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Sriwijaya - 671 AD

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Sriwijaya (or also called Srivijaya; Thai: ศรี วิชัย or "Ṣ̄rī wichạy") is one of the maritime empires that once stood on the island of Sumatra and exerted much influence in the archipelago with territory extending from Cambodia, Southern Thailand, Peninsula Malaya, Sumatra, Java and the coast of Borneo.

In Sanskrit, sri means "glowing" or "glorious", and wijaya means "victory" or "glory", so the name Srivijaya means "glorious victory". The earliest evidence for the existence of this kingdom comes from the 7th century; a Chinese priest, I Tsing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 and stayed for 6 months.

Furthermore, the oldest inscription about Srivijaya was also in the 7th century, namely the Kedukan Bukit inscription in Palembang, dated 682.

The decline of Srivijaya influence on his subordinates began to shrink due to several wars including the attack of King Dharmawangsa Teguh from Java in 990, and in 1025 the Rajendra Chola I attack from Coromandel, then in 1183 Srivijaya rule under the control of the Dharmasraya kingdom.

After the fall, the kingdom was forgotten and its existence was only re-discovered through a 1918 publication from the French historian George Cœdès of the École française d'Extrême-Orient.

Historical record
There is no further record of Srivijaya in Indonesian history; his forgotten past was reshaped by foreign scholars. No modern Indonesian heard about Srivijaya until the 1920s, when the French scholar George Cœdès published his findings in Dutch and Indonesian newspapers.

Coedès stated that the Chinese reference to "San-fo-ts'i", previously read "Sribhoja", and several inscriptions in Ancient Malay referred to the same empire.

In addition to the news above, Palembang Archaeological Center has found an ancient boat that is thought to have existed since the earliest days or proto Sriwijaya Kingdom in Sungai Pasir Village, Cengal District, Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatra.

Unfortunately, the head of the ancient boat was gone and some of the boat's boards were used instead for the bridge. Noted there are 17 pieces of the boat consisting of the keel, 14 boat boards consisting of the body and the stern to place the steering.

This boat is made with wooden peg and fastening techniques using palm fibers. This method itself is known as the technique of Southeast Asian tradition. In addition to boat wrecks, also found a number of other artifacts related to the boat's findings, such as pottery, ceramics and wooden tools.

Srivijaya became a symbol of the greatness of early Sumatra, and the great kingdom of the archipelago in addition to Majapahit in East Java. In the 20th century, the two kingdoms became a reference by nationalists to show that Indonesia was a unitary state before Dutch colonialism.

Srivijaya is called by various names. Chinese people call it Shih-li-fo-shih or San-fo-ts'i or San Fo Qi. In Sanskrit and Pali, the Srivijaya kingdom is called Yavadesh and Javadeh. The Arabs called it Zabaj and the Khmer called it Malayu. The number of names is another reason why Srivijaya is very difficult to find.

While from Ptolemaeus's map, information was found about the existence of 3 Sabadeibei islands, which may be related to Srivijaya.

Around 1993, Pierre-Yves Manguin made observations and argued that the center of Srivijaya was on the Musi River between Bukit Seguntang and Sabokingking (located in the province of South Sumatra now), precisely around the Karanganyar site which is now used as the Archaeological Park of the Sriwijaya Kingdom.

This opinion is based on 1984 aerial photographs which show that the Karanganyar site displays the shape of water structures, namely a network of canals, trenches, ponds and artificial islands that are neatly arranged which is certain this site is man-made. The water structure consists of a pond and two square and rectangular islands, and a network of canals covering an area of ​​20 hectares. In this area, there are many ancient relics which show that this area was once the center of settlement and the center of human activity.

But earlier Soekmono argued that the center of Sriwijaya was located in the area around Batang Hari, between Muara Sabak to Muara Tembesi (in Jambi province now), provided Malayu was not in the area, if Malayu was in the area, he was inclined to the opinion of Moens, previously It has also been argued that the location of the center of the Srivijaya kingdom is in the Muara Takus Temple area (Riau province now), assuming the direction of travel in I Tsing's notes, and this can also be related to news about the construction of the temple offered by the Srivijaya king (Se li chu la wu ni fu ma tian hwa or Sri Cudamaniwarmadewa) in 1003 to the Chinese emperor called cheng tien wan shou (Bungsu Temple, one of the parts of the temple located at Muara Takus).

But certainly during the conquest by Rajendra Chola I, based on the Tanjore inscription, Sriwijaya had its capital in Kadaram (Kedah now).

Formation and growth
Muara Takus Temple, one of the areas considered as the capital of Srivijaya.

