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Padri War - 1803 AD to 1838 AD

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - The Padri War was a war that took place in West Sumatra and its surroundings, especially in the kingdom of Pagaruyung from 1803 to 1838.

This war was a war that was initially the result of conflict on religious matters before it turned into a war against colonialism.

The Padri War began with the emergence of a clash of groups of scholars who were dubbed the Padri against the customs that were rife by the community called the Indigenous Peoples in the Kingdom of Pagaruyung and surrounding areas.

The habits in question such as gambling, chicken breeding, the use of madat, liquor, tobacco, betel, and also aspects of customary matriarchal law regarding inheritance, as well as loosening the implementation of formal religious ritual obligations of Islam. The absence of an agreement from the Indigenous Peoples who, even though they had embraced Islam to renounce the custom, sparked the anger of the Padri, so war broke out in 1803.

Until 1833, this war could be said to be a civil war involving fellow Minang and Mandailing. In this war, the Padri were led by Harimao Nan Salapan while the Indigenous Peoples were led by Yang Pertuan Pagaruyung at that time Sultan Arifin Muningsyah. The Indigenous people who began to be pressured, asked for help from the Dutch in 1821. But this Dutch involvement actually complicated the situation, so that since 1833 the Indigenous people turned against the Dutch and joined the Padri people, although in the end this war could be won by the Dutch.

The Padri War included a war with a fairly long time span, draining wealth and sacrificing body and soul. In addition to undermining the power of the Kingdom of Pagaruyung, this war also impacted the economic downturn of the surrounding community and led to the displacement of people from conflict zones.

The Padri War was motivated by the return of three Hajj from Mecca around 1803, namely the Poor Hajj, Sumanik Hajj and Piobang Hajj who wanted to improve the Islamic Shari'a which had not been perfectly carried out by the Minangkabau people. Knowing this, Tuanku Nan Renceh was very interested and then supported the wishes of the three Hajj people along with other ulemas in Minangkabau who were members of the Nan Salapan Tiger.

Harimao Nan Salapan then asked Tuanku Lintau to invite Yang Pengtuan Pagaruyung of Sultan Arifin Muningsyah along with the Indigenous people to abandon some practices that were contrary to the teachings of Islam. In some negotiations there was no agreement between the Padri and the Indigenous Peoples. Along with that, some villages in the kingdom of Pagaruyung were turbulent, culminating in 1815, the Padri under the leadership of Tuanku Pasaman attacked the Kingdom of Pagaruyung and war broke out in Koto Tangah. This attack caused Sultan Arifin Muningsyah to be forced to flee and escape from the royal capital. From the records of Raffles, who had visited Pagaruyung in 1818, said that he only found the remains of the burning Royal Palace of Pagaruyung.

Dutch involvement
Due to pressure in warfare and the uncertain existence of the Yang Perttuan Pagaruyung, the Indigenous people led by Sultan Tangkal Alam Bagagar requested assistance from the Dutch on February 21, 1821, although actually Sultan Tangkal Alam Bagagar at that time was deemed not entitled to make an agreement in the name of the Kingdom of Pagaruyung . As a result of this agreement, the Dutch made it a sign of the surrender of the Kingdom of Pagaruyung to the Dutch East Indies government, then appointed Sultan Tangkal Alam Bagagar as Regent of Tanah Datar.

Dutch involvement in the war was invited by the Indigenous Peoples, and Dutch interference in the war was marked by the Simawang and Hard Water attacks by Captain Goffinet and Captain Dienema in April 1821 on the orders of Resident James du Puy in Padang. Then on December 8, 1821 came additional troops led by Lieutenant Colonel Raaff to strengthen the position in the area that has been controlled.
Fort van der Capellen

On March 4, 1822, Dutch troops led by Lieutenant Colonel Raaff repelled the Padri out of Pagaruyung. Then the Dutch built a fortress in Batusangkar under the name Fort Van der Capellen, while the Padri compiled their strength and survived in Lintau. On June 10, 1822 the movement of Raaff's troops at Tanjung Alam was intercepted by the Padri, but Dutch troops could continue on to Luhak Agam. On August 14, 1822 in the battle at Baso, Captain Goffinet suffered serious injuries and died on September 5, 1822. In September 1822 the Dutch troops were forced to return to Batusangkar because of continued pressure by the Padri attack led by Tuanku Nan Renceh.

