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Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

Evolution of Human Hominids

Answering and finding Missing Link

Main Literacy
Sangiran (DreamLandLibrary) - The book "Sangiran Answering the World" was published by the Sangiran Ancient Human Site Preservation Hall, an institution that has the most authorization to publish it. The publication of this book is fully supported including its funding by the Government of Central Java Province.

Pak Bibit Waluyo, Governor of Central Java, gave a speech in this book. Mr. Bibit certainly realizes that Sangiran is a world cultural heritage, which is very important in the world of paleoanthropology, especially the history of Homo erectus (Sangiran is currently the most important place in the world to study Homo erectus).

Mr. Bibit hopes that Sangiran can become one of the important destinations in the 2011 Central Java Tourism Visit Year ″.

The book begins with an explanation of the Evolution Theory of Late 19th Century stories about Charles Darwin, the founder of the theory of evolution 1859, controversies around him, his defenders and attackers, and finally tells of Eugene Dubois, a Dutch doctor who was obsessed with Darwin's theory then came to Indonesia, wandered to Sumatra then Java and finally in 1891-1892 he found in Trinil, Ngawi what he believed to be the missing link between apes and humans: fossils of skulls, teeth and left femur - all three made Dubois conclude that the three ex the fragment he found belonged to a creature, not an ape, not a human.

Not an ape because when measured in the brain volume of 900 cc (the most advanced ape brain - 600 cc chimpanzee; 1200 cc human brain), then his thighbone showed that the owner walked upright (of course Dubois knew because he was an anatomist). So two words were given for this discovery: Pithecanthrous erectus - humans like apes (or apes like humans) who walk upright.

Match it as a missing link between apes and humans. In the 1980s, the name of the genus Pithecanthropus was changed to Homo, the same genus as modern humans.

Charles Darwin died in 1882 AD, he did not witness the discoveries of fossils around hominids (human-like creatures) that showed what Darwin thought might be true: evolution. The fossils discovered by Dubois and many other experts in the 20th century have been able to show that there has been an evolution from the most primitive hominids to the most modern hominids and possibly also modern humans. That the theory of evolution caused great controversy when Darwin lived was certainly one of them because fossil evidence was not yet discovered. Although fossil evidence has so clearly shown that evolution is a fact, even today the pros and cons of evolution still occur. "Warfare" becomes even more exciting when Christian and Muslim creationists advance simultaneously to attack evolutionists.

The second chapter of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" further explains the evolution of hominids, which was compiled based on the discovery of all hominid fossils around the world: in Africa, in Europe, in Asia and Java. So in this chapter, there is certainly an explanation of the most primitive hominid Australopithecus afarensis, then successively explained about the first A. africanus hominid hunter, A. muscular muscular A. robustus; then the new genus Homo emerged as Homo habilis who began to make tools out of stone (known as Olduvai / Oldowan culture) and finally the famous hominid who was a skilled carpenter and first traveler came out of Africa: Homo erectus. Also told in this chapter about Homo neanderthalensis and Homo crromagnon that lived in Europe until finally the oldest Homo sapiens that also appeared in Africa before they migrated throughout the world. This chapter clearly shows the "timeline" from Australopithecus afarensis (about 7 Ma-million years ago) until one day simultaneously at 0.035 Ma (35,000 years ago) a new type of human called Homo sapiens sapiens appeared. "A long journey to modern humans," wrote Widianto and Simanjuntak (2009).

Chapter three of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" begins to specialize in the discussion of Homo erectus, a type of hominid inhabitant of Sangiran, but this chapter has not yet discussed Sangiran, only discussed how Homo erectus's life patterns are based on the artifacts left behind. From these artifacts archaeologists deduce a pattern of life. If any of the hominid fossils of the artifact maker were found, it would be very good, and it happened in Sangiran. This chapter explains how the hand ax is made by Homo erectus. The hand-held ax is a universal tool of paleolithic culture which is found to be widespread from Africa, Europe to Asia. In general, the culture of the hand-held ax is referred to as the Acheullian culture which began to emerge in East Africa since 1.5 Ma. How Homo erectus sharpened the stone he found to be an ax with various purposes (pounding, splitting, piercing, etc.) is told in this chapter.

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Sangiran Answering the World

2010 March 23

tags: sangiran

by RDP (admin)

Author: Awang H Satyana

Pithecantropus
Beginning in March 2010, a package was located on my desk, sent from a friend in Yogyakarta - Mr. Budianto Toha (UGM Geology). When opened, wow a pleasant surprise, a hard-bound book with glossy paper, full of pictures and photos, printed properly, titled, "Sangiran Answering the World". The author is no stranger to me, also certain to every reader of articles or works of Indonesian archeology, namely Harry Widianto and Harry Truman Simanjuntak, two senior Indonesian archeologists. Thank you Mr. Bud, for this special surprise, as expected Mr. Bud I enjoyed reading it.

The book "Sangiran Answering the World" was published by the Sangiran Ancient Human Site Preservation Hall, an institution that has the most authorization to publish it. The publication of this book is fully supported including its funding by the Government of Central Java Province. Pak Bibit Waluyo, Governor of Central Java, gave a speech in this book. Mr. Bibit certainly realizes that Sangiran is a world cultural heritage, which is very important in the world of paleoanthropology, especially the history of Homo erectus (Sangiran is currently the most important place in the world to study Homo erectus). Mr. Bibit hopes that Sangiran can become one of the important destinations in the 2011 Central Java Tourism Visit Year s. Sangiran01

Dr. Harry Widianto is currently the Head of the Sangiran Ancient Human Site Preservation Center, while Prof. Dr. Truman Simanjuntak is the Director of the Center for Prehistoric and Austronesian Studies in Jakarta. Both of them are also main researchers at the Arkenas Research and Development Center (National Archeology), lecturers and student examiners at several universities in Indonesia and in several countries. Last February 2010 I met with Mr. Truman at TMII when I was both invited as a resource at the Atlantis Seminar held by Atlantis book publisher PT Ufuk (I have already told this list). At that time, Mr. Truman dissected the book Atlantis by Prof. Arysio Santos was based on archeology, while I analyzed it based on geology. Our conclusion is the same: Indonesia is not the lost Atlantis. Pak Harry Widianto's scientific work on Homo erectus Sangiran was learned a lot in 2008 when I was compiling a paper for PIT IAGI which hypothesized that the further development of Homo erectus did not develop in Sangiran, but developed in the downstream streams of Bengawan Solo in the region Ngandong, Trinil and Ngawi because Sangiran was no longer habitable because Sangiran was erupted as a mud volcano.

The book "Sangiran Answering the World" is easy to read, the explanation is easy to understand because it is intended for general readers, the layout work is made artistic so that it is "cool" to read it because there are many variations of the scenery. This book explains comprehensively about Sangiran as the most important site of Homo erectus in the world. Not only Sangiran is explained, but the reader is introduced to several matters relating to ancient humans.

Homo Erectus and Widianto Truman's Handheld Ax 2009
The book begins with an explanation of the Evolution Theory of Late 19th Century stories about Charles Darwin, the founder of the theory of evolution 1859, controversies around him, his defenders and attackers, and finally tells of Eugene Dubois, a Dutch doctor who was obsessed with Darwin's theory then came to Indonesia, wandered to Sumatra then Java and finally in 1891-1892 he found in Trinil, Ngawi what he believed to be the missing link between apes and humans: fossils of skulls, teeth and left femur - all three made Dubois conclude that the three ex the fragment he found belonged to a creature, not an ape, not a human. Not an ape because when measured in the brain volume of 900 cc (the most advanced ape brain - 600 cc of chimpanzees; 1200 cc of human brain), then his thighbone showed that the owner walked upright (of course Dubois knew because he was an anatomist). So two words were given for this discovery: Pithecanthrous erectus - humans like apes (or apes like humans) who walk upright. Match it as a missing link between apes and humans. In the 1980s, the name of the genus Pithecanthropus was changed to Homo, the same genus as modern humans.