Gumpung Temple, a Buddhist temple in Muaro Jambi, the Malay Kingdom that was conquered by Srivijaya.

Kaew ruins (Temples) originating from the Srivijaya era in Chaiya, Southern Thailand.

Not much physical evidence about Srivijaya can be found. The kingdom is a trade center and is a maritime country, but it does not expand its power outside the Southeast Asian archipelago, with the exception of contributing to Madagascar's population as far as 3,300 miles to the west. Some experts are still debating the area that became the center of Srivijaya government, besides that it is possible that this kingdom used to move the center of its government, but the area which became the capital was still governed directly by the authorities, while the supporting regions were governed by the local datu.

The Srivijaya empire has existed since 671 in accordance with the notes I Tsing, from the Kedukan Bukit inscription in 682 it is known that this empire was under the leadership of Dapunta Hyang. In the 7th century, the Chinese noted that there were two kingdoms namely Malayu and Kedah which were part of the Srivijaya empire.

Based on the Cretaceous inscription which dates to 686 found on the island of Bangka, this empire has controlled the southern part of Sumatra, the islands of Bangka and Belitung, to Lampung. This inscription also mentions that Sri Jayanasa had launched a military expedition to punish Bhumi Jawa who was not devoted to Srivijaya, this event coincided with the collapse of Tarumanagara in West Java and Holing (Kalingga) in Central Java which was most likely due to the Srivijaya attack. What is meant by Bhumi Jawa is Tarumanegara. Srivijaya grew and succeeded in controlling maritime trade routes in the Malacca Strait, Sunda Strait, South China Sea, Java Sea, and Karimata Strait.

The expansion of this kingdom to Java and the Malay Peninsula, made Srivijaya control of the two main trade centers in Southeast Asia. Based on observations, found the ruins of Srivijaya temples in Thailand and Cambodia. In the 7th century, the port of Cham to the east of Indochina began to divert many traders from Srivijaya. To prevent this, Maharaja Dharmasetu launched several attacks on coastal cities in Indochina. The city of Indrapura on the banks of the Mekong river, in the early 8th century, was under Srivijaya control. Srivijaya continued its domination over Cambodia, until King Khmer Jayawarman II, founder of the Khmer empire, severed ties with Srivijaya in the same century.

At the end of the 8th century several kingdoms in Java, including Tarumanegara and Holing, were under Srivijaya rule. According to records, during this period the Sailendra migrated to Central Java and ruled there. In this century too, Langkasuka on the Malay peninsula became part of the kingdom. [2] In the next period, Pan Pan and Trambralinga, located north of Langkasuka, were also under the influence of Srivijaya.

After Dharmasetu, Samaratungga became the successor to the kingdom. He was in power in the period 792 to 835. Unlike expansionist Dharmasetu, Samaratungga did not undertake military expansion, but preferred to strengthen Srivijaya control in Java. During his leadership, he built the Borobudur temple in Central Java which was completed in 825.

The Buddha statue in the Amarawati style as high as 2.77 meters, was found at the Bukit Seguntang site, Palembang, dating from the 7th to 8th centuries AD.

As the center of Vajrayana Buddhist teaching, Sriwijaya attracts many pilgrims and scholars from countries in Asia. Among other priests from China I Tsing, who visited Sumatra on his study trip at Nalanda University, India, in 671 and 695, I Tsing reported that Srivijaya was home to Buddhist scholars so that it became a center of Buddhist learning. In addition to the news above, there is news delivered by I Tsing, stated that there were 1000 priests who studied Buddhism at Sakyakirti, a famous priest in Sriwijaya.

Visitors who come to this island say that gold coins have been used on the coast of the kingdom. In addition, the Buddhist teachings of Hinayana Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism also developed in Srivijaya. Towards the end of the 10th century, Atiśa, a Buddhist scholar from Bengal who was instrumental in developing the Buddha Vajrayana in Tibet in his work paper Durbodhāloka said that it was written during the reign of Sri Cudamani Warmadewa the ruler of Sriwijayanagara in Malayagiri in Suvarnadvipa.

The Srivijaya kingdom was heavily influenced by Indian culture, first by Hindu culture then followed by Buddhism. The Srivijaya kings controlled the Malay archipelago through trade and conquest from the 7th to the 9th centuries, so that they directly participated in developing the Malay language and its culture in the archipelago.

It is very possible that Sriwijaya, which was famous as a port of commerce in Southeast Asia, certainly attracted the interest of traders and Muslim scholars from the Middle East, so that several kingdoms that were originally part of Srivijaya, then grew into the forerunners of Islamic empires in Sumatra later, when the weakening influence of Srivijaya.

There is a source that says, because of the influence of many Arab Muslims who visited and traded in Srivijaya, a Srivijaya king named Sri Indrawarman in 718 was reportedly interested in studying Islam and Arabic culture, so maybe Sriwijaya's social life was a social society in which there was Buddhist and Muslim communities at the same time. Noted several times the king of Srivijaya sent a letter to the Islamic caliphate in Damascus, Syria. In one of the manuscripts of the letter addressed to the caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz (717-720) contained a request that the caliph be willing to send an ulama to the Sriwijaya palace.

Based on various historical sources, a complex and cosmopolitan society that was strongly influenced by Wajrayana's Buddhist mind was described as blossoming in the Sriwijaya capital. Some 7th-century Siddhayatra inscriptions such as the Talang Tuwo Inscription depict Buddhist rituals to bless the blessed event of the inauguration of the Sriksetra park, a gift of the Srivijaya Maharaja for its people. The Telaga Batu inscription illustrates the complexity and level of office of the royal official, while the Kapur City Inscription mentions Sriwijaya's army's might over Java. All of these inscriptions use Ancient Malay language, ancestors of the Malay language and modern Indonesian. Since the 7th century, ancient Malay has been used in the archipelago. It is marked by the discovery of various Srivijaya inscriptions and several ancient Malay inscriptions in other places, such as those found on the island of Java. Trade relations carried out by various ethnic groups of the Archipelago became a vehicle for the spread of Malay, because this language became a communication tool for traders. Since then, the Malay language has become the lingua franca and is widely used by many speakers in the archipelago.

Although it was said to have economic power and military might, Sriwijaya left only a few ancient remains in the heart of his country in Sumatra. Very different from the Sriwijaya episode in Central Java when the leadership of the Syailendra dynasty which built many large monuments; like Kalasan Temple, Sewu Temple, and Borobudur. Buddhist temples dating from the Srivijaya period in Sumatra include Muaro Jambi Temple, Muara Takus Temple and Biaro Bahal. But unlike the Central Java period temples made of andesite, temples in Sumatra are made of red bricks.

Some statues are Buddhist, such as various Buddhist statues found on Bukit Seguntang, Palembang, and Bodhisatwa Awalokiteswara statues from Jambi, Bidor, Perak and Chaiya, and Maitreya statues from Komering, South Sumatra. All these statues display the same elegance and style called "Sriwijaya Art" or "Sriwijaya Style" which shows a similarity - perhaps inspired - by the Indian Amarawati style and the Javanese Syailendra style (around the 8th to 9th centuries). .

In the world of trade, Srivijaya became the controller of the trade routes between India and China, namely by controlling the Malacca Strait and the Sunda Strait. The Arabs noted that Srivijaya had various commodities such as camphor, agarwood, cloves, nutmeg, cardamom, ivory, gold, and tin, which made the Srivijaya king as rich as kings in India.

This abundant wealth has enabled Srivijaya to buy loyalty from his vassals throughout Southeast Asia. By acting as the main port or port in Southeast Asia, with the blessing, approval and protection of the Emperor of China to be able to trade with China, Sriwijaya has always managed the maritime trade network and is in charge of the arteries of shipping between China and India.

For this reason Srivijaya must continue to maintain his dominance of trade by always supervising - and if necessary - combating competitor ports in his neighboring country. It was this need to maintain a monopoly on trade that prompted Srivijaya to hold a military expedition to conquer competing port ports in the surrounding area and absorb them into the Sriwijaya mandala. Bandar Malayu in Jambi, Kota Kapur on the island of Bangka, Tarumanagara and Sunda ports in West Java, Kalingga in Central Java, and Kedah and Chaiya ports on the Melaya peninsula were some of the harbor ports that were conquered and absorbed into the scope of Srivijaya influence. It is stated in Champa's historical record that there was a series of naval invasions originating from Java against several ports in Champa and Cambodia. Perhaps the invading navy in question was the Sriwijaya fleet, because at that time the Sailendra dynasty on Java was part of the Sriwijaya mandala. This is Sriwijaya's effort to guarantee the monopoly of sea trade in Southeast Asia by storming the ports of its competitors.

Sriwijaya's maritime glory was recorded in the Borobudur relief, which depicts the Borobudur Ship, a wooden ship with dual and sailed masts that sailed the archipelago sea around the 8th century AD. The function of this outrigger is to balance and stabilize the boat. Single outrigger or double outrigger is the hallmark of the Austronesian boat and it is this boat that takes the Austronesians to sail across Southeast Asia, Oceania and the Indian Ocean. The frigid sailing ship immortalized in the Borobudur relief is probably the type of ship used by the Sailendra and Sriwijaya fleets in inter-island voyages, the maritime empire that ruled the region in the 7th to 13th centuries AD.

In addition to establishing trade relations with India and China, Sriwijaya also established trade with Arab lands. Possibly Maharaja's emissary Sri Indrawarman who delivered a letter to the caliph Umar bin Abdul-Aziz from Banu Umayyah in 718, returned to Sriwijaya with a gift of Zanji (black female slave), and then from Chinese chronicles it was mentioned Shih-li-fo-shih with his king Shih-li-t-'o-pa-mo (Sri Indrawarman) in 724 sent a gift to the Chinese emperor, in the form of ts'engchi (intended to be the same as Zanji in Arabic). [26]

In the first half of the 10th century, between the fall of the Tang dynasty and the rise of the Song dynasty, trade with foreign countries was quite widespread, especially Fujian, the Min kingdom and the Nan Han kingdom with its rich state of Guangdong. No doubt Srivijaya benefits from this trade.

Spread of the population of the Maritime Empire
Sriwijaya's efforts to ensure the dominance of maritime trade in Southeast Asia go hand in hand with the expansion of Srivijaya as a maritime empire or thalasocracy. By conquering the neighboring ports of neighboring countries, Sriwijaya also automatically widened its influence and territory in the region. As a maritime empire, the influence of Srivijaya rarely entered far into the interior. Srivijaya mostly exercised his sovereignty in the coastal areas and large river areas that could be reached by his naval fleet in the archipelago, with the exception of the island of Madagascar. Allegedly residents who came from Srivijaya had colonized and built populations on the island of Madagascar which is located 3300 miles or 8000 kilometers to the west across the Indian Ocean.

A study published by the Journal of the Proceedings of The Royal Society, shows that the ancestors of the population of Madagascar were Indonesian. The researchers believe they are settlers from the Kingdom of Srivijaya. [28] Migration to Madagascar was estimated to have occurred 1200 years ago around the year 830 AD Based on mitochondrial DNA research, the indigenous Malagasy could trace their genealogy to 30 pioneer women who sailed from Indonesia 1200 years ago. [29] Malagasy language contains absorption words from Sanskrit with linguistic modification through Javanese and Malay, this is an indication that the population of Madagascar is colonized by residents who are from Sriwijaya. [30] Madagascar's colonization period coincided with the period when Srivijaya developed a maritime trade network throughout the archipelago and the Indian Ocean.

Relationship with the Sailendra House

The main article for this section is: House of Sailendra
The emergence of the connection between Srivijaya and the Sailendra dynasty began because of the name Śailendravamśa on several inscriptions including the Kalasan inscription on the island of Java, the Ligor inscription in southern Thailand, and the Nalanda inscription in India. While on the inscription Sojomerto the name Dapunta Selendra was found. Although the origin of this dynasty is still debated until now.

Majumdar believes that the Sailendra dynasty was found in Sriwijaya (Suwarnadwipa) and Medang (Java), both of which originated in Kalinga in southern India.

Then Moens added the arrival of Dapunta Hyang to Palembang, causing one of the families in this dynasty to move to Java. While Poerbatjaraka argues that this dynasty originated from the archipelago, based on Carita Parahiyangan [34] then associated with several other inscriptions on Javanese in Old Malay language including inscriptions

Relations with regional powers
To strengthen its position in control of the Southeast Asian region, Sriwijaya established diplomatic relations with the Chinese empire, and regularly delivered envoys and tribute.

In 100 Hijriyah (718 AD) the Sriwijaya Maharaja named Sri Indrawarman sent a letter to Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad Caliphate, which contained a request to the Caliph to send a cleric who could explain Islamic teachings and law to him. The letter says:

This event proves that Srivijaya has established diplomatic relations with the Islamic world or the Arab world. Nevertheless this letter does not mean that the king of Srivijaya had converted to Islam, but only showed the king's desire to know and learn various laws, cultures, and customs from various business associates and civilizations known to Srivijaya at that time; namely China, India and the Middle East.

In the early days, the Khmer Kingdom was a Srivijaya colony. Many historians claim that Chaiya, in the province of Surat Thani, Southern Thailand, is the capital of the kingdom. Sriwijaya's influence is apparent in the Sriwijaya-style Borom That pagoda building. After the fall of Srivijaya, Chaiya was divided into three cities namely (Mueang) Chaiya, Thatong (Kanchanadit), and Khirirat Nikhom.

As mentioned earlier, Srivijaya in Sumatra forged alliances through marital relations with the Sailendra House in Java. At a certain period of time the Sailendra dynasty as a member of the Sriwijaya mandala took control of power, became the Srivijaya Maharaja and ruled from Java. Then the Sailendra House both ruled Sriwijaya and the Medang Kingdom, namely Sumatra and Java. However, due to the succession dispute between Balaputradewa against Rakai Pikatan and Pramodawardhani, relations between Sriwijaya and Medang deteriorated. Balaputra moved away to Palembang and this animosity was passed on for the next several generations. The competition between Srivijaya in Sumatra and Medang in Java became increasingly heated when the king Dharmawangsa Teguh invaded Palembang in 990, an action which was later rewarded with the destruction of Medang in 1006 by Raja Wurawari at Sriwijaya's encouragement.

Srivijaya was also closely related to the Pala kingdom in Bengal, the 860 Nalanda inscription records that King Balaputradewa dedicated a monastery to Nalanda University. Relations with the Chola Dynasty in southern India are also quite good. From the Leiden inscription it is mentioned that the king of Srivijaya at Kataha Sri Mara-Vijayottunggawarman had built a monastery called the Culamanivarmma Temple, but became worse after Rajendra Chola I ascended to the throne which carried out the attack in the 11th century. Then this relationship improved again during the Kulothunga Chola I, where the Srivijaya king in Kadaram sent a messenger requesting the issuance of an excise release in the area around the Culamanivarmma Vihara. However, at this time Srivijaya was considered to have become part of the Chola dynasty. The Chinese Chronicle mentions that Kulothunga Chola I (Ti-hua-ka-lo) as the king of San-fo-ts'i, helped repair the temple near Canton in 1079. During the Song dynasty the temple was called Tien Ching Kuan, and in Yuan Dynasty was called by the name Yuan Miau Kwan.

The ruling king

The Sriwijaya Maharaja
Nama Raja Tahun Ibu kota Prasasti, catatan pengiriman utusan ke Tiongkok serta peristiwa
Dapunta Hyang atau
Sri Jayanasa
671 Srivijaya
Catatan perjalanan I Tsing pada tahun 671-685, Penaklukan Malayu, penaklukan Jawa
Prasasti Kedukan Bukit (683), Talang Tuo (684), Kota Kapur (686), Karang Brahi dan Palas Pasemah
Rudra Wikrama
728-742 Sriwijaya
Utusan ke Tiongkok 728-742
743-774 Belum ada berita pada periode ini
Sri Indrawarman
702 Sriwijaya
Utusan ke Tiongkok 702-716, 724
Sri Maharaja 775 Sriwijaya Prasasti Ligor B tahun 775 di Nakhon Si Thammarat, selatan Thailand dan menaklukkan Kamboja
Pindah ke Jawa (Jawa Tengah atau Yogyakarta) Wangsa Sailendra mengantikan Wangsa Sanjaya
Dharanindra atau
Rakai Panangkaran
778 Jawa Prasasti Kelurak 782 di sebelah utara kompleks Candi Prambanan
Samaragrawira atau
Rakai Warak
782 Jawa Prasasti Nalanda dan prasasti Mantyasih tahun 907
Samaratungga atau
Rakai Garung
792 Jawa Prasasti Karang Tengah tahun 824,
825 menyelesaikan pembangunan candi Borobudur
840 Kebangkitan Wangsa Sanjaya, Rakai Pikatan
Balaputradewa 856 Suwarnadwipa Kehilangan kekuasaan di Jawa, dan kembali ke Suwarnadwipa
861-959 Belum ada berita pada periode ini
Sri Udayaditya Warmadewa
960 Sriwijaya
Utusan ke Tiongkok 960, & 962
980 Utusan ke Tiongkok 980 & 983: dengan raja, Hie-tche (Haji)
Sri Cudamani Warmadewa
988 Sriwijaya
Malayagiri (Suwarnadwipa) San-fo-ts'i
990 Jawa menyerang Sriwijaya, Catatan Atiśa,

Utusan ke Tiongkok 988-992-1003,
pembangunan candi untuk kaisar Tiongkok yang diberi nama
cheng tien wan shou
Sri Mara-Vijayottunggawarman
1008 San-fo-ts'i
Prasasti Leiden & utusan ke Tiongkok 1008
Haji Sumatrabhumi
1017 Utusan San-fo-ts'i ke Tiongkok 1017: dengan raja, Ha-ch'i-su-wa-ch'a-p'u (Haji Sumatrabhumi (?)); gelar haji biasanya untuk raja bawahan
Sangrama-Vijayottunggawarman 1025 Sriwijaya
Diserang oleh Rajendra Chola I dan menjadi tawanan
Prasasti Tanjore bertarikh 1030 pada candi Rajaraja, Tanjore, India
1030 Dibawah Dinasti Chola dari Koromandel
1079 Utusan San-fo-ts'i dengan raja Kulothunga Chola I (Ti-hua-ka-lo) ke Tiongkok 1079 membantu memperbaiki candi Tien Ching di Kuang Cho (dekat Kanton)
1082 Utusan San-fo-ts'i dari Kien-pi (Jambi) ke Tiongkok 1082 dan 1088
1089-1177 Belum ada berita
1178 Laporan Chou-Ju-Kua dalam buku Chu-fan-chi berisi daftar koloni San-fo-ts'i
Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa 1183 Dharmasraya Dibawah Dinasti MauliKerajaan MelayuPrasasti Grahi tahun 1183 di selatan Thailand
Golden age
The Srivijaya Empire was characterized by a maritime kingdom. Relying on hegemony on the strength of its maritime fleet in controlling the shipping lanes, trade routes, controlling and building several strategic areas as the base of its fleet in supervising, protecting merchant ships, collecting excise, and to safeguard its sovereignty and power.

From historical records and archaeological evidence, in the 9th century Srivijaya had colonized almost all the kingdoms of Southeast Asia, including: Sumatra, Java, the Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Philippines.

The dominance of the Malacca Strait and the Sunda Strait made Sriwijaya the controlling of the spice trade route and the local trade that imposed customs and excise on every passing ship. Sriwijaya collected his wealth from port services and trading warehouses serving the Chinese and Indian markets.

Based on historical records from Arabic, Srivijaya is called by the name of Sribuza. In 955 AD, Masudi, a classical Arabic historian, wrote a note about Srivijaya. In that note, Sriwijaya was described as a large, rich kingdom with a large army. Srivijaya's agricultural products are mothballs, aloes wood, cloves, sandalwood, nutmeg, cardamom, gambier and several other agricultural products.

Srivijaya controlled the maritime trade routes in Southeast Asia throughout the 10th century, but by the end of this century the Medang Kingdom in East Java grew to become a new maritime force and began to challenge the dominance of Srivijaya. Chinese news from the Song Dynasty calls the Srivijaya Kingdom in Sumatra by the name San-fo-tsi, while the Medang Kingdom in Java by the name Cho-po. It is said that San-fo-tsi and Cho-po were involved in competition to dominate Southeast Asia. The two countries sent ambassadors to China. The San Francisco delegation who left in 988 was detained at the port of Canton when he was about to return, because his country was attacked by Javanese army. This attack from Java allegedly took place around the 990s, between 988 and 992 during the reign of Sri Cudamani Warmadewa.

In the spring of 992 the Sriwijaya ambassador tried to return home but was again detained in Champa because his country was not yet safe. He asked Emperor Song that China give protection to San-fo-tsi. The Javanese envoy also arrived in China in 992. He was sent by his king who ascended the throne in 991. The new Javanese king was Dharmawangsa Teguh.

The Medang Kingdom succeeded in capturing Palembang in 992 for a while, but later the Medang forces were repelled by the Srivijaya forces. The Hujung Langit Inscription in 997 again mentioned the Javanese attack on Sumatra. This series of attacks from Java ultimately failed because Java failed to build a foothold in Sumatra. Controlling the capital city in Palembang is not enough because in essence the power and power of Sriwijaya's mandala is spread in several harbor ports in the Malacca Strait. The Sriwijaya Maharaja, Sri Cudamani Warmadewa, managed to escape from the capital and went around gathering strength and reinforcements from allies and subordinate kings to repel the Javanese army. Srivijaya showed the perseverance of his alliance, surviving and triumphantly repelling the Javanese navy.

Sri Cudamani Warmadewa again displayed her diplomatic skills, winning Chinese support by winning the emperor's heart. In 1003, he sent an envoy to China and reported that his country had completed the construction of a Buddhist temple dedicated to praying that the Emperor of China would live long. The emperor of China, who was heartened by the offering, named the temple cheng tien wan shou and bestowed the clapper to be installed in the temple (Bungsu Temple, one of the parts of the temple located at Muara Takus).

This attack from Medang opened Sriwijaya's eyes to how dangerous the Javanese threat was, so the Maharaja Sriwijaya also devised a countermeasure and tried to destroy the Medang Kingdom. Srivijaya is said to have a role in destroying the Medang Kingdom in Java. In the Pucangan inscription, a Mahapralaya event was mentioned, namely the destruction of the Medang palace in East Java, where Haji Wurawari of Lwaram, who was possibly a Sriwijaya subordinate king, in 1006 or 1016 attacked and caused the killing of the last Medang king Dharmawangsa Teguh.

Period of decline
In 1017 and 1025, Rajendra Chola I, king of the Chola dynasty in Coromandel, southern India, sent a sea expedition to attack Srivijaya. Based on the Tanjore inscription dating from 1030, the Chola Kingdom had conquered Srivijaya colony areas, such as the Nicobar region and at the same time succeeded in capturing the Srivijaya king who was in power at that time Sangrama-Vijayottunggawarman. Over the next several decades, the entire Srivijaya empire was under the influence of the Chola dynasty. Nevertheless Rajendra Chola I still provides opportunities for the kings he conquered to remain in power while still submitting to him. This can be attributed to the news of the San-fo-ts'i messenger to China in 1028.

The Tanjungpura and Nan Sarunai kingdoms in Kalimantan were contemporaries of Srivijaya, but the Tanjungpura kingdom was said to have been managed by the fugitives of the Srivijaya Malays, which when Srivijaya was attacked by the Chola Kingdom they migrated to South Kalimantan.

However, at this time Srivijaya was considered to have become part of the Chola dynasty. The Chinese Chronicle states that in 1079, Kulothunga Chola I (Ti-hua-ka-lo) the king of the Chola dynasty was also called the king of San-fo-ts'i, who then sent messengers to help repair the temple near Canton. Furthermore, in the Chinese news entitled Sung Hui Yao, it was mentioned that the kingdom of San-fo-tsi in 1082 still sent envoys during the Chinese period under Emperor Yuan Fong. The ambassador delivered a letter from King Kien-pi subordinate San-fo-tsi, which was a letter from the king's daughter who was entrusted with the affairs of the state of San-fo-tsi, and also handed over 227 tahil of jewelery, sago palm, and 13 pieces of clothing. Then also sent the next messenger in 1088. [2] The influence of Rajendra Chola I's invasion on Srivijaya's hegemony over his subordinate kings was weakened. Some conquered areas escaped, until the emergence of Dharmasraya and Pagaruyung as a new force which then regained control of the Srivijaya colonies from the Malay Peninsula region, Sumatra, to western Java.

In 1079 and 1088, Chinese records show that Sriwijaya sent ambassadors to China. Especially in 1079, each of the ambassadors visited China. This shows that the capital city of Sriwijaya always shifted from one city or another city during that period. The Chola expedition altered trade routes and weakened Palembang, which allowed Jambi to take the leadership of Srivijaya in the 11th century.

Based on Chinese sources in the book Chu-fan-chi written in 1178, Chou-Ju-Kua explained that in the Southeast Asian islands there were two very powerful and rich kingdoms, namely San-fo-ts'i and Cho-po (Java ). In Java he found that his people were Buddhists and Hindus, while the San-fo-ts'i people were Buddhists, and had 15 subordinate areas which included; Si-lan (Cambodia), Tan-ma-ling (Tambralingga, Ligor, southern Thailand), Kia-lo-hi (Grahi, Chaiya now, southern Thailand), Ling-ya-si-kia (Langkasuka), Kilantan (Kelantan ), Pong-fong (Pahang), Tong-ya-nong (Terengganu), Fo-lo-an (estuary of the Dungun river now in the Terengganu region), Ji-lo-t'ing (Cherating, east coast of the Malay peninsula), Ts' ien-mai (Semawe, east coast of the Malay peninsula), Pa-t'a (Paka River, east coast of the Malay Peninsula), Lan-wu-li (Lamuri in Aceh), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang), Kien-pi (Jambi), and Sin-t'o (Sundanese).

However, the term San-fo-tsi especially in 1178 is no longer synonymous with Srivijaya, but has been synonymous with Dharmasraya. From the list of 15 San-fo-tsi subordinate countries, it turns out is a colony of the Dharmasraya Kingdom. Although Chinese sources still call San-fo-tsi a kingdom in the South China Sea region. This is because in Pararaton Malayu has already mentioned it. This book tells that Kertanagara Raja Singhasari, sent an Pamalayu or Pamalayu expedition, and then presented the Amoghapasa Statue to the Malay king, Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa in Dharmasraya as written on the Padang Roco inscription. This event was later associated with the manuscript contained in the Grahi inscription. Likewise, in the Nagarakretagama which describes the Majapahit colony, Sriwijaya did not mention the name of the area that was once the Sriwijaya region.

Government structure
The main article for this section is: Telaga Batu Inscription

The formation of a unitary state in the dimension of the Sriwijaya political authority structure, can be traced from several inscriptions containing important information about kadātuan, vanua, samaryyāda, mandala and bhūmi.

Kadātuan can mean the area of ​​dātu, (the house) where the hajji chants reside, where the gold is stored and the results of the tax (drawy) as an area that must be protected. This Kadātuan is surrounded by vanua, which can be considered as the urban area of ​​Srivijaya where there is a monastery for places of worship for its people. Kadātuan and vanua is a core area for Srivijaya itself. According to Casparis, samaryyāda is an area bordering Vanua, which is connected by a special road (samaryyāda-patha) which can mean an interior region. Whereas the mandala is an autonomous region of bhūmi that is under the influence of the Sriwijaya Kadātuan authority.

The Lord of Srivijaya is called Dapunta Hyang or Maharaja, and in the circle of kings there are sequentially yuvarāja (crown prince), pratiyuvarāja (second crown prince) and rājakumara (the next heir).

The Telaga Batu inscription mentions various positions in the structure of the royal government during the Srivijaya era. According to the Telaga Batu Inscription, besides being told of the curse of the king of Srivijaya to anyone who opposed the king, it was also told of the various positions and occupations that existed in the Srivijaya era.

Meanwhile, the position and occupation described are the king's son (fourth son of the king), bhupati (regent), senopati (commander of the troops), and dandanayaka (judge). Then there is also the character of the wuruh (supervisor of the workers' group), Adyaksi nijawarna / wasikarana (knife maker), kayastha (scribe), sthapaka (sculptor), puwaham (boat captain), waniyaga, pratisra, marsi haji, and hajj (pilgrim), sthapaka (sculptor), puwaham (boat captain), waniyaga, pratisra, marsi haji, and hajj (hajj) merchant, leader, washerwoman, slave of the king).

Although Srivijaya left only a few archeological remains and its existence was forgotten from the memory of its supporting societies, the rediscovery of this maritime empire by Coedès in the 1920s had aroused awareness that a form of great political unity, in the form of a kingdom consisting of maritime kingdoms, had once been rise, grow, and prosper in the past.

The most important legacy of Srivijaya is probably the language. Over the centuries, its economic power and military might have played a major role in the widespread use of Ancient Malay in the archipelago, at least in coastal areas. This language is a working language or language that functions as a connector (lingua franca) that is used in various cities and markets in the archipelago. [49] The wide spread of this ancient Malay language may have paved the way for Malay as the national language of Malaysia, and Indonesian as the unifying language of modern Indonesia.

Besides Majapahit, Indonesian nationalists also glorified Srivijaya as a source of pride and proof of the glory of Indonesia's past. [50] Sriwijaya's glory has become a source of national pride and regional identity, especially for residents of the city of Palembang, South Sumatra. Sriwijaya's nobleness has been an inspiration for arts and culture, such as traditional Gending Sriwijaya songs and dances. The same thing applies to the people of southern Thailand who are reinventing Sevichai dance based on the elegance of Sriwijaya's cultural arts.

In Indonesia, the name Sriwijaya has been used and enshrined as street names in various cities, and this name is also used by Sriwijaya University which was founded in 1960 in Palembang. Likewise Sriwijaya Kodam II (military command unit), PT Pupuk Sriwijaya (Fertilizer Company in South Sumatra), Sriwijaya Post (Daily newspaper in Palembang), Sriwijaya TV, Sriwijaya Air (airline), Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, and Sriwijaya Football Club (Palembang soccer club). All of them are named so as to honor, glorify and celebrate the glorious Srivijaya empire. On November 11, 2011 the opening ceremony of the 2011 SEA Games was held at the Sriwijaya Stadium in Palembang. The opening ceremony featured a colossal dance entitled "Srivijaya the Golden Peninsula" featuring a traditional Palembang dance and also a replica of the actual size of the Srivijaya boat to illustrate the triumph of the maritime courtesy.

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^ The new Golden Peninsula Games
^ Spectacular Opening of the 26th SEA GAMES in Palembang

Further reading
  • D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-east Asia. London: Macmillan, 1955.
  • D. R. SarDesai. Southeast Asia: Past and Present. Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.
  • Lynda Norene Shaffer. Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500. London: ME Sharpe Armonk, 1996.
  • Stuart-Fox, Martin. A Short History of China and Southeast Asia: Tribute, Trade, and Influence. London: Allen and Unwin, 2003.
  • Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 9814155675.
  • Muljana, Slamet (2006). Sriwijaya. Yogyakarta: LKiS. ISBN 9798451627.
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Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture