile as Kemanggisan. Foreman, defender, champion silat many encountered in this region, among others; Pitung's comrade in arms from Rawabelong.

Kampung Paseban many residents are office workers since the days of the Netherlands, although their pencak silat ability is also not in doubt. Teachers, instructors, religious teachers, and the profession of retail traders are also often practiced.

Tebet residents are Betawi evictors from Senayan, because of the launching of the Ganefo program that was initiated by Bung Karno, in order to create the Bung Karno Sports Complex / Gelora that we know today.

Behavior and nature
Most people's assumptions about the Betawi people are rarely successful, both in terms of economics, education, and technology.

Though not a few Betawi people who succeeded. Some of them are Muhammad Husni Thamrin, Benyamin Sueb, and Fauzi Bowo Governor of DKI Jakarta (2007 - 2012).

There are some positive things from the Betawi people, among others; their social spirit is very high, although sometimes in some cases it is too excessive, and tends to be tendentious.

Sapto Satrio Mulyo

Sources: from various sources

The Origin of Languages ​​in the World

Lingua Franca
Hamburg (Dreamland Library) - Archipelago is the beginning of civilization that has been proven by many. With a variety of evidence and theories, ranging from the Lost Continent of Atlantis to various theories.

For a long time I want to try to prove from the side of language, that the Archipelago is "The Origin of Human Language in the World"

Having heard from a language professor in Hamburg, on one occasion, he said that Javanese is the most complete social language in the world.

In the conversation also discussed the greatness of other languages, such as:

  • German is the most complete language in the technical worl
  • French is a good language for love
  • Italian is the most delicious language for song poetry and music
  • While English is only an international language that is used, the distribution is the result of colonialism.

From this Professor's statement, I conclude, that of all the advantages of all the languages ​​mentioned above, my provisional hypothesis is that Javanese is the Origin of Human Language in the World.

Plus on Google there is a translation or search facility with Javanese, making me even more convinced, that Javanese is the root of the natural language that appeared first.

Another reason is that the use of language starts from the interaction of at least two people. And the rest is called association.

So the Origin of Human Language, because it takes communication between humans.

From the above hypothesis, then I began to look for corroborating evidence.

I began with the theory of language about 2,500 years BC, there was a migration by Austronesian Speakers from Taiwan to the Philippines, then south, and Indonesia (Returning to the Village), and east to the Pacific. They are the ancestors of the tribes in the Nusantara region.

While Hominid was found on the island of Java in Prehistoric Period - 1,998,100 BC. As humans they will certainly interact, and communicate using language, whatever the language.

Therefore, it can be said that "The Origins of Human Language in the World" must be from the Archipelago, or Indonesia, or from Java, or starting from the Javanese language.

Origin of Indonesian
When I went to Taiwan to meet Australian people, it looked like they were using Indonesian, but dressed in Chinese style.

And the theory of the spread of Austronesian languages ​​that I remember the most is, the further the language is from its roots, the less its vocabulary.

With the theory of spreading the language mentioned above, then if we look at the number of vocabularies, also the languages ​​that exist in Indonesia, then the origin of the language can be said to be from Indonesia or the Archipelago.

Easy Indonesian
If we pay attention, how easy it is for foreigners to learn Indonesian.

I can give an example, the number of foreign soccer players coming to Indonesia, less than 3 months, they are fluent in Indonesian.

While I lived in Germany for years, I still couldn't speak German.

The ease of Indonesian proves, that Indonesian Language is the Origin of Language which processes naturally, becoming a simple Language.

Indonesian phonetics is represented by Javanese

Phonetic when speaking Javanese, no native phonetic speakers sound

Youtube :

Let us watch and then listen to the YouTube video above, without us seeing the speaker, do we feel that he is not Javanese, or rather we feel that the speaker is a native Javanese.

When I studied phonetics with friends from various countries, none of them did not leave a trace of their mother tongue. So that nothing can be perfect, it sounds like the speaker is really German. Likewise with my experience, while studying phonetics in the country of Taiwan, etc.

But by listening to the video above, I personally am a Javanese, feel and hear the voice of the Londo people above, exactly the original Javanese.
  • The Origin of Indonesian Language Language spread proves that Indonesian Language is the native language or as the root of the Austronesian language. This is evidenced from the rich vocabulary in the archipelago. So the Austronesian language returned home to the archipelago.
  • Easy Indonesian Language Easy Indonesian language is learned and applied by all nations of the World. Proving Indonesian is a Simple Language, as simple as the process of human communication at first.
  • Indonesian phonetics Phonetically, when I studied English, German, Japanese and Chinese. No one can match the language. Surely the one who listens without seeing the face of the speaker, still recognizes that the speaker is a foreign speaker, because it is not his mother tongue.
With the three variables above, it can be concluded that "The Origins of Human Language in the World" is Javanese, which then metamorphoses into Indonesian.