Hominid-human evolution (widianto and simanjuntak, 2009)
Charles Darwin died in 1882, he did not witness the discoveries of fossils around hominids (human-like creatures) that showed what Darwin thought might be true: evolution. The fossils discovered by Dubois and many other experts in the 20th century have been able to show that there has been an evolution from the most primitive hominids to the most modern hominids and possibly also modern humans. That the theory of evolution caused great controversy when Darwin lived was certainly one of them because fossil evidence was not yet discovered. Although fossil evidence has so clearly shown that evolution is a fact, even today the pros and cons of evolution still occur. "Warfare" becomes even more exciting when Christian and Muslim creationists advance simultaneously to attack evolutionists.

Sangiran archeological excavation (Widianto and Simanjuntak, 2009)
When Mr. Budianto Toha's book came, I was reading a book that was recently translated by the Gramedia Popular Library "Evolution" (February, 2010) written by an expert who contributed significantly to the modern theory of evolution, Ernst Mayr. Mayr wrote this comprehensive book on evolution in 2001 when he was 97 years old (not playing ...). Geology is certainly closely related to the evolution proposed by Darwin, Darwin was inspired to put forward his theory because geology, and geology also contributed when he compiled his theory (see my writing in the last IAGI News-edition 2/2009 published at PIT IAGI in Semarang- about how Charles played a role Lyell, one of the fathers of modern geology, took part when Darwin compiled his theory).

The second chapter of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" further explains the evolution of hominids, which was compiled based on the discovery of all hominid fossils around the world: in Africa, in Europe, in Asia and Java. So in this chapter, there is certainly an explanation of the most primitive hominid Australopithecus afarensis, then successively explained about the first A. africanus hominid hunter, A. muscular muscular A. robustus; then the new genus Homo emerged as Homo habilis who began to make tools out of stone (known as Olduvai / Oldowan culture) and finally the famous hominid who was a skilled carpenter and first traveler came out of Africa: Homo erectus. Also told in this chapter about Homo neanderthalensis and Homo crromagnon that lived in Europe until finally the oldest Homo sapiens that also appeared in Africa before they migrated throughout the world. This chapter clearly shows the "timeline" from Australopithecus afarensis (about 7 Ma-million years ago) until one day simultaneously at 0.035 Ma (35,000 years ago) a new type of human called Homo sapiens sapiens appeared. "A long journey to modern humans," wrote Widianto and Simanjuntak (2009).

Chapter three of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" begins to specialize in the discussion of Homo erectus, a type of hominid inhabitant of Sangiran, but this chapter has not yet discussed Sangiran, only discussed how Homo erectus's life patterns are based on the artifacts left behind. From these artifacts archaeologists deduce a pattern of life. If any of the hominid fossils of the artifact maker were found, it would be very good, and it happened in Sangiran. This chapter explains how the hand ax is made by Homo erectus. The hand-held ax is a universal tool of paleolithic culture which is found to be widespread from Africa, Europe to Asia. In general, the culture of the hand-held ax is referred to as the Acheullian culture which began to emerge in East Africa since 1.5 Ma. How Homo erectus sharpened the stone he found to be an ax with various purposes (pounding, splitting, piercing, etc.) is told in this chapter.

Sangiran 2001
The Sangiran site, located on the border between Sragen and Karanganyar Regencies, Central Java, is told in the fourth chapter of this book and so on. This site is the most complete site for Homo erectus dwelling since 1.5 million years ago. Javanese colonization is estimated to have taken place at the end of the Pliocene (1.8 million tyl). Evidence in that direction is based on the discovery of Upper Pliocene Archidiskodon mammals at the Bumiayu site. Homo erectus migration through land bridges during the ice age began to occur in the Lower Plistocene and began to inhabit Sangiran at 1.5 million tyl. The oldest homo erectus found in Africa is 1.8 million tyl.

Sangiran site was discovered by paleontologist G.H.R. von Koenigswald in 1934 through an artifact left by Homo erectus in Ngebung Village, Sangiran. At that time von Koenigswald was assigned by the Dutch to compile Javanese biostratigraphy based on fossil mammals. Excavations that began in 1936 then found Homo erectus fossils. Discovery after discovery has continued until the last decade, proving that Sangiran is a very important Homo erectus site.

Explanation of Sangiran begins by explaining the stratigraphy of the Sangiran area where in one of its formations many Homo erectus fossils were found. The lowest layer in Sangiran is composed by blue clay of the Upper Pliocene Kalibeng Formation (2.4 Ma) in a deep (deep) marine environment. Tectonic uplifting accompanied by volcanic activity changes the Sangiran environment into a swamp environment. This occurs at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary (1.8 Ma). Lava breccias mark this event, which was deposited on the Kalibeng clay. During the swamp, Sangiran was deposited in the black clay of the Pucangan Formation which lasted up to 0.9 Ma. The oldest fossil found at the top of this deposit is 1.0 Ma. Surely Homo erectus older than this existed because his artifacts that were 1.2 Ma had been discovered. Between 0.9-0.7 Ma, around the Sangiran area there was a reappointment; this area was then eroded and deposited the shredded material into the Sangiran region in the form of limestone and volcanic material which is famously called the Grenzbank layer (boundary layer) because this layer borders between the Pucangan Formation below and the Kabuh Formation above it. After 0.7 Ma, the Sangiran region is a reservoir area for volcanic deposits from nearby volcanic eruptions (ancient Lawu-Merapi-Merbabu). Sangiran when it has become the mainland. It was in the Kabuh Formation that many Homo erectus fossils dating to 700,000-300,000 years were found. At 0.25 Ma another lava breccia was deposited which ended the Kabuh Formation. Volcanic eruptions still continue until near the Resen, precipitating the Notopuro Formation volcanic sand.

The oldest hominid fossils found at Sangiran are currently 1 Ma, but the artifacts have been found at the Dayu site (still at Sangiran) and are 1.2 Ma. That is, there may still be Homo erectus older than 1 Ma. Based on all Homo erectus fossils that have been found in Sangiran and its surroundings (Kedungbrubus, Sponsormacan, Ngandong, Trinil, Ngawi), Mr. Harry Widianto stated that Homo erectus in Sangiran could be grouped into three subspecies following his discovery in the oldest-youngest layer. From old to young are: (1) Homo erectus archaea -Posenosen Bottom 1.5-1.0 Ma found in the upper part of the Pucangan Formation, (2) Typical Homo erectus -Middle Listist 0.9-0.3 Ma found throughout Kabuh Formation, and (3) Progressive Homo erectus - Upper Listosen 0.2-0.1 Ma found in Notopuro Formation. Progressive Homo erectus is not found in Sangiran, but in regions downstream from Sangiran (Kedungbrubus, Sponsormacan, Ngandong, Trinil, Ngawi).

Why isn't progressive Homo erectus not found in Sangiran? Because shortly after the deposition of Notopuro, mud volcanism took place in Sangiran, so the subspecies subsequently migrated to areas further downstream and found fossils there, including the first time Dubois discovered in Trinil. That's about the hypothesis I put forward in the paper presented at the 2008 IAGI PIT ("Sangiran Dome, Central Java: Mud Volcanoes Eruption, Demise of Homo erectus erectus and Migration of Later Hominids")

Briefly, Mr. Harry and Mr. Truman continued their Sangiran story with fossils of large animals found in Sangiran. If Homo erectus is only found in the upper layers of the Pucangan and Kabuh; various vertebrate fossils found in all layers (Kalibeng, Pucangan, grenzbank, Kabuh, Notopuro). the most commonly found types of vertebrates are the types of ancient elephants, deer, buffalo, cattle, bulls and rhinos. Some of these animals were contemporaneous with Homo erectus, possibly the animals they hunted. Explanation at Sangiran ends with a story about the struggle of archaeologists and the Government of Indonesia to make Sangiran recognized as a world cultural heritage site. The struggle was successful with the recognition of Sangiran by UN UNESCO as World Cultural Heritage with number 593 (document WHC-96 / Conf.201 / 21) in 1996. The Government of Indonesia itself has of course recognized Sangiran as a Cultural Heritage Area since 1977 (Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture Nom 070/0/1977).

Chapter five of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" describes the Homo erectus fossils found outside Sangiran, starting with the fossils found by Dubois at Trinil, in Kedungbrubus where the painter Raden Saleh once dug up vertebrate fossils that are found here and are believed by residents as the remnants of the Bharatayudha war in the Kurusetra desert, in Perning Mojokerto where an old skull roof (1.8 Ma) was found and caused a stir among experts because of its position so that the lighting of the age of the "Perning boy" is doubtful, in Ngandong where Ter Haar and Oppenoorth found fossils that came to be known as progressive Homo erectus, 300,000 years old, in 10/10, where T. Jacob and RP Sujono found fossils in the form of a progressive Homo erectus skull roof and its perforce, and in Patiayam, the southern slope of Muria is an interesting place because Sartono found molars and Homo erectus skull fragments estimated to be the same age as H omo erectus is typical in Sangiran. The findings in Patiayam are interesting because this place was isolated from Sangiran in the time of the typical Homo erectus developed. How these two places (which at that time were separated by a strait / sea) could be inhabited at the same time is certainly interesting in paleogeography. Pak Yahdi Zaim, who was involved in the discovery of fossils in Patiayam, can certainly tell more.

This chapter also describes the latest discoveries of hominid fossils or artifacts. The first is the fossil that once made a scene, namely Homo floresiensis found in Liang Bua Flores in September 2003. Its age is now known: 18,000 years and concluded as an ancient Homo sapiens which stunted due to paleogeography of isolated islands, as well as fossils of dwarf elephants. found here. Now, this subspecies of ancient Flores is referred to as Homo sapiens floresiensis. Next, are hominid residential sites called Semedo Site in the North Serayu Mountains, Kedungbanteng District, Tegal. Here are found several vertebrate fossils and hominid tools in the form of axes and shavers made from chert and gritty limestone. Homo erectus fossils have not been found here. The latter is the Bringin Site at Ngawi, where vertebrate fossils and stone-style fossils have been found to have the same morphology as those of progressive Homo erectus found elsewhere. Hominid fossils have not been found here.

Bab enam buku ini, yang merupakan bab terakhir, menjelaskan tentang rencana utama (master plan) pengembangan Situs Sangiran untuk menjadi pusat informasi peradaban manusia purba bertaraf internasional. Pengembangan ini berusaha sedemikian rupa agar Sangiran yang merupakan padang gersang ini tetapi yang sesungguhnya memuat informasi yang sangat penting tentang evolusi manusia dapat dinikmati dengan mudah oleh masyarakat umum. Maka, akan didirikan pusat-pusat informasi yang terletak dekat situs-situs penggaliannya, dibagi ke dalam empat klaster (cluster) : klaster Ngebung, Klaster Bukuran, Klaster Dayu dan Klaster Krikilan. Di setiap klaster akan didirikan berbagai sarana yang akan memudahkan pengunjung memahami makna paleoantropologi dan arkeologi Homo erectus, termasuk kesempatan untuk mengamati sendiri tempat-tempat ekskavasi (lubang penggalian) tempat para ahli mencari fosil dan artefak Homo erectus.

Thus, the book "Sangiran Answering the World" by Dr. Harry Widianto and Prof. Dr. Truman Simanjuntak. One hundred individuals who have been found in Sangiran have indeed answered the world, asking about evolutionary evidence ...

"Res serias omnes extollo ex hoc die in alium diem"

Main Literacy

Source:
http://geologi.iagi.or.id/2010/03/23/sangiran-menawab-dunia/
from various sources
Photo: Special

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