After obtaining additional troops on 13 April 1823, Raaff tried again to attack Lintau, but the Padri were determined to fight back, so that on 16 April 1823 the Dutch were forced to return to Batusangkar. While in 1824 Yang Perttuan Pagaruyung Sultan Arifin Muningsyah returned to Pagaruyung at the request of Lieutenant Colonel Raaff, but in 1825 Sultan Arifin Muningsyah, the last king of Minangkabau, died and was later buried in Pagaruyung. While Raaff himself died suddenly in Padang on April 17, 1824 after previously experiencing a high fever.

While in September 1824, Dutch troops under the leadership of Major Frans Laemlin had managed to control several areas in Luhak Agam including Koto Tuo and Ampang Gadang. Then they also occupied Biaro and Kapau, but due to the injuries he suffered in December 1824, Laemlin died in Padang.

The resistance by the Padri was tough enough to make it very difficult for the Dutch to subdue it. For this reason, the Dutch, through their resident in Padang, invited the Padri leader who at that time had been led by Tuanku Imam Bonjol to make peace with the proclamation of the "Masang Agreement" on 15 November 1825. This is understandable because at the same time the Dutch East Indies Government also ran out of funds in the face of other wars in Europe and Java such as the Diponegoro War.

During the period of the ceasefire, Tuanku Imam Bonjol tried to restore strength and also tried to re-embrace the Indigenous Peoples. So finally a compromise came to be known as the "Pato Puncak Plaque" in Bukit Marapalam, Tanah Datar District which embodied a consensus with Adat Basandi Syarak, Syarak Basandi Kitabullah which means Minangkabau custom is based on Islam, while Islam is based on the Qur'an ' an.

Tuanku Imam Bonjol
Tuanku Imam Bonjol, whose real name is Muhammad Shahab, appeared as a leader in the Padri War after being appointed by Tuanku Nan Renceh as Imam in Bonjol. Then became the leader and warlord after Lord Nan Renceh died.

During his reign, he began to regret some acts of violence carried out by the Padri against his brothers, as contained in his memory. Although on the other hand the fanaticism also gave birth to an attitude of heroism and patriotism. 

The battle of the second volume
After the end of the Diponegoro war and the recovery of Dutch power in Java, the Dutch East Indies Government again tried to subdue the Padri. This is strongly based on a strong desire to control coffee cultivation which is expanding in the interior of the Minangkabau (darek) area. Until the 19th century, the coffee trade commodity was one of the mainstay products of the Dutch in Europe. Christine Dobbin called it more trade war, this is in line with the dynamics of social change in the Minangkabau people in the twists and turns of trade in the interior and the west coast or east coast. While the Dutch on one hand want to take over or monopolize. 

Furthermore, to weaken the power of the opponent, the Dutch violated the agreement that had been made previously by attacking the Pandai Sikek village which was one of the regions capable of producing gunpowder and firearms. Then to strengthen its position, the Dutch built a fort in Bukittinggi known as Fort de Kock.

Preparation of Dutch troops at Fort de Kock
In early August 1831 Lintau was successfully conquered, making Luhak Tanah Datar under Dutch control. But Tuanku Lintau continued to fight back from the Luhak Limo Puluah area. Meanwhile, when Lieutenant Colonel Elout carried out various attacks on the Padri between 1831-1832, he gained additional strength from the Sentot Prawirodirdjo troops, one of the commanders of Prince Diponegoro's army who had defected and served in the Dutch East Indies Government after the war in Java. But then Lieutenant Colonel Elout argued, the presence of Sentot who was stationed in Lintau would cause new problems. Some official Dutch documents prove the error of Sentot who had conspired with the Padri so that Sentot and his legions were returned to Java. In Java, Sentot also failed to dispel Dutch suspicion of him, and neither did the Dutch want him to remain in Java and send him back to Sumatra. But on the way, Sentot was demoted and detained in Bengkulu, then left to die as an outcast. While the troops were disbanded, they were then recruited back into the Dutch army.

Sentot Prawirodirdjo, illustrated by G. Kepper.

In July 1832, large numbers of infantry troops were sent from Jakarta under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Ferdinand P. Vermeulen Krieger, to speed up the completion of the war. With these additional troops in October 1832, Luhak Limo Puluah was under Dutch rule along with the death of Tuanku Lintau. Then the Padri continued to consolidate and entrench in Kamang, but all the Padri's strength at Luhak Agam was also conquered by the Dutch after the fall of Kamang at the end of 1832, so that the Padri were forced to retreat from the luhak area and remain in Bonjol.

Next the Dutch troops began sweeping in several areas that were still the basis of the Padri. In early January 1833, Dutch troops built a stronghold in Padang Mantinggi, but before they could strengthen their position, the stronghold was attacked by the Padri under the leadership of Tuanku Rao which resulted in many casualties on the Dutch side. But in the battle at Air Bangis, on January 29, 1833, Tuanku Rao suffered serious injuries due to being bombarded with bullets. Then he was aboard the ship to be exiled. Not long ago on the boat, Tuanku Rao died. It was suspected that his body was later thrown into the sea by Dutch troops. 

Joint Resistance
Since 1833 a compromise began to emerge between the Indigenous Peoples and the Padri. At the end of remorse, awareness arose, inviting the Netherlands to the conflict would only bring misery to the Minangkabau people themselves. For almost the first 20 years of this war (1803-1823), it could be said to be a civil war involving ethnic Minang and Batak ethnic groups.

On 11 January 1833 several strongholds of the Dutch garrison were suddenly attacked, causing chaos, there were mentioning that around 139 European troops and hundreds of native troops were killed. Sultan Tangkal Alam Bagagar, who was previously appointed by the Dutch as Tanah Datar Regent, was arrested by Lieutenant Colonel Elout's forces on May 2, 1833 in Batusangkar on treason charges. Then the Dutch exiled him to Jakarta, although in the Dutch records Sultan Tangkal Alam Bagagar denied his involvement in the attack on several Dutch posts, but the Dutch East Indies government also did not want to take the risk to reject reports from its officers. Regent Tanah Datar's position was then given to Mr. Gadang in Batipuh.

Realizing this, now the Netherlands is not only facing the Padri, but as a whole the Minangkabau people. So the Dutch East Indies government in 1833 issued an announcement called the "Long Plaque" containing a statement that the Dutch arrival to Minangkabau did not intend to control the country, they only came to trade and maintain security, the Minangkabau people would still be ruled by their princes and nor are they required to pay taxes. Then the Dutch argued that to maintain security, make roads, open schools, etc. requires a fee, so residents are required to plant coffee and must sell it to the Dutch.

Attack on Bonjol
The length of the completion of this war forced the Dutch East Indies Governor General Johannes van den Bosch on August 23, 1833 to go to Padang to take a close look at the process of military operations carried out by Dutch troops. Arriving in Padang, he held negotiations with the West Coast Commissioner of Sumatra, Major General Riesz and Lieutenant Colonel Elout to immediately conquer Fort Bonjol, the command center of the Padri forces. Riesz and Elout explained that a good time had not yet come to hold a general attack on Fort Bonjol, because the loyalty of the residents of Luhak Agam was still in doubt and they were very likely to attack the Dutch troops from behind. But Van den Bosch insisted on immediately conquering Fort Bonjol no later than September 10, 1833, the two officers requested a respite of six days so that the fall of Bonjol was expected on September 16, 1833.

The guerrilla attack tactics applied by the Padri then succeeded in slowing down the pace of the Dutch attack on Fort Bonjol, even in some resistance almost all Dutch army equipment such as cannons and their supplies could be seized. Dutch troops can only carry weapons and clothing attached to their hands and bodies. So on September 21, 1833, before the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies was replaced by Jean Chr├ętien Baud, Van den Bosch made a report that the attack on Bonjol failed and was being attempted to consolidate for further attacks.

Then during 1834 the Dutch only focused on building roads and bridges leading to Bonjol by deploying thousands of forced laborers. This was done to facilitate the mobility of his troops in conquering Bonjol. In addition, the Dutch also continued to exert influence in several areas close to their strongholds.

On April 16, 1835, the Dutch decided to again carry out a massive attack to conquer Bonjol and its surroundings. Military operations began on April 21, 1835, Dutch troops led by Lieutenant Colonel Bauer, split his army into Masang into two moving parts each from Matur and Bamban. These troops must cross the river which was at the time of the flood, and continue to infiltrate into the jungle; climbing mountains and descending valleys; in order to open a new path to Bonjol.

On April 23, 1835 this Dutch army movement had succeeded in reaching the edge of Batang Gantiang, then crossed it and gathered at Batusari. From here there is only one narrow road to Sipisang, an area which is still controlled by the Padri. Arriving at Sipisang, fierce fighting broke out between the Dutch troops and the Padri. The battle continued for three days and three nights without interruption, until there were many casualties on both sides. Finally, with incomparable strength, the Padri troops were forced to retire to the surrounding jungles. The fall of the Sipisang region increased the morality of the Dutch troops, then the area was used as a stronghold while waiting for the construction of a bridge to Bonjol.

Although the movement of the Dutch troops towards Bonjol was still very slow, almost a month was needed to approach the Alahan Panjang area. As the front front of Alahan Panjang is the Padang Lawas area which is still fully controlled by the Padri. However, on 8 June 1835 the Dutch forces succeeded in conquering the area.

Then on June 11, 1835 the Dutch troops moved back towards the east of Batang Alahan Panjang and made a stronghold there, while the Padri troops remained on the opposite side.

Dutch troops managed to approach Bonjol within a distance of only 250 steps at midnight on June 16, 1835, then they tried to make a stronghold. Furthermore, using houwitser, mortars and cannons, Dutch troops opened fire on Bonjol Fort. But the Padri did not remain silent by firing cannons from Bukit Tajadi. So with an unfavorable position, many Dutch troops became victims.

On 17 June 1835 an additional 2,000 troops were sent by Resident Francis in Padang and again on 21 June 1835, with great force the Dutch troops began a movement towards the final goal of Bonjol Fortress on Mount Tajadi.

Bonjol Fortress
Fort Bonjol is located on a hill that is almost perpendicular to the top, known as Bukit Tajadi. Not so far from this fort flows Batang Alahan Panjang, a river in the middle of a valley with a swift flow, winding from north to south. The fort is rectangular in shape, three sides surrounded by a two-layer defense wall about 3 meters high. Between the two layers of wall made a deep trench with a width of 4 meters. The outer wall consisted of large stones with almost the same manufacturing technique as fortresses in Europe and on top of it was planted with long spiked bamboo planted so tightly that the Padri could observe and even fire cannons at Dutch troops.

The thick bush and dense forest around Bonjol made the Padri's strongholds not easy for Dutch troops to see. This situation was well utilized by the Padri to build a strategic stronghold, as well as being the main headquarters of Tuanku Imam Bonjol.

Siege Bonjol
Seeing the strong fort of Bonjol, the Dutch troops tried to blockade Bonjol with the aim of crippling the supply of food and weapons of the Padri troops. This blockade was found to be ineffective, because it was precisely the Dutch strongholds and its supplies which were heavily attacked by the Padri troops in guerrilla force. At the same time, all Padri troops began to arrive from areas that had been conquered by the Dutch, from various countries in Minangkabau and its surroundings. All are determined to maintain the headquarters of Bonjol until the last drop of blood, noble life or martyrdom.

Attempts to carry out an offensive attack against Bonjol were only resumed after army reinforcements consisting of Bugis troops arrived, so in mid-August 1835 attacks began to be carried out on the Padri strongholds on Mount Tajadi, and these Bugis troops were at the front Dutch forces in capturing one by one the strategic strongholds of the Padri who are around the Tajadi Hill. But until early September 1835, the Dutch troops had not succeeded in conquering Mount Tajadi, instead on September 5, 1835, the Padri came out of their strongholds stormed out of the fort to destroy the Dutch fortification camps made around the Mount Tajadi. After the attack, the Padri troops immediately returned to Fort Bonjol.

On September 9, 1835, Dutch troops tried to attack from the direction of Luhak Limo Puluah and Padang Bubus, but the results failed, even causing much damage to the Dutch troops. Lieutenant Colonel Bauer, one of the commanders of the Dutch troops, was ill and had to be sent to Bukittinggi then replaced by Major Prager.

The protracted blockade and the courage of the Padri people aroused the courage of the people around them to rebel and attack the Dutch troops, so that on 11 December 1835 the Simpang and Alahan Mati people took up arms and attacked the Dutch fortifications. Dutch troops were overwhelmed by this resistance. But after help came from Madura soldiers serving in the Dutch forces, this resistance could be overcome.

Dutch victory in the Padri War, illustrated by G. Kepper.
Frans David Cochius, commander of the conquest of Fort Bonjol.

Nearly a year of siege to Bonjol, on December 3, 1836, Dutch troops again carried out a massive attack on Fort Bonjol, as a last resort for the conquest of Bonjol. This devastating attack was able to break down part of Fort Bonjol, so that the Dutch troops could enter and storm several of Tuanku Imam Bonjol's families. But with persistence and high morale, the Padri once again succeeded in destroying the enemy so that the Dutch were driven out and forced to return out of the fort by leaving a large number of casualties on each side.

The failure of this conquest really hit the wisdom of the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in Jakarta, which at that time had been held by Dominique Jacques de Eerens, then in early 1837 sent a warlord named Major General Cochius to lead a direct large-scale attack to Fort Bonjol for the umpteenth time. Cochius was a high-ranking Dutch officer who had expertise in Fort Stelsel's war strategy.

Furthermore, the Dutch intensively surrounded Bonjol from all majors for around six months (March 16-August 17, 1837) led by generals and several officers. This combined force consisted mainly of various tribes, such as Javanese, Madurese, Bugis and Ambonese. There were 148 European officers, 36 native officers, 1,103 European troops, 4,130 native troops, including Sumenapsche hulptroepen hieronder begrepen (Sumenap alias Madura auxiliary troops). In the list of officers the Dutch troops included Major General Cochius, Lieutenant Colonel Bauer, Major Sous, Major Prager, Captain MacLean, First Lieutenant van der Tak, First Lieutenant Steinmetz, and so on. Then there are also Inlandsche (native) names such as Kapitein Noto Prawiro, Indlandsche Luitenant Prawiro in the Logo, Karto Wongso Wiro Redjo, Prawiro Sentiko, Prawiro Brotto, Merto Poero and others.

From Jakarta an additional Dutch army force continued, where on July 20, 1837 arrived on the Perle Ship in Padang, a number of Europeans and Sepoys, soldiers from Africa serving in the Dutch army, recruited from Ghana and Mali, consisting of 1 sergeant, 4 corporaals and 112 flankeurs, and were led by Kapitein Sinninghe.

The surging and insistent attacks and hail of bullets from artillery troops armed with large cannons, for approximately 6 months, as well as infantry and cavalry troops continued to arrive. On August 3, 1837, led by Lieutenant Colonel Michiels as the foremost field commander, gradually took control of the situation, and finally on August 15, 1837, Bukit Tajadi fell, and on August 16, 1837 Fort Bonjol as a whole was conquered. However, Tuanku Imam Bonjol was able to resign from the fort accompanied by several of his followers and continued to the Marapak area.

In his escape and hiding, Tuanku Imam Bonjol continued to try to consolidate all his troops who had been divorced and weak, but because for more than 3 years fighting the Dutch continuously, it turned out that only a few were left and were still ready to fight again.

Under these conditions, suddenly a letter of offer came from Resident Francis in Padang to invite negotiations. Then Tuanku Imam Bonjol expressed his willingness to negotiate. The negotiations were said to be no more than 14 days long. For 14 days the white flag flew and a ceasefire prevailed. Tuanku Imam Bonjol was asked to come to Palupuh, the place of negotiations, without carrying a weapon. But it was only a Dutch trap to capture Tuanku Imam Bonjol, the incident occurred in October 1837 and then Tuanku Imam Bonjol was in ill condition immediately taken to Bukittinggi and then continued to be brought to Padang, to be further exiled. But on January 23, 1838, he was transferred to Cianjur, and at the end of 1838, he was again transferred to Ambon. Then on January 19, 1839, Tuanku Imam Bonjol was again moved to Menado, and in this area after undergoing a period of exile for 27 years, on November 8, 1864, Tuanku Imam Bonjol breathed his last.

End of war
Although in 1837 Fort Bonjol was under Dutch control, and Tuanku Imam Bonjol was successfully deceived and captured, but this battle continued until finally the Padri's last stronghold, at Dalu-Dalu (Rokan Hulu), which at that time had been led by Tuanku Tambusai fell on December 28, 1838. The fall of the fort forced the Tuanku Tambusai to retreat, along with the remnants of his followers moved to Negeri Sembilan on the Malay Peninsula, and finally this war was considered over then the Kingdom of Pagaruyung was determined to be part of Pax Neerlandica and the Padangse Bovenlanden region had been under the supervision of the Dutch East Indies Government.

Historical heritage
The influence of this war fostered a patriotism of heroism for each of the parties involved. After the fall of Fort Bonjol, the Dutch East Indies government built a monument to commemorate the story of this war. Then since 1913, several locations where the battle took place were marked by a monument and included as a tourist area in Minangkabau. Likewise after Indonesian independence, the local government also built museums and monuments in Bonjol and was named after Tuanku Imam Bonjol Museum and Monument.

The struggle of several figures in the Padri War, prompted the Indonesian government to establish Tuanku Imam Bonjol and Tuanku Tambusai as National Heroes.


Photo: Special

Background of the Padri War
Return of three pilgrims from Mecca + 1803; Poor Hajj, Hajj Sumanik, and Hajj Piobang, to further implement Islamic law, which according to them, have not been perfectly implemented by the Minangkabau people.

This has received support from Tuanku Nan Renceh, along with other scholars in Minangkabau who are members of the Tiger Salapan Nan.

After feeling he had a strong influence, then Harimao Nan Salapan, asked Tuanku Lintau to invite the Yang Pengtuan Pagaruyung Sultan Arifin Muningsyah, along with the Indigenous People to abandon some habits that were contrary to the teachings of Islam.

In several meetings there was no agreement between the Padri and the Indigenous Peoples

Because they felt they were not responded to by the Indigenous Peoples, Padri under the leadership of Tuanku Pasaman attacked the Kingdom of Pagaruyung, and war broke out in Koto Tangah.

This attack caused Sultan Arifin Muningsyah to be forced to flee and escape from the royal capital.

From the records of Raffles who visited Pagaruyung in 1818, said that he only found the remains of the burning Royal Palace of Pagaruyung.

The point:
Civil War defends Customary Traditions
Nusantara society does not like the imposition of values ​​into the interaction patterns of its people.

Although they do not fight physically, but they continue to fight in their subconscious to defend the values ​​of their Ancestors, rather than having to accept values ​​from outside.

This is what was predicted by the two Moksa Nusantara figures

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