Sapto Satrio Mulyo

Roman Empire

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Roman Empire (Latin: Regnum Romanum) is a monarchical government in the city of Rome and its territory. Not much is known about the history of the Roman Empire because there are no written sources from that era. Most sources were written during the Republic and the Empire based on legend.

The history of the Roman Empire dates from the founding of the city, around 753 BC and ends after the overthrow of the kings and the founding of the Republic in 509 BC.

The beginning of the kingdom
The Roman Empire began with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the Tiber river in central Italy. The area is fertile and the hills provide protection so that the place is easy to maintain. This played a role in the future glory of Rome.

At first Romulus and Remus had a dispute over where the city would be built. When Romulus was building the city wall,

Remus mocked and interrupted his work. The climax is when Remus passes through the region of Romulus, Remus is killed by Romulus. According to sources from Livius, Plutarchus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and others, the Roman empire was ruled by seven kings in 243 years.

When the Gauls invaded Rome after the Battle of Allia in 390 BC, (according to Polybius the battle took place in 387/386 BC) they destroyed all historical records, so there were no historical records from the royal period.

The Roman Empire did not have harmonious relations with Germans for centuries. In 410, Alaric, King of Visigoths succeeded in conquering the territory of the Western Roman Empire.

Over the next few years the empire came under the rule of the Goths, until in 455 the Eternal City was again attacked by the Vandals, who also came from East Germany.

In 476, the German leader Odoacer carried out a massacre and succeeded in deposing Emperor Romulus Augustulus. That year was later touted as the year of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.


  • Royal_Romawi
  • Empire-romawi

Photo: Special

6 Indonesian Colonialist Countries

Illustration of Invaders / Invaders
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Most of us only know the Japanese and Dutch who once colonized us. In fact there are 6 countries that have colonized Indonesia
  1. 1509 - 1595 AD: The Portuguese only colonized Maluku, and were driven out in 1595.
  2. 1521 - 1692 AD: Spain only occupied North Sulawesi, and was driven out in 1692.
  3. 1602 - 1942 AD: The Dutch colonized all of Indonesia, and were successfully driven out in 1942, but came back in 1945, after the Japanese left, and only in 1949 did the Dutch recognize Indonesian sovereignty.
  4. 1806 - 1811 AD: France indirectly conquered Java, because the Dutch kingdom was subject to French power. It ended in 1811, when the British defeated the Dutch-French forces on Java. A debt agreement is applied.
  5. 1811 - 1816 AD: England, since the signing of the Tungtang Capitulation, one of which contained the surrender of the island of Java from the Netherlands to England. Then in 1816, the British government officially ended up controlling Indonesia, because of the London convention which contained the re-authorization of the Dutch in Indonesian territory.
  6. 1942 - 1945 AD: Japan conquered Indonesia 3.5 years, and ended in 1945, since Japan's defeat to the allies.
Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Kingdom of Singapore Originally from the Kingdom of Cirebon

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Cultural Cirebon, Nurdin M. Noer explained that the kingdom of Singapore, estimated to stand around the 12th century. This can be seen from some of the artifacts found around the Lawang Gedhe site in Mertasinga Village, which are estimated to have been made around the 12th century. Singapore is one of the small kingdoms whose territory is in the vicinity of Gunungjati Subdistrict (currently), and was a kingdom in the early days before the Cirebon Kingdom was established.

The Kingdom of Singapore experienced its peak during the reign of Ki Jumajan Jati or better known as Ki Ageng Tapa in 1401. Where based on historical records written by P. Arya Carbon Raja Giyanti (P. Roliya Martakusuma), at that time the port of Muara Jati got a large fleet visit from China led by Cheng Hwa. This indicates that this port was a popular port in his day.

Where at that time this port already had a tower (lighthouse) on the hill teak amparan. So it is not surprising that throughout the day many trading ships unload cargo. Moreover, this port already has facilities for transit, to fill fresh water, also to repair damaged ships in the shipyard. In addition, Cirebon at that time was also known to have a sufficient supply of teak wood.

Which now must be further investigated, what is the relationship with Singapore and Singhapura in Cirebon which incidentally has an older age than the State of Singapore.

The Singapore area was formerly called Temasek, in Malay terms meaning "Swamp Forest", this is a reference to the old name Ujong Island / Singapore Island. Before changing its name to Singapore in the 14th century, the country or region was known as Temasek. While the word Temasek itself is taken from the Javanese language (Old) tumasik which means "Resembling the Sea".

So it is not surprising that Encik Yusof bin Ishak - the First President of Singapore is an Indonesian.

Source: From various sources

Photo: Special

Banten Kingdom Timeline

Pandeglang (DreamLandLibrary) - It used to be thought that the Kingdom of Kutai was the Oldest Kingdom that ever existed in the Archipelago, but apparently with the passage of time and the advancement of information technology, little by little was revealed to the Old Kingdoms that once existed in the Archipelago.

Beginning of the 1st Century Kuta Tambaga Kingdom, with the center of the kingdom around Mantiung - Banten

Year 130 AD Established the Kingdom of Salakanagara (Silver Country) with the Capital of Rajatapura located on the west coast of Pandeglang.

The first King Dewawarman I (130 - 168 AD) with the title Aji Raksa Gapurasagara (King of the Sea Gate)

His territories include:

  • Agrabinta Kingdom on Panaitan Island
  • Agnynusa Kingdom on Krakatau Island
  • And the southern tip of Sumatra
5th Century Munjul Inscription, found on the Cidangiang River, Lebak Munjul - Pandeglang.

The inscription uses the Palawa letter, with the Sanskrit language explaining that the King in power in the region is Raja Purnawarman of the Tarumanegara Kingdom. In the Slate is written that the country at that time was in Prosperity and Glory.

Sources: From Various Sources

Photo: Special

Indraprahasta Kingdom (363 AD to 723 AD)

Cirebon (Dreamland Library) - Estimated to stand in the period 363 AD - 723 AD, with an area that includes Cimandung (Sarwadadi Village, Sumber District), Kerandon Cirebon Girang (South Cirebon District).

The order of the kings who once ruled, included:

1. Prabu Resi Santanu Indraswara Sakala Kreta Buwana. (363 AD - 398 AD)
2. Prabu Resi Jayasatyanegara (398 AD - 421 AD)
3. Prabu Resi Wiryabanyu, in-law of Prabu Wisnuwarman (421 AD - 444 CE)
4. Prabu Wama Dewaji (444 AD - 471 AD)
5. Prabu Wama Hariwangsa (471 AD - 507 AD)
6. Prabu Tirta Manggala Dhanna Giriswara (507 AD - 526 CE)
7. Prabu Asta Dewa (526 AD - 540 AD)
8. Prabu Senapati Jayanagranagara (540 AD - 546 AD)
9. Prabu Resi Dharmayasa (546 AD - 590 AD)
10. Prabu Andabuwana (590 AD - 636 AD)
11. Prabu Wisnu Murti (636 AD - 661 AD)
12. Prabu Tunggul Nagara (661 AD - 707 AD)
13. Prabu Resi Padma Hari Wangsa (707 AD - 719 AD)
14. Prabu Wiratara (719 AD - 723 AD)

The Indraprahasta Kingdom ended when the reign of Pabu Wiratara was defeated by King Sanjaya Haris Dharma of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom in Central Java.

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Malesung Script

The History of the Malesung Script

Lampung script

History of Lampung Script

Kaganga script

History of the Kaganga Script

Lontara Script

The History of the Lontara Script

Balinese script

The History of Balinese Script

Sundanese script

Sumedang (Dreamland Library) - Only community entities that have a high culture, have their own script.

The History of the Sundanese Script

The standard Sundanese script is a writing system that results from adjusting ancient Sundanese scripts to write contemporary Sundanese.

The standard Sundanese script is now commonly referred to as the Sundanese script.

Since the XII century, Sundanese people have actually started writing the language they use with the Sundanese script. But early in the colonial period, Sundanese people were forced by the authorities not to use the Old Sundanese Script which is one of the Sundanese cultural identities.

This situation lasted until the independence period caused the extinction of the Old Sundanese Script in the Sundanese writing tradition.

The end of the XIX Century to the middle of the XX Century, researchers such as; K. F. Holle and C. M. Pleyte, and Atja and E. S. Ekadjati, began to examine the existence of old inscriptions and texts using the Old Sundanese Script.

From previous studies, at the end of the twentieth century there began to be an awareness of the existence of a Sundanese script which is the typical identity of the Sundanese people.

Furthermore, the Regional Government of West Java Province stipulates Perda No. 6 of 1996 concerning the Preservation, Development and Development of Sundanese Language, Literature and Literacy which were later replaced by Regional Regulation No. 5 of 2003, concerning the Maintenance of Language, Literature and Regional Literacy.

Based on the Decree of the Governor of West Java Region Number 343 / SK.614-Dis.PK / 99 dated June 16, 1999, the Sundanese Script was designated and decided as the Raw Sundanese Script.

Sources: From various sources
Photo: Special

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture