Window of Archipelago

Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

Austronesia - 2500 BC

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - About 2,500 years before Christ, there was a migration by Austronesian Speakers from Taiwan to the Philippines, then south, and Indonesia (Returning to the Village), and east to the Pacific. They are the ancestors of the tribes in the Nusantara region.

This Austronesian person understands how to farm (farming), shipping and even astronomy. They also already have a simple Governance System, and have a leader (Little King). The arrival of immigrants from India in the last centuries before Christ introduced them to a more advanced Governance System (Kingdom).

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistory_Nusantara

Its spread
The Austronesian language family is a language family that is very widely distributed in the world. From Taiwan and Hawaii at the north end to New Zealand (Aotearoa) at the south end and from Madagascar at the west end to Easter Island (Rapanui) at the east end.

Austronesian term
Austronesian refers to the geographical area where the population speaks Austronesian languages. The region includes Formosa Island, the Archipelago (including the Philippines), Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and the Island of Madagascar. Literally, Austronesian means "Southern Islands" and comes from the Latin austrālis which means "south" and the Greek nêsos (plural: nesia) which means "island".

If Javanese is included in Suriname, then geography also covers the area. The study also shows the existence of Malay-speaking communities on the coast of Sri Langka [

The origin of the Austronesian people
To get an idea of ​​the homeland of the Austronesian nation, scholars investigated evidence from archeology and genetic science. Study of genetic science gives conflicting results. Some researchers find evidence that the ancient Austronesian homeland was on the Asian continent. (such as Melton et al., 1998), while others follow linguistic research which states the Austronesians initially settled in Taiwan. From the point of view of the history of linguistics, the Austronesian nation originated from Taiwan because on this island one can find the deepest division of Austronesian languages ​​from the native Formosan family. Formosan languages ​​form nine out of ten branches in the Austronesian language family [3]. Comrie (2001: 28) found this out when he wrote:

"... Formosan languages ​​are more diverse from one another than all Austronesian languages ​​combined into one so that it can be concluded that there is a genetic divide in the Austronesian language family between the languages ​​of Taiwan and the rest. Indeed, the genetic makeup of languages ​​in Taiwan is so diverse that it is possible for these languages ​​to comprise several major branches of the Austronesian language family as a whole. "

At least since Sapir (1968), linguists have accepted that the chronology of the distribution of a family of languages ​​can be traced from areas of great linguistic diversity to areas of small linguistic diversity. Although some scholars suspect that the number of branches among Taiwanese languages ​​may be less than Blust's estimate of 9 (like Li 2006), there is little debate among linguists with an analysis of diversity and conclusions drawn about the origin and the direction of the Austronesian language family migration.

Evidence from archeology suggests that Austronesian peoples settled in Taiwan about eight thousand years ago [4]. From this island sailors migrated to the Philippines, Indonesia, then to Madagascar near the African continent and to the entire Pacific Ocean, perhaps in several stages, to all parts of which are now covered by Austronesian languages ​​[5]. Evidence from the history of language suggests that this migration began about six thousand years ago [6]. However, the evidence from the history of language cannot bridge the gap between these two periods.

The view that the evidence from linguistics connects ancient Austronesian languages ​​with Chinese-Tibetan languages ​​as proposed by Sagart (2002), is a minority view as stated by Fox (2004: 8):

"Implied in the discussion about the grouping of Austronesian languages ​​is an agreement that the Austronesian homeland is in Taiwan. This area of ​​origin might also include the Penghu islands between Taiwan and China and perhaps even coastal areas in mainland China, especially if Austronesian ancestors were seen as populations of dialect communities living in scattered coastal settlements. "

The linguistic analysis of ancient Austronesian language stops at the west coast of Taiwan. Austronesian languages ​​that were spoken in mainland China did not survive. The only exception, Chamic, is the migration that took place only after the spread of the Austronesians


Classification
It is rather difficult to define the familial structure of Austronesian languages ​​because the Austronesian language family consists of languages ​​that are very similar and closely related to the continuity of large dialects making it difficult to recognize boundaries between branches. Even in the best divisions there are now many groups in the Philippines and Indonesia classified by their geographical location rather than by their relationships with one another. But it is clear that the greatest genealogical diversity is found in Taiwanese languages ​​and the smallest diversity is found in the Pacific islands, thus supporting the theory of spread from Taiwan or China.

The following classification of Austronesian languages ​​was submitted by Blust. The classification he proposes is not the first and in fact he also lists at least seventeen other classifications and discusses the features and details of the grouping. Some Formosan linguists dispute the details of the classification but this classification in broad outlines remains a reference point for the analysis of linguistics today. It can be seen that the nine main branches of Austronesian languages ​​are all Formosan languages.

Austronesian
  • Atayalik (Atayal, Seedik) [Other names for Seediq: Truku, Taroko, Sediq]
  • East Formosa
  • North (Basai-Trobiawan, Kavalan)
  • Middle (Amis, Nataoran, Sakizaya)
  • Southwest (Siraya)
  • Puyuma
  • Paiwan
  • Broken
  • Tsouik (Tsou, Saaroa, Kanakanabu)
  • Bunun
  • Western Lowlands
  • Central-Western Plains (Taokas-Babuza, Papora-Hoanya)
  • Thao
  • Northwest Formosa (Saisiyat, Kulon-Pazeh)
  • Malayo-Polynesian (See below)
Classification of Malay-Polynesian branch languages
The following is a simplified classification of the Malay-Polynesian branch languages ​​by Wouk & Ross (2002)

Malay-Polynesian
  • Kalimantan-Filipino language or Malayo-Outer West Polynesia (Outer Hesperonia): consists of many languages ​​such as Dayak Ngaju, Gorontalo, Bajau, Minahasa, Tagalog, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Kapampangan, Malagasy, and Tausugo languages
  • Core Malayo-Polynesian Language (Possibly spread from Sulawesi Island)
  • Sundanese-Sulawesi or Malayo-West Polynesia (Hesperonia Dalam), for example: Western Indonesia, Bugis, Aceh, Cham (in Vietnam and Cambodia), Malay, Indonesian, Iban, Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Chamoru, and Palau
  • Malayo-Middle Eastern Polynesia
  • Central Malayo-Polynesian or Bandanesian languages: around the Banda Sea namely languages ​​on the islands of Timor, Sumba, Flores, and also in Maluku
  • Malayo-East Polynesia or also called Melanesian language South Halmahera-West Papua-Sea: several languages ​​on the island of Halmahera and west of the island of Irian, for example Taba and Biak languages
  • Oceanic Language: Includes all Austronesian languages ​​in Melanesia from Jayapura to the east, Polynesia and most of Micronesia
One of the largest branches is the Sundik branch which decreases Austronesian languages ​​with the largest number of speakers, namely: Javanese, Malay (and Indonesian), Sundanese, Madurese, Acehnese, Batak and Balinese.

Kinship with other language families. Genealogical relations between the Austronesian language family and other linguistic families in Southeast Asia have been proposed and are commonly called the Austro-language Phyla. The Australian phylum hypothesis states that all languages ​​in southern China are actually related, namely the Austronesian language family, the Austro-Asian language, the Tai-Kadai language and the Hmong-Mien language (also called Miao-Yao).

Schematically, the hypothetical language family is hypothetically as follows:

Austrik
  • Austronesian
  • Tai-Kadai
  • Hmong-Mien
  • Austro-Asiatic
The speakers of the four groups of languages ​​suspected of being related lived in an area that now includes southern China until approximately 2000 BC - 1000 BC. At that time the Han, who were speakers of Sino-Tibetan languages, from northern China invaded south and Austrarian speakers scattered. This is thought to be the reason why Austronesian migrated to Taiwan and other Southeast Asian islands and the Pacific Ocean.

Some of the Australian phylum hypotheses also propose a change from the dwarf root where the Austronesian language holds both syllables while the Austro-Asiatic language stores the first syllable and the Tai-Kadai language holds the second syllable. As an example:

Austronesia purba
*mata ‘mata
Austro-Asiatik purba
*măt ‘mata'’
Tai-Kadai purba
*taa ‘mata

However, the only proposal for complying with the comparison method is the "Austro-Tai" hypothesis which links the Austronesian language family to the Tai-Kadai language family. Roger Blench (2004: 12) notes about Austro-Tai that:

"Ostapirat assumes a simple model of a split with the Daik [Tai-Kadai] as Austronesians who settled in their native region. However this seems unlikely because Daik seems to be a branching of the Old Filipino language and does not have the complexity of the Formosan languages. It might be better seen that Daik Purba speakers migrate back from the northern Philippines to the area on Hainan Island. This could explain the difference between Hlai, Be, and Daik as a result of radical restructuring due to contact with speakers of Miao-Yao and Sinitic languages. "

Or in other words, the grouping under Tai-Kadai will be a branch of the Kalimantan-Filipino language. However, none of these proposals received wide acceptance from the language science community.

Example comparison of vocabulary in language families in each region

mati
pati
mati

mate

mattē

matay
patay
mate

mate

māte

make


Japanese Classification

It has also been suggested that Japanese may be a distant relative of the Austronesian language family. [Some have grouped this language into Austronesian language families based on several Japanese phonology and phonology. But others argue that Japanese belongs to the Altai language family and is particularly similar to the Mongolian branch of language. Korean is most likely to belong to the same language family. Korean is similar to Japanese but so far no one has connected it with the Austronesian language family. However, it should also be noted that the Altai language family is still being disputed.

An example is a few words from Japanese that are thought to originate from the Austronesian language family:
  • hi which means fire and comes from * PAN (Proto-Austronesian): * Xapuy
  • to meaning wood
Some words from the Sikka - Maumere (Flores) language which are thought to originate from the Austronesian language family:
  • ai which means wood
  • fire which means fire
The hypothesis of the relationship of Japanese as a sister of Austronesian languages ​​was rejected by almost all linguists because there is little evidence of a relationship between Japanese and Austronesian languages ​​and most linguists think that this slight similarity is the result of the influence of languages Austronesian in Japanese, maybe through substratum. Those who propose this scenario suggest that the Austronesian language family once covered the islands in the north and south of Taiwan. Furthermore, there is no genetic evidence for a close relationship between speakers of Austronesian languages ​​and Japonic languages, so that if there is a pre-historical interaction between speakers of ancient Austronesian languages ​​and ancient Japonic languages, it is more likely that the interaction is a simple cultural exchange over significant ethnic mix. Genetic analysis shows consistently that the Ryukyu people between Taiwan and the main islands of Japan are more similar to Japanese than are native to Taiwan. This suggests that if there was an interaction between ancient Austronesians and ancient Japonic peoples, this interaction might have occurred in the eastern Asian continent before the introduction of Austronesian languages ​​into Taiwan (or at least before the hypothetical extinction of Austronesian languages ​​from mainland China), and languages Japonic language to Japanese.

vocabulary
The Austronesian language family is defined using the language comparison method to find common words, ie words that are similar in sound and meaning and can be shown to originate from the same word from ancient Austronesian language according to a regular rule. Some words of the same age are very stable, for example the word for eyes in many Austronesian languages ​​is "eye" also starting from the northernmost language in Taiwan to the southernmost language in Aotearoa.

Below is presented as an example to show kinship, number words from one to ten in several Austronesian languages. Note: / e / must be read as taling (for example in the word "hard") and / é / as pepet (for example in the word "lémpar"). If there are mistakes, readers are welcome to correct them.

Bahasa
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Proto-Austronesia
*esa/isa
*duSa
*telu
*Sepat
* lima
*enem
*pitu
*walu
*Siwa
*sa-puluq
Paiwan
ita
dusa
celu
sepac
lima
unem
picu
alu
siva
ta-puluq
Tagalog
isá
dalawá
tatló
ápat
limá
ánim
pitó
waló
siyám
sampû
Ma'anyan
Isa'
rueh
telo
epat
dime
enem
pitu
Balu'
suei
sapuluh
Bugis
seddi
dua
téllu
eppa
lima
enneng
pitu
aruwa
asera
seppulo
Malagasy
iráy
róa
télo
éfatra
dímy
énina
fíto
válo
sívy
fólo
Aceh
sa
duwa
lhee
peuet
limöng
nam
tujôh
lapan
sikureueng
plôh
Toba Batak
sada
dua
tolu
opat
lima
onom
pitu
walu
sia
sampulu(baca: /m/ hilang, menjadi /sappulu/
Bali
sa
dua
telu
papat
lima
enem
pitu
kutus
sia
dasa
Sasak
esa
due
telu
empat
lime
enem
pitu’
balu’
siwa’
sepulu
Jawa Kuna
sa
rwa
telu
pat
lima
nem
pitu
wwalu
sanga
sapuluh
Jawa Baru
siji
loro
telu
papat
lima
nem
pitu
wolu
sanga
sepuluh
Sunda
hiji
dua
tilu
opat
lima
genep
tujuh
dalapan
salapan
sapuluh
Madura
settong
dhua
tello'
empa'
léma'
ennem
pétto'
ballu'
sanga'
sapolo
Melayu
satu
dua
tiga
empat
lima
enam
tujuh
delapan
sembilan
sepuluh
Minangkabau
ciék
duo
tigo
ampék
limo
anam
tujuah
salapan
sambilan
sapuluah
Rapanui
tahi
rua
toru
ha
rima
ono
hitu
va'u
iva
'ahuru
Hawaii
`ekahi
`elua
`ekolu
`eha:
`elima
`eono
`ehiku
`ewalu
`eiwa
`umi
Sinama
issah
duah
talluh
mpat
limah
nnom
pitu'
walu'
siam
sangpu
Gayo
sara
roa
tulu
opat
lime
onom
pitu
waloh
siwah
sepuluh
Sikka-Maumere
ha
rua
telu
hutu
lima
ena
pitu
walu
hiwa
puluh
Toraja
misa
da'dua
tallu
a'pa'
lima
annan
pitu
karua
kasera
sangpulo
Dawan-Timor
mese'
nua
teoun
ha
nim
ne'
hiut
fa'un
sea
bo'es
Rote-Oenale
esa
rua
telu
ha
lima
ne
hitu
falu
sio
sanhulu
Kaili(Rai)- Sulteng
saongu
randua
tatolu
ampa
alima
aono
papitu
uvalu
sasio
sampulu
Sabu- NTT
ahi
due
telu
epa
lemi
ena
pidu
aru
heo
hemuru
Kei- Maluku
sa
ru
tel
vak
lim
nen
fit
waw
siw
vut

Database of vocabulary words Austronesian languages ​​(links provided below articles) record words (coded according to compatibility) for about 500 Austronesian languages.

Below is presented as an example to show kinship, number words from one to ten in several Austronesian languages. Note: / e / must be read as taling (for example in the word "hard") and / é / as pepet (for example in the word "lémpar"). If there are mistakes, readers are welcome to correct them.

Typology and structure
It is difficult to draw meaningful generalizations about the languages ​​that make up a family as diverse as the Austronesian language family. In broad outline, Austronesian languages ​​can be divided into three language groups: Filipino type, Indonesian type, and post-Indonesian type [8]. The first group is characterized by first-order verb tenses and Filipino-style grammatical alterations, a phenomenon often referred to as focusing. Related literature is beginning to shun the use of this term because many linguists feel that phenomena in this type of language are better referred to as grammatical sounds.

Austronesian languages ​​generally use word repetition.
The phonology of Austronesian languages ​​is classified as simple with very limited syllabic rules and a small number of phonemes. Many Austronesian languages ​​do not allow syllables and consonant clusters. Some languages ​​do have consonant clusters but this is the influence of other languages, especially from Sanskrit, and other Indo-European languages.

Some languages ​​even borrow phonemes from other languages ​​such as retroflex in Javanese and phonemes blow in Madura which are thought to be absorbed from Sanskrit. But many experts oppose that these phonemes are borrowed from Sanskrit. They argue that these phonemes are only self-development.

Number of speakers
In total there are around 300 million speakers of Austronesian languages. Following are Austronesian languages ​​sorted from languages ​​with the most speakers.

Jumlah penutur bahasa-bahasa Austronesia
Bahasa
Jumlah Penutur

Sebagai Bahasa Ibu
Sebagai Bahasa Resmi
Bahasa Jawa
76.000.000

Bahasa Sunda
20.000.000

Bahasa Melayu
19.000.000*

Bahasa Indonesia
25.000.000*
220.000.000
Bahasa Tagalog
24.000.000
70.000.000
Bahasa Cebu
15.000.000
30.000.000
Bahasa Malagasy
17.000.000

Bahasa Batak
14.000.000

Bahasa Madura
14.000.000

Bahasa Ilokano
8.000.000
10.000.000
Bahasa Minangkabau
7.000.000

Bahasa Hiligaynon
7.000.000
11.000.000
Bahasa Bikol
4.600.000

Bahasa Banjar
4.500.000

Bahasa Bali
4.000.000

Bahasa Bugis
4.000.000

Bahasa Tetum
800.000

Bahasa Samoa
370.000

Bahasa Fiji
350.000
550.000
Bahasa Tahiti
120.000

Bahasa Tonga
108.000

Bahasa Māori
100.000

Bahasa Kiribati
100.000

Bahasa Chamorro
60.000

Bahasa M̧ajeļ
44.000

Bahasa Nauru
6.000

Bahasa Hawai'i
1.000
8.000
* Statistik untuk kedua bahasa diperdebatkan.

Official status
The most important Austronesian language judging from its official status is Malay, which is the official language in Indonesia (as Indonesian), Malaysia and Brunei. Indonesian also has the working language status in Timor Leste m. Filipino (Filipino), which is the standard form of Tagalog, is the official language of the Philippines. In Timor Leste, Tetum, which also includes an Austronesian language, became the official language in addition to Portuguese. In Madagascar, Malagasy is the official language. In Aotearoa (New Zealand), Maori also has official language status in addition to English.
  • ^ a b von Humboldt, Wilhelm (2010). Über Die Kawi-Sprache Auf Der Insel Jav: Bd. Über Die Kawi-Sprache. Über Den Malayischen Sprachstamm. Beilage Zur Einleitung Des Ersten Bandes. Nabu Press. hlm. 604. ISBN 1-143-43662-8 ISBN 978-1-143-43662-8.
  • ^ Vajracharya S. [http://www.wako.ac.jp/souken/touzai_b04/tzb0407.html Malay Minority of Sri Lanka: Defending Their Identity]
  • ^ Blust, R. (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li (Ed.) 'Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics' (pp. 31-94). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • ^ Peter Bellwood, Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian archipelago, Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press, 1997
  • ^ Diamond, Jared M (2000). Taiwan's gift to the world. (PDF). Nature 403:709-710.
  • ^ Blust, R. (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li (Ed.) 'Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics' (pp. 31-94). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • ^ Thurgood, Graham (1999). From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects. Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications No. 28. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
  • ^ Ross, John (2002). "Final words: research themes in the history and typology of western Austronesian languages" in Wouk, Fay & Malcolm Ross (Eds.) The history and typology of Western Austronesian voice systems (pp. 451-474). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics
Footnote  

  • ^ a b von Humboldt, Wilhelm (2010). Über Die Kawi-Sprache Auf Der Insel Jav: Bd. Über Die Kawi-Sprache. Über Den Malayischen Sprachstamm. Beilage Zur Einleitung Des Ersten Bandes. Nabu Press. hlm. 604. ISBN 1-143-43662-8 ISBN 978-1-143-43662-8.
  • ^ Vajracharya S. [http://www.wako.ac.jp/souken/touzai_b04/tzb0407.html Malay Minority of Sri Lanka: Defending Their Identity]
  • ^ Blust, R. (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li (Ed.) 'Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics' (pp. 31-94). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • ^ Peter Bellwood, Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian archipelago, Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press, 1997
  • ^ Diamond, Jared M (2000). Taiwan's gift to the world. (PDF). Nature 403:709-710.
  • ^ Blust, R. (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li (Ed.) 'Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics' (pp. 31-94). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • ^ Thurgood, Graham (1999). From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects. Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications No. 28. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
  • ^ Ross, John (2002). "Final words: research themes in the history and typology of western Austronesian languages" in Wouk, Fay & Malcolm Ross (Eds.) The history and typology of Western Austronesian voice systems (pp. 451-474). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics
Bibliography
  • Bellwood, Peter, 1979, Man’s Conquest of the Pacific. The Prehistory of Southeast Asia and Oceania, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bellwood, Peter, 1985, Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago, Orlando, Florida: Academic Press.
  • Bellwood, Peter, 1987, The Polynesians: Prehistory of an Island People, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • P. Benedict, 1975, Austro-Thai Language and Culture. With a Glossary of Roots, New Haven: HRAF Press.
  • O.C. Dahl, 1951, Malgache et Maanjan., Oslo: Egede Instituttet.
  • Dempwolff, Otto, 1956, Perbendaharaan Kata-kata dalam Berbagai Bahasa Polinesia, Terjemahan Sjaukat Djajadiningrat. Jakarta: Pustaka Rakyat.
  • Diamond, Jared, 1997, Guns, Germs and Steel, W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Isidore Dyen, 1956, “Language Distribution and Migration Theory”, di Language, 32: 611-626.
  • Fox, James J., 1995, Austronesian societies and their transformations, Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University.
  • Kern, Hendrik, 1956, Pertukaran Bunyi dalam Bahasa-bahasa Melayu-Polinesia, Terjemahan Sjaukat Djajadiningrat. Jakarta: Pustaka Rakyat.
  • Hendrik Kern, 1957, Berbagai-bagai Keterangan berdasarkan Ilmu Bahasa dipakai untuk Menetapkan Negeri Asal Bahasa-Bahasa Melayu-Polinesia, Terjemahan Sjaukat Djajadiningrat. Jakarta: Pustaka Rakyat.
  • Wolff, John U., "Comparative Austronesian Dictionary. An Introduction to Austronesian Studies", Language, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 145-56, Mar 1997, ISSN-0097-8507
External links
  • (Inggris) Ethnologue : "Austronesian"
  • (Inggris) Basis Data Perbendaharaan Kata Bahasa-Bahasa Austronesia
  • (Inggris) Summer Institute of Linguistics site showing languages (Austronesian and Papuan) of Papua New Guinea.
  • (Inggris) Austronesian Language Resources (tak berfungsi? dipindahkan?) (@ archive.org)
  • (Inggris) Spreadsheet of 1600+ Austronesian and Papuan number names and systems - ongoing study to determine their relationships and distribution
    http://www.trussel2.com/ACD/acd-lo_a.htm
    http://language.psy.auckland.ac.nz/austronesian/research.php
    http://www.gbarto.com/languages/austronesian.html
    http://linguistics.byu.edu/classes/ling450ch/reports/austronesian.html

Source : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austronesia

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture