Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

A Little History of Pancasila

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - On July 22, 1945, the Jakarta Charter was adopted which later became the Manuscript of the Opening of the 1945 Constitution. The draft text of the Indonesian constitution was prepared during the Second Session of the BPUPKI on July 10-17, 1945.

Before the ratification on August 18, 1945, there were many historical values ​​that were erased from history itself, namely:

The representatives of regions outside Java, especially because they represent religious groups outside of Islam (Christianity, Balinese Hinduism, etc.), have objections if in Preambul there is still a sentence that reads: "Godhead with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents . " Because it can be interpreted that the basis of the Indonesian state is Islam.

Also read: Hoax: Brawijaya V converted to Islam

They want it to be changed to: "The Almighty God alone". The envoys also wanted that several articles in the draft constitution, among others, state that the President must be a Muslim, so that it was changed so that article 6 paragraph 1 reads "The President is a native Indonesian."

According to them the purpose of the change is so that we do not become fragmented as a nation, because it needs eliminating sentences that can disrupt the feelings of Christians or adherents of other religions.

The change proposal received serious attention from the students, and they immediately got a corresponding opinion, because each of them shared the same opinion and really wanted a unity and national unity. The issue was immediately notified by Bung Hatta by telephone. Bung Hatta agreed to discuss the matter that afternoon on the 17th August 1945 at 17.00. To explain this problem three people were sent before Bung Hatta that afternoon, conveying the reasons for the changes put forward by representatives of Eastern Indonesia.

The three Student Envoys were Moeljo Hastrodipuro, Piet Mamahit, and Imam Slamet who were dressed in Navy uniforms, so people thought they were Japanese.

The changes proposed by the envoys were accepted by Bung Hatta and would be submitted to the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee on 18 August 1945 the following day.

On 18 August 1945, PPKI ratified the 1945 Constitution as the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.

Period 1945-1949
In the period 1945-1949, the 1945 Constitution could not be fully implemented because Indonesia was preoccupied with the struggle for independence. The Vice President's Declaration Number X on October 16, 1945 decided that KNIP was entrusted with legislative power, because the MPR and the DPR had not yet been formed. On November 14, 1945 the first Parliamentary Cabinet was formed, so that this event was a deviation from the 1945 Constitution.

Also read: Hoax: Brawijaya V converted to Islam

Period 1959-1966
Due to the political situation at the 1959 Constituent Assembly in which many parties exchanged interests so that they failed to produce a new constitution, then on July 5, 1959, President Soekarno issued a Presidential Decree which reposts the 1945 Constitution as a constitution, replacing the Law Provisional Constitution of 1950 at that time.

During this period, there were various deviations from the 1945 Constitution, including:

The President appoints the Chair and Deputy Chair of the MPR / DPR and the Supreme Court and the Deputy Chairperson of the DPA becomes the Minister of State
MPRS appointed Sukarno as president for life
G 30S Rebellion
Period 1966-1998

During the New Order period (1966-1998), the Government stated again that it carried out the 1945 Constitution and Pancasila in a pure and consistent manner. But in its implementation there was also a misappropriation of the 1945 Constitution which resulted in too much power on the President.
During the New Order era, the 1945 Constitution also became a very "sacred" constitution, including through a number of regulations: MPR Decree Number I / MPR / 1983 stating that the MPR was determined to defend the 1945 Constitution, not intending to make changes to it
MPR Decree Number IV / MPR / 1983 concerning the referendum which among others states that if the MPR wishes to change the 1945 Constitution, it must first ask the people's opinion through a referendum.

Law Number 5 of 1985 concerning Referendum, which is the implementation of TAP MPR Number IV / MPR / 1983.
V. Amendments to the 1945 Constitution

One of the demands of the 1998 Reformation was a change (amendment) to the 1945 Constitution. The background to the demands for the amendment to the 1945 Constitution was partly because during the New Order era, the highest power was in the hands of the MPR (and in fact it was not in the hands of the people), a very large power in the President , the existence of articles that are too "flexible" (so that it can cause interpretations), as well as the reality of the formulation of the 1945 Constitution concerning the spirit of state administrators that have not been adequately supported by constitutional provisions.

The purpose of the amendment to the 1945 Constitution at that time was to refine basic rules such as the state order, people's sovereignty, human rights, the distribution of power, the existence of a democratic state and the rule of law, as well as other matters in accordance with the development of the aspirations and needs of the nation. Amendments to the 1945 Constitution with an agreement include not changing the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution, maintaining the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, and emphasizing the presidential system.

Also read: Hoax: Brawijaya V converted to Islam

In the period 1999-2002, the 1945 Constitution underwent 4 changes as determined in the General Session and the Annual Session of the MPR:

MPR General Session 1999, 14-21 October 1999
2000 MPR Annual Session, 7-18 August 2000
2001 MPR Annual Session, November 1-9 2001
2002 MPR Annual Session, August 1-11 1999
Source: The Birth of One Nation and State (University of Indonesia Publisher - UI Press - 1997), and from various sources

Has been published in Mandiri Indonesia:

Uncover the Birthplace of the Red and White Saka

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Gunung Lawu, formerly known as Wukir Mahendra, located on the border of Karanganyar Regency, Central Java and Magetan, East Java, holds a million mysteries, which until now cannot be completely revealed for proud people.

Mount Lawu is precisely located on the border of Central Java and East Java. Javanese people of local wisdom, and not to the west and the Arab-araban, really believe that the peak of Lawu was the first kingdom in Java and is believed to have a mysterious magical world.

Mount Lawu is located right in the middle of the four corners of the cross.

Gunung Lawu is also a cultural center and spiritual activity of people on the island of Java. This is even more convincing because there is no coincidence, because if drawn in a straight line, Mount Lawu is parallel to the right pass with the Mangkunegara Temple, and not exactly at the Surakarta Palace of Kasunanan. As happened in the Ngayojokarto Palace which is aligned exactly with Mount Merapi.

Tikda is surprised by native people, and not those who claim to be native, Gunung Lawu is still a place for spiritual conduct of figures and statesmen. Since the time of the Palace until now. The Peak of the Dumilah Hargo is a sacred place that is often used for meditation, meditation or cultivating kebathinan, and asking for guidance from God.

It is common knowledge that almost all state officials often retreat by climbing the summit of Lawu. Since the era of the Bung Karno era, the first president of Indonesia did indeed often retreat or retreat in Lawu. Meanwhile, his successors, the last SBY 2013 last came here.

To climb to the top of Mount Lawu via the public route, you can go through Cemoro Sewu Magetan, or Cemoro Kandang in Karanganyar.

But there is also a special lane, namely through Blumbang, Tawangmangu, Karanganyar, from this lane, directly to the entrance of Pringgondani, this special lane already has a better block path.

Photo: Special

History of Indonesian names

Jakarta (DreamLandLiberary) - The name Indonesia comes from various historical series which culminated in the mid-19th century. Past records refer to the islands between Indochina and Australia by various names, while Chinese chronicles refer to this area as Nan-hai ("South Sea Islands").

Various ancient records of Indians named this island Dwipantara ("Tanah Seberang Islands"), a name derived from the Sanskrit word dwipa (island) and between (outside, across).

The story of Ramayana by the poet Walmiki tells of the search for Sinta, the wife of Rama who was abducted by Rahwana, to Suwarnadwipa ("Golden Island", presumably the present island of Sumatra) located on the Dwipantara Islands.

The first European nations came to assume that Asia consisted only of Arabs, Persians, Indians and Chinese. For them, the vast area between Persia and China was all Indian. They called the South Asian peninsula "the Face Indies" and the mainland of Southeast Asia was named "Rear Indies", while the islands gained the name of the Indian Islands (Indische Archipel, Indian Archipelago, l'Archipel Indien) or East Indies (Oost Indie, East Indies, Indes Orientales ). Another name that will also be used later is "Malay Islands" (Maleische Archipel, Malay Archipelago, l'Archipel Malais). The political unit under the Dutch colony had the official name Nederlandsch-Indie (Dutch East Indies). The Japanese occupation government of 1942-1945 used the term To-Indo (East Indies) to refer to its conquered territory in the islands.

Eduard Douwes Dekker (1820-1887), known by the pseudonym Multatuli, once used a specific name to refer to the Indonesian archipelago, "Insulinde", which also means "Indian Archipelago" (in Latin "insula" means island). The name "Insulinde" was subsequently less popular, though it had been the name of a newspaper and movement organization in the early 20th century.

Indonesian name
In 1847 in Singapore an annual scientific magazine, Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA, BI: "Journal of the Indian Islands and East Asia"), was managed by James Richardson Logan (1819-1869), a Scottish man who holds a law degree from the University of Edinburgh. Then in 1849 a British ethnologist, George Samuel Windsor Earl (1813-1865), joined himself as editor of JIAEA magazine.

In JIAEA volume IV in 1850, pages 66-74, Earl wrote the article On the Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations ("On Prominent Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations"). In his article, Earl stressed that the time had come for the inhabitants of the Indian Archipelago or the Malay Archipelago to have a distinctive name, because the Indian name was incorrect and often confused with other Indian names. Earl proposed two names: Indunesia or Malayunesia ("nesos" in Greek means "island"). On page 71 the article was written (translated into Indonesian from English):

    "... the inhabitants of the Indian Archipelago or the Malay Archipelago will each become" Indunesia People "or" Malayunesians "".

Earl himself claimed to choose the name Malayunesia (Malay Islands) over Indunesia (Indian Islands), because Malayunesia was very appropriate for the Malay race, while Indunesia could also be used for Ceylon (as Sri Lanka at that time) and Maldives (a foreign name for the Maldives). Earl also believes that Malay is spoken throughout the islands. In his writings Earl did use the term Malayunesia and did not use the term Indunesia.

In JIAEA Volume IV also, pages 252-347, James Richardson Logan wrote the article The Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago ("Ethnology of the Indian Islands"). At the beginning of his writing, Logan also stated the need for a unique name for the archipelago of our homeland, because the term Indian Archipelago ("Indian Islands") is too long and confusing. Logan then picked up the name Indunesia discarded by Earl, and replaced the letter u with the letter o so that his speech was better. Then was born the term Indonesia. [1] And that proves that some Europeans still believe that the inhabitants of this archipelago are Indians, a nickname that is retained because it is already very familiar in Europe.

For the first time the word Indonesia appears in the world printed on page 254 in Logan's writing (translated into Indonesian):

    "Mr. Earl suggested the ethnographic term" Indunesian ", but rejected it and supported" Malayunesian ". I prefer the pure geographical term" Indonesia ", which is only a shorter synonym for the Indian Islands or Indian Archipelago."

When proposing the name "Indonesia", it seems Logan did not realize that later on that name would become an official name. Since then Logan has consistently used the name "Indonesia" in his scientific writings, and gradually the use of this term has spread among scientists in ethnology and geography. [1]

In 1884 professor of ethnology at the University of Berlin named Adolf Bastian (1826-1905) published the book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipel ("Indonesia or the Islands in the Malay Islands") in five volumes, which contained the results of his research while wandering in the islands in 1864 to 1880. It is Bastian's book that popularized the term "Indonesia" among Dutch scholars, so that the term "Indonesia" was created by Bastian. The incorrect opinion was included in the Encyclopedie van Nederlandsch-Indie in 1918. In fact, Bastian took the term "Indonesia" from Logan's writings.

The native who first used the term "Indonesia" was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara). When exiled to the Netherlands in 1913 he founded a press bureau with the name Indonesische Persbureau. The name Indonesisch (Dutch pronunciation for "Indonesia") was also introduced as a replacement for Indisch ("Indies") by Prof. Cornelis van Vollenhoven (1917). Correspondingly, inlander ("native") was replaced by Indonesiƫr ("Indonesian").

In the 1920s, the name "Indonesia" which is a scientific term in ethnology and geography was taken over by figures of the Indonesian independence movement, so that the name "Indonesia" finally had a political meaning, namely the identity of a nation that fought for independence. As a result, the Dutch government began to be suspicious and wary of the use of the word Logan.

In 1922 at the initiative of Mohammad Hatta, a student of the Handels Hoogeschool (Higher School of Economics) in Rotterdam, an Indian student and student organization in the Netherlands (formed in 1908 under the name Indische Vereeniging) changed its name to Indonesische Vereeniging or the Indonesian Association. Their magazine, Indies Poetra, changed its name to Indonesia Merdeka.

Bung Hatta stressed in his writings,
    "The coming Free Indonesian State (de toekomstige vrije Indonesische staat) is impossible to be called" the Dutch East Indies ". Nor is it only" Indies ", because it can create errors with the original India. For us the name Indonesia states a political goal (een politiek doel) ), because it symbolizes and aspires to a homeland in the future, and to make it happen every Indonesian (IndonesiĆ«r) will try with all their energy and abilities. "

In Indonesia Dr. Sutomo founded the Indonesische Studie Club in 1924. That year the Indies Communist Union also changed its name to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI). In 1925 Jong Islamieten Bond formed the scouting of the Nationaal Indonesische Padvinderij (Natipij). Those are the three organizations in the country that first used the name "Indonesia". Finally, the name "Indonesia" was crowned as the name of the homeland, nation, and language of the Indonesian Pemoeda-Pemoeda Density on October 28, 1928, now known as the Youth Pledge.

In August 1939 three members of the Volksraad (People's Council; the Dutch East Indies parliament), Muhammad Husni Thamrin, Wiwoho Purbohadidjojo, and Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo, submitted a motion to the Dutch Government so that the name Indonesia was formalized in lieu of the name "Nederlandsch-Indie". This request was rejected. Meanwhile, the Poerwadarminta Dictionary published in the same year included the archipelago entry as the Kawi language for "kapuloan (Indonesiah)".

With the Japanese occupation on March 8, 1942, the name "Dutch East Indies" disappeared. On August 17, 1945, following the declaration of the Proclamation of Independence, the Republic of Indonesia was born.


Photo: Special

Periodization of Indonesian History

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - To better understand, love, and finally realize the history of the archipelago. #AconsciouslyHistory of the Archipelago
  1. Prehistoric
  2. Pre-colonial Period. Establishment of Local, Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic Kingdoms.
  3. Colonial period
A. Portuguese occupation - 1509 AD - 1595 AD
Just a few years before Columbus's expedition, in 1486 a Portuguese sailor named Bartolomeo Diaz tried to explore to find a way to countries in the Asian region, which were producing spices. Despite failing to get spices, but Bartolomeo Diaz managed to find a new road to East Asia, namely through the coast of South Africa.

Subsequently, in 1512 another Portuguese sailor named Francisco Serrao managed to sail towards the Maluku islands. The king of Ternate welcomed his arrival to Maluku, even at first it was permitted to erect a fortress on Ternate. But because of the deteriorating trade relations between Ternate-Portuguese, it was decided. This is because the Portuguese eventually monopolized the spice trade in Maluku.

B. Spanish occupation - 1521 AD - 1692 AD
Initially, Spain entered into a coalition with the Kingdom of Tidore against the Kingdom of Ternate (which had Portuguese support). But to prevent greater losses on the part of Spain and the Portuguese, the Saragosa agreement was declared in 1538. The contents, among others: That the Portuguese obtained the Maluku Islands, and Spain obtained the Philippine territory.

C. Dutch colonialism - 1602M - 1811M ... 1816M - 1942M
The Dutch began trading activities in Indonesia, since 1602, marked by the establishment of the trade union "VOC" (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), which is a trading institution, based in the City of Batavia, and was granted trade monopoly rights by the Dutch government.

The VOC as a Dutch representative in the Indies (Indonesia) had various special rights, including: Printing Own Money, Building Army Strength, Owning and Appointing Employees, Forming Courts, Occupying Foreign Areas, and Entering into Agreements with Indigenous Kings.

Finally, the VOC began to interfere in the government of the kingdoms in the archipelago. This had an impact on VOC policies that suppressed the indigenous people, as well as the power tends to corrupt, so that internal corruption of VOC employees themselves was rampant. As a result, people in various regions resisted the VOC.

In the 18th century the VOC suffered a setback, which was mainly due to the many weapons resistance by the indigenous people. Finally on December 31, 1799, the VOC was officially dissolved by the Dutch government, and Indonesia was immediately under the authority of the Dutch government, represented by several Governor Generals such as Daendels and Janssens.

D. French occupation - 1806 AD - 1811 AD
France indirectly controlled Java, because the Dutch kingdom was subject to French power. It ended in 1811, when the British defeated the Dutch-French forces on Java. A debt agreement is applied.

E. British occupation - 1811 AD - 1816 AD
Since 1811 the British government has ruled Java, since the signing of the Tungtang Capitulation, one of which contains a clause; the surrender of the island of Java from the Netherlands to England.

On 17 September 1811 the British government appointed Thomas Stamford Raffles as governor general in Indonesia. Notes from the Raffles government in Indonesia, among others: Dividing Java Island into 16 residencies.

In 1814 the London Convention was held, which contained that the Dutch government regained control of the British colony in Indonesia. In 1816, the British government in Indonesia officially ended. From this moment on, the Dutch returned to power in Indonesia until 1942.

F. Japanese occupation - 1942 AD - 1945 AD
In 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, where from then on Japan and the United States began to engage in World War II. To finance the war industry to keep going, the Japanese invaded several areas rich in raw materials including Indonesia.

In 1942 the Dutch surrendered unconditionally to Japan, through an agreement in the Kalijati area. Since then, the Dutch colonial period ended with Indonesia, and was replaced by Japan.

Japan itself colonized Indonesia in only 3.5 years and ended on August 17, 1945, which was right at the time of the proclamation of Indonesian independence.
  1. Independence Period, After the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945, until the fall of Sukarno in 1966
  2. The New Order period, 32 years of Soeharto's rule from 1966 to 1998
  3. The Reformation until now.
Photo: Special

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture