Window of Archipelago

Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

7000 BC and so on

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - In the search for the Dream Land Team, we still provide a timeline

We believe this year's poultices, have a lot of history of our Nation .....

900 BC and so on

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - In the search for the Dream Land Team, we still provide a timeline

We believe this year's poultices, have a lot of history of our Nation .....

500 BC and so on

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - In the search for the Dream Land Team, we still provide a timeline

We believe this year's poultices, have a lot of history of our Nation .....

Sultanate of Ternate 1257 to 1950 AD

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - The Sultanate of Ternate, also known as the Kingdom of Gapi, is one of the 4 Islamic empires in the Maluku Islands and is one of the oldest Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago.

It was founded by Baab Mashur Malamo in 1257. The Sultanate of Ternate had an important role in the eastern archipelago between the 13th century to the 19th century.

The Sultanate of Ternate enjoyed glory in the middle of the 16th century thanks to its spice trade and military strength.

During his heyday his authority stretched to cover the regions of Maluku, northern, eastern and central Sulawesi, the southern part of the Philippine islands to as far as the Marshall Islands in the Pacific.

Source: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sultanate_Ternate

Photo: Special

Evolution of Human Hominids

Answering and finding Missing Link

Main Literacy
Sangiran (DreamLandLibrary) - The book "Sangiran Answering the World" was published by the Sangiran Ancient Human Site Preservation Hall, an institution that has the most authorization to publish it. The publication of this book is fully supported including its funding by the Government of Central Java Province.

Pak Bibit Waluyo, Governor of Central Java, gave a speech in this book. Mr. Bibit certainly realizes that Sangiran is a world cultural heritage, which is very important in the world of paleoanthropology, especially the history of Homo erectus (Sangiran is currently the most important place in the world to study Homo erectus).

Mr. Bibit hopes that Sangiran can become one of the important destinations in the 2011 Central Java Tourism Visit Year ″.

The book begins with an explanation of the Evolution Theory of Late 19th Century stories about Charles Darwin, the founder of the theory of evolution 1859, controversies around him, his defenders and attackers, and finally tells of Eugene Dubois, a Dutch doctor who was obsessed with Darwin's theory then came to Indonesia, wandered to Sumatra then Java and finally in 1891-1892 he found in Trinil, Ngawi what he believed to be the missing link between apes and humans: fossils of skulls, teeth and left femur - all three made Dubois conclude that the three ex the fragment he found belonged to a creature, not an ape, not a human.

Not an ape because when measured in the brain volume of 900 cc (the most advanced ape brain - 600 cc chimpanzee; 1200 cc human brain), then his thighbone showed that the owner walked upright (of course Dubois knew because he was an anatomist). So two words were given for this discovery: Pithecanthrous erectus - humans like apes (or apes like humans) who walk upright.

Match it as a missing link between apes and humans. In the 1980s, the name of the genus Pithecanthropus was changed to Homo, the same genus as modern humans.

Charles Darwin died in 1882 AD, he did not witness the discoveries of fossils around hominids (human-like creatures) that showed what Darwin thought might be true: evolution. The fossils discovered by Dubois and many other experts in the 20th century have been able to show that there has been an evolution from the most primitive hominids to the most modern hominids and possibly also modern humans. That the theory of evolution caused great controversy when Darwin lived was certainly one of them because fossil evidence was not yet discovered. Although fossil evidence has so clearly shown that evolution is a fact, even today the pros and cons of evolution still occur. "Warfare" becomes even more exciting when Christian and Muslim creationists advance simultaneously to attack evolutionists.

The second chapter of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" further explains the evolution of hominids, which was compiled based on the discovery of all hominid fossils around the world: in Africa, in Europe, in Asia and Java. So in this chapter, there is certainly an explanation of the most primitive hominid Australopithecus afarensis, then successively explained about the first A. africanus hominid hunter, A. muscular muscular A. robustus; then the new genus Homo emerged as Homo habilis who began to make tools out of stone (known as Olduvai / Oldowan culture) and finally the famous hominid who was a skilled carpenter and first traveler came out of Africa: Homo erectus. Also told in this chapter about Homo neanderthalensis and Homo crromagnon that lived in Europe until finally the oldest Homo sapiens that also appeared in Africa before they migrated throughout the world. This chapter clearly shows the "timeline" from Australopithecus afarensis (about 7 Ma-million years ago) until one day simultaneously at 0.035 Ma (35,000 years ago) a new type of human called Homo sapiens sapiens appeared. "A long journey to modern humans," wrote Widianto and Simanjuntak (2009).

Chapter three of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" begins to specialize in the discussion of Homo erectus, a type of hominid inhabitant of Sangiran, but this chapter has not yet discussed Sangiran, only discussed how Homo erectus's life patterns are based on the artifacts left behind. From these artifacts archaeologists deduce a pattern of life. If any of the hominid fossils of the artifact maker were found, it would be very good, and it happened in Sangiran. This chapter explains how the hand ax is made by Homo erectus. The hand-held ax is a universal tool of paleolithic culture which is found to be widespread from Africa, Europe to Asia. In general, the culture of the hand-held ax is referred to as the Acheullian culture which began to emerge in East Africa since 1.5 Ma. How Homo erectus sharpened the stone he found to be an ax with various purposes (pounding, splitting, piercing, etc.) is told in this chapter.

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Sangiran Answering the World

2010 March 23

tags: sangiran

by RDP (admin)

Author: Awang H Satyana

Pithecantropus
Beginning in March 2010, a package was located on my desk, sent from a friend in Yogyakarta - Mr. Budianto Toha (UGM Geology). When opened, wow a pleasant surprise, a hard-bound book with glossy paper, full of pictures and photos, printed properly, titled, "Sangiran Answering the World". The author is no stranger to me, also certain to every reader of articles or works of Indonesian archeology, namely Harry Widianto and Harry Truman Simanjuntak, two senior Indonesian archeologists. Thank you Mr. Bud, for this special surprise, as expected Mr. Bud I enjoyed reading it.

The book "Sangiran Answering the World" was published by the Sangiran Ancient Human Site Preservation Hall, an institution that has the most authorization to publish it. The publication of this book is fully supported including its funding by the Government of Central Java Province. Pak Bibit Waluyo, Governor of Central Java, gave a speech in this book. Mr. Bibit certainly realizes that Sangiran is a world cultural heritage, which is very important in the world of paleoanthropology, especially the history of Homo erectus (Sangiran is currently the most important place in the world to study Homo erectus). Mr. Bibit hopes that Sangiran can become one of the important destinations in the 2011 Central Java Tourism Visit Year s. Sangiran01

Dr. Harry Widianto is currently the Head of the Sangiran Ancient Human Site Preservation Center, while Prof. Dr. Truman Simanjuntak is the Director of the Center for Prehistoric and Austronesian Studies in Jakarta. Both of them are also main researchers at the Arkenas Research and Development Center (National Archeology), lecturers and student examiners at several universities in Indonesia and in several countries. Last February 2010 I met with Mr. Truman at TMII when I was both invited as a resource at the Atlantis Seminar held by Atlantis book publisher PT Ufuk (I have already told this list). At that time, Mr. Truman dissected the book Atlantis by Prof. Arysio Santos was based on archeology, while I analyzed it based on geology. Our conclusion is the same: Indonesia is not the lost Atlantis. Pak Harry Widianto's scientific work on Homo erectus Sangiran was learned a lot in 2008 when I was compiling a paper for PIT IAGI which hypothesized that the further development of Homo erectus did not develop in Sangiran, but developed in the downstream streams of Bengawan Solo in the region Ngandong, Trinil and Ngawi because Sangiran was no longer habitable because Sangiran was erupted as a mud volcano.

The book "Sangiran Answering the World" is easy to read, the explanation is easy to understand because it is intended for general readers, the layout work is made artistic so that it is "cool" to read it because there are many variations of the scenery. This book explains comprehensively about Sangiran as the most important site of Homo erectus in the world. Not only Sangiran is explained, but the reader is introduced to several matters relating to ancient humans.

Homo Erectus and Widianto Truman's Handheld Ax 2009
The book begins with an explanation of the Evolution Theory of Late 19th Century stories about Charles Darwin, the founder of the theory of evolution 1859, controversies around him, his defenders and attackers, and finally tells of Eugene Dubois, a Dutch doctor who was obsessed with Darwin's theory then came to Indonesia, wandered to Sumatra then Java and finally in 1891-1892 he found in Trinil, Ngawi what he believed to be the missing link between apes and humans: fossils of skulls, teeth and left femur - all three made Dubois conclude that the three ex the fragment he found belonged to a creature, not an ape, not a human. Not an ape because when measured in the brain volume of 900 cc (the most advanced ape brain - 600 cc of chimpanzees; 1200 cc of human brain), then his thighbone showed that the owner walked upright (of course Dubois knew because he was an anatomist). So two words were given for this discovery: Pithecanthrous erectus - humans like apes (or apes like humans) who walk upright. Match it as a missing link between apes and humans. In the 1980s, the name of the genus Pithecanthropus was changed to Homo, the same genus as modern humans.

Hominid-human evolution (widianto and simanjuntak, 2009)
Charles Darwin died in 1882, he did not witness the discoveries of fossils around hominids (human-like creatures) that showed what Darwin thought might be true: evolution. The fossils discovered by Dubois and many other experts in the 20th century have been able to show that there has been an evolution from the most primitive hominids to the most modern hominids and possibly also modern humans. That the theory of evolution caused great controversy when Darwin lived was certainly one of them because fossil evidence was not yet discovered. Although fossil evidence has so clearly shown that evolution is a fact, even today the pros and cons of evolution still occur. "Warfare" becomes even more exciting when Christian and Muslim creationists advance simultaneously to attack evolutionists.

Sangiran archeological excavation (Widianto and Simanjuntak, 2009)
When Mr. Budianto Toha's book came, I was reading a book that was recently translated by the Gramedia Popular Library "Evolution" (February, 2010) written by an expert who contributed significantly to the modern theory of evolution, Ernst Mayr. Mayr wrote this comprehensive book on evolution in 2001 when he was 97 years old (not playing ...). Geology is certainly closely related to the evolution proposed by Darwin, Darwin was inspired to put forward his theory because geology, and geology also contributed when he compiled his theory (see my writing in the last IAGI News-edition 2/2009 published at PIT IAGI in Semarang- about how Charles played a role Lyell, one of the fathers of modern geology, took part when Darwin compiled his theory).

The second chapter of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" further explains the evolution of hominids, which was compiled based on the discovery of all hominid fossils around the world: in Africa, in Europe, in Asia and Java. So in this chapter, there is certainly an explanation of the most primitive hominid Australopithecus afarensis, then successively explained about the first A. africanus hominid hunter, A. muscular muscular A. robustus; then the new genus Homo emerged as Homo habilis who began to make tools out of stone (known as Olduvai / Oldowan culture) and finally the famous hominid who was a skilled carpenter and first traveler came out of Africa: Homo erectus. Also told in this chapter about Homo neanderthalensis and Homo crromagnon that lived in Europe until finally the oldest Homo sapiens that also appeared in Africa before they migrated throughout the world. This chapter clearly shows the "timeline" from Australopithecus afarensis (about 7 Ma-million years ago) until one day simultaneously at 0.035 Ma (35,000 years ago) a new type of human called Homo sapiens sapiens appeared. "A long journey to modern humans," wrote Widianto and Simanjuntak (2009).

Chapter three of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" begins to specialize in the discussion of Homo erectus, a type of hominid inhabitant of Sangiran, but this chapter has not yet discussed Sangiran, only discussed how Homo erectus's life patterns are based on the artifacts left behind. From these artifacts archaeologists deduce a pattern of life. If any of the hominid fossils of the artifact maker were found, it would be very good, and it happened in Sangiran. This chapter explains how the hand ax is made by Homo erectus. The hand-held ax is a universal tool of paleolithic culture which is found to be widespread from Africa, Europe to Asia. In general, the culture of the hand-held ax is referred to as the Acheullian culture which began to emerge in East Africa since 1.5 Ma. How Homo erectus sharpened the stone he found to be an ax with various purposes (pounding, splitting, piercing, etc.) is told in this chapter.

Sangiran 2001
The Sangiran site, located on the border between Sragen and Karanganyar Regencies, Central Java, is told in the fourth chapter of this book and so on. This site is the most complete site for Homo erectus dwelling since 1.5 million years ago. Javanese colonization is estimated to have taken place at the end of the Pliocene (1.8 million tyl). Evidence in that direction is based on the discovery of Upper Pliocene Archidiskodon mammals at the Bumiayu site. Homo erectus migration through land bridges during the ice age began to occur in the Lower Plistocene and began to inhabit Sangiran at 1.5 million tyl. The oldest homo erectus found in Africa is 1.8 million tyl.

Sangiran site was discovered by paleontologist G.H.R. von Koenigswald in 1934 through an artifact left by Homo erectus in Ngebung Village, Sangiran. At that time von Koenigswald was assigned by the Dutch to compile Javanese biostratigraphy based on fossil mammals. Excavations that began in 1936 then found Homo erectus fossils. Discovery after discovery has continued until the last decade, proving that Sangiran is a very important Homo erectus site.

Explanation of Sangiran begins by explaining the stratigraphy of the Sangiran area where in one of its formations many Homo erectus fossils were found. The lowest layer in Sangiran is composed by blue clay of the Upper Pliocene Kalibeng Formation (2.4 Ma) in a deep (deep) marine environment. Tectonic uplifting accompanied by volcanic activity changes the Sangiran environment into a swamp environment. This occurs at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary (1.8 Ma). Lava breccias mark this event, which was deposited on the Kalibeng clay. During the swamp, Sangiran was deposited in the black clay of the Pucangan Formation which lasted up to 0.9 Ma. The oldest fossil found at the top of this deposit is 1.0 Ma. Surely Homo erectus older than this existed because his artifacts that were 1.2 Ma had been discovered. Between 0.9-0.7 Ma, around the Sangiran area there was a reappointment; this area was then eroded and deposited the shredded material into the Sangiran region in the form of limestone and volcanic material which is famously called the Grenzbank layer (boundary layer) because this layer borders between the Pucangan Formation below and the Kabuh Formation above it. After 0.7 Ma, the Sangiran region is a reservoir area for volcanic deposits from nearby volcanic eruptions (ancient Lawu-Merapi-Merbabu). Sangiran when it has become the mainland. It was in the Kabuh Formation that many Homo erectus fossils dating to 700,000-300,000 years were found. At 0.25 Ma another lava breccia was deposited which ended the Kabuh Formation. Volcanic eruptions still continue until near the Resen, precipitating the Notopuro Formation volcanic sand.

The oldest hominid fossils found at Sangiran are currently 1 Ma, but the artifacts have been found at the Dayu site (still at Sangiran) and are 1.2 Ma. That is, there may still be Homo erectus older than 1 Ma. Based on all Homo erectus fossils that have been found in Sangiran and its surroundings (Kedungbrubus, Sponsormacan, Ngandong, Trinil, Ngawi), Mr. Harry Widianto stated that Homo erectus in Sangiran could be grouped into three subspecies following his discovery in the oldest-youngest layer. From old to young are: (1) Homo erectus archaea -Posenosen Bottom 1.5-1.0 Ma found in the upper part of the Pucangan Formation, (2) Typical Homo erectus -Middle Listist 0.9-0.3 Ma found throughout Kabuh Formation, and (3) Progressive Homo erectus - Upper Listosen 0.2-0.1 Ma found in Notopuro Formation. Progressive Homo erectus is not found in Sangiran, but in regions downstream from Sangiran (Kedungbrubus, Sponsormacan, Ngandong, Trinil, Ngawi).

Why isn't progressive Homo erectus not found in Sangiran? Because shortly after the deposition of Notopuro, mud volcanism took place in Sangiran, so the subspecies subsequently migrated to areas further downstream and found fossils there, including the first time Dubois discovered in Trinil. That's about the hypothesis I put forward in the paper presented at the 2008 IAGI PIT ("Sangiran Dome, Central Java: Mud Volcanoes Eruption, Demise of Homo erectus erectus and Migration of Later Hominids")

Briefly, Mr. Harry and Mr. Truman continued their Sangiran story with fossils of large animals found in Sangiran. If Homo erectus is only found in the upper layers of the Pucangan and Kabuh; various vertebrate fossils found in all layers (Kalibeng, Pucangan, grenzbank, Kabuh, Notopuro). the most commonly found types of vertebrates are the types of ancient elephants, deer, buffalo, cattle, bulls and rhinos. Some of these animals were contemporaneous with Homo erectus, possibly the animals they hunted. Explanation at Sangiran ends with a story about the struggle of archaeologists and the Government of Indonesia to make Sangiran recognized as a world cultural heritage site. The struggle was successful with the recognition of Sangiran by UN UNESCO as World Cultural Heritage with number 593 (document WHC-96 / Conf.201 / 21) in 1996. The Government of Indonesia itself has of course recognized Sangiran as a Cultural Heritage Area since 1977 (Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture Nom 070/0/1977).

Chapter five of the book "Sangiran Answering the World" describes the Homo erectus fossils found outside Sangiran, starting with the fossils found by Dubois at Trinil, in Kedungbrubus where the painter Raden Saleh once dug up vertebrate fossils that are found here and are believed by residents as the remnants of the Bharatayudha war in the Kurusetra desert, in Perning Mojokerto where an old skull roof (1.8 Ma) was found and caused a stir among experts because of its position so that the lighting of the age of the "Perning boy" is doubtful, in Ngandong where Ter Haar and Oppenoorth found fossils that came to be known as progressive Homo erectus, 300,000 years old, in 10/10, where T. Jacob and RP Sujono found fossils in the form of a progressive Homo erectus skull roof and its perforce, and in Patiayam, the southern slope of Muria is an interesting place because Sartono found molars and Homo erectus skull fragments estimated to be the same age as H omo erectus is typical in Sangiran. The findings in Patiayam are interesting because this place was isolated from Sangiran in the time of the typical Homo erectus developed. How these two places (which at that time were separated by a strait / sea) could be inhabited at the same time is certainly interesting in paleogeography. Pak Yahdi Zaim, who was involved in the discovery of fossils in Patiayam, can certainly tell more.

This chapter also describes the latest discoveries of hominid fossils or artifacts. The first is the fossil that once made a scene, namely Homo floresiensis found in Liang Bua Flores in September 2003. Its age is now known: 18,000 years and concluded as an ancient Homo sapiens which stunted due to paleogeography of isolated islands, as well as fossils of dwarf elephants. found here. Now, this subspecies of ancient Flores is referred to as Homo sapiens floresiensis. Next, are hominid residential sites called Semedo Site in the North Serayu Mountains, Kedungbanteng District, Tegal. Here are found several vertebrate fossils and hominid tools in the form of axes and shavers made from chert and gritty limestone. Homo erectus fossils have not been found here. The latter is the Bringin Site at Ngawi, where vertebrate fossils and stone-style fossils have been found to have the same morphology as those of progressive Homo erectus found elsewhere. Hominid fossils have not been found here.

Bab enam buku ini, yang merupakan bab terakhir, menjelaskan tentang rencana utama (master plan) pengembangan Situs Sangiran untuk menjadi pusat informasi peradaban manusia purba bertaraf internasional. Pengembangan ini berusaha sedemikian rupa agar Sangiran yang merupakan padang gersang ini tetapi yang sesungguhnya memuat informasi yang sangat penting tentang evolusi manusia dapat dinikmati dengan mudah oleh masyarakat umum. Maka, akan didirikan pusat-pusat informasi yang terletak dekat situs-situs penggaliannya, dibagi ke dalam empat klaster (cluster) : klaster Ngebung, Klaster Bukuran, Klaster Dayu dan Klaster Krikilan. Di setiap klaster akan didirikan berbagai sarana yang akan memudahkan pengunjung memahami makna paleoantropologi dan arkeologi Homo erectus, termasuk kesempatan untuk mengamati sendiri tempat-tempat ekskavasi (lubang penggalian) tempat para ahli mencari fosil dan artefak Homo erectus.

Thus, the book "Sangiran Answering the World" by Dr. Harry Widianto and Prof. Dr. Truman Simanjuntak. One hundred individuals who have been found in Sangiran have indeed answered the world, asking about evolutionary evidence ...

"Res serias omnes extollo ex hoc die in alium diem"

Main Literacy

Source:
http://geologi.iagi.or.id/2010/03/23/sangiran-menawab-dunia/
from various sources
Photo: Special

Kandis - 1 Year BC

Illustration of the Kandis Kingdom, Photo: Special
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Kandis Kingdom is the oldest kingdom standing in Sumatra, located in Koto Alang, in the Lubuk Jambi, Kuantan, Riau region.

History
This kingdom is estimated to have stood 1 year before Christ, predating the establishment of the Moloyou or Dharmasraya kingdom in Central Sumatra. Two figures who are often referred to as royal kings are Patih and Tumenggung.

Maharaja Diraja, the founder of this kingdom, when he arrived at Bakau Hill built a magnificent palace called the Dhamna Palace. The son of Maharaja Diraja named Darmaswara with the title Mangkuto Maharaja Diraja (the Crown Prince Maharaja Diraja) and another title was Datuk Rajo Tunggal (more commonly called). Datuk Rajo Tunggal has an oversized weapon that is a keris with the head of an eagle that is still held by Danial title Datuk Mangkuto Maharajo Dirajo. Datuk Rajo Tunggal is married to a beautiful beautiful daughter named Mother Earth. Mother Earth is related to the Mother of White Blood. Old White Blood Mother and youngest Mother Earth. After Maharaja Diraja died, Datuk Rajo became the sole king in the kingdom of Kandis. Mother of White Blood was edited by Datuk Bandaro Hitam. The royal symbol of Kandis is a pair of red and white botanical flowers.

Royal Economy
The economic life of the Kandis kingdom is from forest products such as resin, rattan and swallow nests, and from agricultural products such as gold and silver. The Kandis kingdom was rich in gold, so Rajo Tunggal ordered to make a gold mine at the foot of Bukit Bakar, known as the mining mine, meaning a gold mine made based on the king's decree. Until now this former mining legacy is still called the mine command.

Forest products and Kandis crops are traded to the Malay Peninsula by the Minister of Trade, Dt. Bandaro Hitam by using ojung or wooden boat. From Malacca to Kandis brought goods needed by the kingdom and the people. Thus the trade relationship between Kandis and Malacca until Kandis reached its peak. The Minister of Commerce of the Kingdom of Kandis, who went back and forth to the Malacca Peninsula, brought merchandise and married a Malacca. As the first person to establish trade relations with Malacca and leave the story of the Kingdom of Kandis with the Dhamna Palace to his wife and children on the Malay Peninsula.

Dt. Rajo Tunggal rules fairly and wisely. At the peak of its glory, there was a struggle for power by the King's subordinates who wanted to rule, resulting in slander and sedition. People who felt capable and influential gradually moved from Bukit Bakar to other places including Bukit Selasih and finally the White Kancil kingdom stood at Bukit Selasih.

The establishment of the White Kancil Kingdom and the Koto Alang Kingdom
Seawater is receding so that more and more Kuantan area arises. Then also stood the kingdom of Koto Alang in Botung (now Sangau Village) with Raja Aur Kuning as its King. The spread of the Kandis population to various places that have arisen from the surface of the sea, so it also stands the Kingdom of Puti Pinang Cook / Pinang Merah in the Coastal area (now Lubuk Ramo). Then also stood the Kingdom of Dang Tuanku in Singingi and the kingdom of Imbang Jayo in Koto Baru (Singingi Hilir now).

With the establishment of new kingdoms, the seizure of power began to occur, which eventually arose wars between kingdoms. Koto Alang kingdom fought the White Kancil kingdom, after that the Kandis kingdom fought the Koto Alang kingdom and was defeated by Kandis. Koto Alang Kingdom did not want to be ruled by Kandis, so Raja Aur Kuning moved to the Jambi area, while Patih and Temenggung moved to Merapi.

The move of Raja Aur Kuning to the Jambi area caused the river that flows beside the Koto Alang kingdom to be named the Salo River, meaning King Bukak Selo (open the precepts) because he lost the battle. Whereas Patih and Tomonggong ran to Mount Marapi (West Sumatra) where both of them carved the history of West Sumatra, by changing the name Patih to Dt. Perpatih nan Sabatang and Tomonggong changed their name to Dt. Silence.

Not long after, the officials of the kingdom of Kandis were killed, attacked by King Sintong from rear China, with his expedition known as the Sintong expedition. The place where Raja Sintong's ship was docked, named Sintonga. After defeating Kandis, Raja Sintong and his soldiers continued their journey to Jambi. After losing the war the leaders of the Kandis kingdom gathered at Bukit Bakar, fearing an enemy attack, so they agreed to hide the Dhamna Palace by taking an oath. Since then the Dhamna Palace disappeared, and they moved the center of the Kandis kingdom to the Tuo Hamlet (Kuantan Bay now).

External Link
    Kingdom of Kandis at Melayuonline.com
    Kandis Kingdom The Oldest Kingdom in Sumatra
    The mythology of Lubuk Jambi

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K kingdom_Kandis


Deeper about the Kingdom of Kandis

Photo: Special

Sultanate of Samudra Pasai 1267 to 1521 AD

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - The Pasai Sultanate, also known as the Samudera Darussalam, or Samudera Pasai, is an Islamic kingdom located on the northern coast of Sumatra, more or less around Lhokseumawe City and North Aceh, Aceh Province, Indonesia.

There is not so much archeological evidence about this kingdom to be used as material for historical studies. However, some historians began to trace the existence of this kingdom sourced from the Story of the Kings of Pasai, and this is associated with several royal tombs and the discovery of coins made of gold and silver with the name of the king listed.

This kingdom was founded by Marah Silu, who was titled Sultan Malik as-Saleh, around 1267. The existence of this kingdom was also listed in the book Rihlah ila l-Masyriq (Wandering to the East) by Abu Abdullah ibn Batuthah (1304–1368), a Moroccan traveler who stopped in this country in 1345. The Pasai Sultanate finally collapsed after the Ihsan invasion of Portugal in 1521.

Source: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultanate_Samudera_Pasai
Photo: Special

300 AD and Beyond

300 AD
Pinawetengan Inscription

The ancient Minahasa script is called the Malesung Script. Batu Pinawetengan is located in West Tompaso District. It is a natural stone upon which is written in Hieroglyphic Letters (writings and alphabet of Ancient Egypt). This Maeres Literature Speech contains a Regional Divisions Conference, a Declaration to maintain unity.

Source: Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minahasa

301 AD
The establishment of the Kingdom of Kutai Martadipura (Hindu)

Years 358 - 669

Kingdom of Tarumanagara

Photo: Special

200 AD and Beyond

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - In the search for the Dream Land Team, we still provide a timeline


We believe this year's poultices, have a lot of history of our Nation .....

3rd Century or 200 AD to 299 AD
In 200 AD the construction of the Batujaya Temple

Peking Man - 778000 BC

Taipeh (DreamLandLibrary) - Peking Man (Chinese: traditional Hanzi: Chinese: Běijīng Yuánrén), also called Sinanthropus pekinensis (now Homo erectus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus.

A group of fossil specimens were discovered in 1923-1927 during excavation at Zhoukoudian (Chou K'ou-tien) near Beijing (then called Peking), China.

These findings have been dated to around 500 thousand years ago, although further studies proposed the age of 600 to 780 thousand years ago.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_us_Peking

Photo: Special

Homo Floresiensis 92000 BC - 16000 BC

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - With the discovery of Homo Floresiensis on Flores Island in 2003 AD, it gives a clue to all of us, that the archipelago areas in the archipelago which are covered in the islands of Southeast Asia, were inhabited by humans between 18,000 years ago, to 94,000 years ago.

This will prove and strengthen a lot that human origins are from the archipelago. Of course, by taking the common thread between overseas and returning home, if drawn from the Sangiran Hominid line.

400 AD and Beyond

Tahun 400 M
The Entry of Buddhism in Indonesia.
Factors that cause the shortage of Buddhists in Indonesia include:
  1. Buddhism itself teaches that we must do ehipassiko, which is to come, see and prove yourself. This is what causes many people who do not know the teachings of Buddhism because they do not know when they can learn it.
  2. Many consider that the teachings of Buddhism are identical with incense, flowers, candles, etc. that make people think about the large enough capital to be spent.
  3. In Buddhism there is no agreement that binds a person to continue to follow Buddhism, so after marriage, quite a lot of Buddhists change religion because they have to follow the religion of their partners.
  4. Many people think that Buddhism does not give them the promise to enter heaven because the majority needs security and guarantees that they will go to heaven.
  5. The lack of Buddhism in the family so that their children who attend non-Buddhist schools will follow the ways and rules in their schools that cause them to be affected.
  6. Factors from parents who do not really understand the teachings of Buddhism so that there are parents who only carry out the traditions of the Chinese and some are only Buddhist status, but do not know anything about Buddhism. This is also due to the lack of belief in Buddhism.

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

1600 AD and Beyond

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - In the search for the Dream Land Team, we still provide a timeline


We believe this year's poultices, have a lot of history of our Nation .....

Year 1600 AD - 1904 AD
Larantuka Christian Kingdom

1601 AD
Senopati resigned, the Kingdom of Mataram was continued by Krapyak

1602 AD - 1,800 AD
Occupation by the VOC against our Nation

In March, twenty companies in the Netherlands formed the Trading Company - Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) under the leadership of Heeren XVII.
The Dutch government allowed the VOC to have its own War Fleet, and the VOC also had the right to build a fort, and decide on war with parties deemed detrimental.
The VOC built the first "post" in Gresik

1604 AD
The expedition of the British East India Company under the leadership of Sir Henry Middleton arrived in Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda.

1608 AD
Gowa began a three-year war against the Kingdom of Bone

1611 AD
The UK built several trading posts in Asia, including in Makassar, Jepara, Aceh and Jambi.
The Netherlands built a trading post in Jayakarta (Jakarta). Gowa conquered Bone

1613 AD
Sultan Agung became the king of Mataram

1614 AD
Aceh won a battle against the Portuguese on Bintan Island, to then invade Malacca.
Sultan Agung of Mataram invaded the Surabaya area.
The VOC sent an envoy to appear before Sultan Agung

1618 AD
Jan Pieterzoon Coen became the first Governor-General of the VOC.
In December, the Sultan of Banten encouraged the British to expel the Dutch from Jayakarta.

Sultan Agung prohibited trade transactions with the VOC.
In Jepara, the VOC trading office was attacked

1620 AD
Aceh took Kedah.
Rahmatullah became the Sultan of Banjar in Kalimantan.

1619 AD
Jayakarta became Batavia

1630 AD
The Establishment of the Asahan Sultanate

1640 AD
The establishment of the Bima Bima Sultanate

1650 AD
The establishment of the Adonara Kingdom, Adonara, West Java

1666 AD
The founding of the Gowa Sultanate of Goa, Makassar

1669 AD
The founding of the Deli Deli Sultanate, North Sumatra

1675 AD
The establishment of Palembang Palembang Sultanate

1679 AD
The establishment of the Waringin City Kingdom in Central Kalimantan

Source: 

  • wikipedia.org 
  • various sources

The Sultanate of Pagaruyung 1347 s 1825 AD

Istano Basa
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - The kingdom of Pagaruyung is a kingdom that once stood in Sumatra, its territory is in the province of West Sumatra now.

The name of this kingdom is referred to from the name of the tree Nibung or Ruyung, besides that it can also be referred to from the inscription of the Sultan Mohammad Tangkal Alam Bagagar from Pagaruyung, namely in the Jawi script in the inner circle which reads as follows: Sulthān Tunggal Alam Bagagar ibnu Sulthān Khalīfatullāh which has domestic royal throne Pagaruyung Dārul Qarār Johan Sovereign Zhillullāh fīl 'Ālam.

Unfortunately, the seal of the figure is not written down in the number of years of his reign. This kingdom collapsed during the Padri War, after the signing of an agreement between the Indigenous Peoples and the Dutch that made the Pagaruyung Kingdom under Dutch supervision.

Previously this kingdom was incorporated in Malayapura, a kingdom which in the Amoghapasa Inscription was said to be led by Adityawarman, who established himself as the ruler of Bhumi Malayu in Suwarnabhumi. Also included in Malayapura are the Dharmasraya kingdoms and several other Adityawarman-conquered kingdoms or areas.

Source: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/K kingdom_Pagaruyung

Photo: Special

Sjekh Siti Jenar - 1,426 AD - 1517 AD

Ilustrasi Sjekh Siti Jenar (Foto : Istw) 
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Sjekh Siti Jenar his real name is Raden Abdul Jalil (also known in many other names, among others: Sitibrit, Lemahbang, or Lemah Abang) is a Local Religious figure on the island of Java.

Born: 1426 AD, Astanajapura, Cirebon, Indonesia
Died: 1517 AD, Demak, Indonesia
Nationality: Indonesian

Speaking of Raden Abdul Jalil, the first thing we must clarify is his understanding of "Manunggaling Kawula Gusti" which is clearly an Ancient Javanese philosophy, not Arabic or other philosophy.

His teachings from the high philosophy of Raden Abdul Jalil made all Wali (Wali Songo - who are all Arabs no exception) angry. This is because according to the existing saints, it will hamper the broadcast of Islam in the archipelago.

For the Javanese who at that time was still very concrete, felt at a crossroads. Some who are still in love with the behavior of their ancestors, assume that Sheikh Siti Jenar is an intellectual who reminds the teachings of the values ​​of the Archipelago's Ancestors, when there was degeneration from the entry of foreign values ​​in the archipelago.

Raden Abdul Jalil's teachings are contained in his literary work called Pupuh. As a result of his exploration of the values ​​of the Archipelago's Ancestors, Raden Abdul Jalil delivered an excellent work, "Budi Pekerti".

Seeing the work of Budi Pekerti above, therefore people who have always wanted to damage the values ​​of the Noble Nation, have to do with heresy. In fact, if we look at the history of the replacement of Budi Pekerti in 1979, into the teachings of Religion, it was precisely that year as the pillar of history the beginning of the Student Clash. So actually we have to be literate, that the values ​​of this Archipelago Ancestor are better than any value that comes from outside.

Siti Jenar developed the teachings of the ancient Javanese way of life, which from the perspective of foreign researchers is called Sufi.

As for the title of the Shaykh in front of his name, it is a political labeling in the sense of lowering the rank or level of his caste, so that he will be governed or in accordance with the Shaykhs who are older or have higher degrees.

The concept of Manunggaling Kawulo Ghusti existed long before Christ, while Islam was only born in the 7th century (the Prophet Muhammad was born in 571 AD). So it is clear that the Manunggaling Kawulo Ghusti concept, even if it was not revived by Siti Jenar, the concept had existed long before.

If so, the question? If Siti Jenar is an Arab, then that means she is the one who is influenced by the teachings of the Noble Local Religion.

Also keep in mind that Ghusti in Old Javanese has the essence of the true meaning of God, so that the people of the Archipelago who understand well about the essence of the meaning of God, will never erase the vocabulary of Ghusti. That is why the coming of Islam to Indonesia cannot immediately replaced Ghusti's vocabulary. Like the behavior of the archipelago who are cyclical, then the disposition to replace the vocabulary of Ghusti, is subtly rejected, by inserting it behind the word Ghusti, becoming Ghusti Allah.

The question "God Almighty" is in which vocabulary - in God's Ghusti? Maybe this can be explained by the law of our language, Red Car, meaning the Car is red. So for Javanese people who still want to worship in the way of their ancestors, it is still sufficient to use the word Ghusti. While for Javanese who want to pray the Islamic way, they still add the word Allah behind the word Ghusti, to become Ghusti Allah.

Photo: Special

Note:

  1. Today there are many historical twists, which after we have examined together as above, it is not possible that Raden Abdul Jalil is a Middle Eastern, Persian, Arab or whatever.
  2. The author did not get an illustration of the face of Sheikh Siti Jenar that matches the original face.

Salakanagara Kingdom (130 AD - 362 AD)

Pandeglang (Dreamland Library) - The Kingdom of Salakanagara (Silver Country) was established in 130 AD with the capital city of Rajatapura located on the west coast of Pandeglang.

The first King Dewawarman I (130 AD - 168 AD) with the title Aji Raksa Gapurasagara (King of the Sea Gate)

His territories include:
  • Agrabinta Kingdom on Panaitan Island
  • Agnynusa Kingdom on Krakatau Island
  • And the tip of South Sumatra
In 165 AD Banten (Panaitan Island) was included in the map made by Claudius Ptolomeus as part of the shipping route, starting from Europe to China via India, Vietnam, the North End and the West Coast of Sumatra, Panaitan Island, the Sunda Strait, continuing through the Sea South China reaches Mainland China.

The order of the Salakanagara Kings
  1. 130-168 AD, Dewawarman I (Prabu Darmalokapala Aji Raksa Sagara Gapura,
  2. 168-195 AD, Dewawarman II (Prabu Digwijayakasa Dewawarmanputra), the oldest son of Dewawarman I,
  3. 195-238 AD, Dewawarman III (Prabu Singasagara Bimayasawirya), Putera Dewawarman II,
  4. 238-252 AD, Dewawarman IV (Dewawarman II's son-in-law, Raja Ujung Kulon),
  5. 252-276 AD, Dewawarman V (Dewawarman IV's son-in-law),
  6. 276-289 AD, Mahisasuramardini Warmandewi (Dewawarman IV's oldest daughter & Dewawarman V's wife),
  7. 289-308 AD, Dewawarman VI (Sang Mokteng Samudera), the oldest son of Dewawarman V,
  8. 308-340 AD, Dewawarman VII (Prabu Bima Digwijaya Satyaganapati), the oldest son of Dewawarman VI,
  9. 340-348 AD, Sphatikarnawa Warmandewi (Eldest Daughter of Dewawarman VII),
  10. 348-362 AD, Dewawarman VIII (PRABU DARMAWIRYA Dewawarman), Cucu Dewawarman VI.
In 362 AD when the leadership was in the hands of Dewawman IX, Salakanagara became a subordinate kingdom of Tarumanagara. So it can be said that Dewawarman VIII is the last King of Salakanagara.

Source: Book "Banten Past Records", Drs Halwani Michrob, MSc, Drs A. Mudjahid Chudori, Publisher Brothers, Serang 1993. Added various other sources

Sources: Various Sources
Photo: Special

Kesultanan Malaka 1405 M s/d 1511 M

Kampung Hulu Malaka Mosque, silent witness to the history of the Malacca Sultanate (one of the oldest mosques in the Malacca State, Malaysia)
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Sultanate of Melaka is a Malay Kingdom that once stood in Melaka, Malaysia. This kingdom was founded by Parameswara, then reached the peak of glory in the 15th century by controlling the Melaka Strait shipping lane, before it was conquered by Portugal in 1511. The fall of Malacca became the entrance for European colonialism in the Nusantara region.

This kingdom does not leave sufficient archaeological evidence to be used as historical study material, but the existence of this kingdom can be known through Sulalatus Salatin and Chinese chronicles during the Ming Dynasty.

The comparison of these two sources still creates complexity for Malacca's early history, especially its relationship to the development of Islam in Malacca and the time span of the respective governments of Malacca kings. At first Islam had not become a religion for the people of Malacca, but the subsequent development of Islam had become part of this kingdom which was shown by the title of sultan carried by the next ruler of Malacca.

Source: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sultanate_Melaka
Photo: Special

Krakatau Incident - 1883 AD

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Krakatau is an active volcanic archipelago and is located in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra. This name was once pinned on a volcanic peak there (Mount Krakatoa) which vanished because of its own eruption on August 26-27, 1883. The eruption was very powerful; the hot clouds and the resulting tsunami killed around 36,000 people. Until before December 26, 2004, this tsunami was the most devastating in the Indian Ocean region. The sound of the eruption was heard reaching Alice Springs, Australia and Rodrigues Island near Africa, 4,653 kilometers. Its explosive power is estimated at 30,000 times the atomic bomb that was detonated on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.

Krakatau eruption caused global climate change. The world was dark for two and a half days due to volcanic ash that covered the atmosphere. The sun shines dim until next year. Scattering of dust visible in the skies of Norway to New York.

Krakatau explosion is actually still inferior to the eruption of Mount Toba and Mount Tambora in Indonesia, Mount Tanpo in New Zealand and Mount Katmal in Alaska. But these volcanoes erupted considerably in a time when human populations were still very few. Meanwhile, when Mount Krakatoa erupted, the human population was already quite dense, science and technology had developed, telegraphs had been discovered, and submarine cables had been installed. Thus it can be said that at that time information technology was growing and developing rapidly.

It was noted that the eruption of Mount Krakatoa was the first major disaster in the world after the discovery of an underwater telegraph. This progress has unfortunately not been matched by progress in the field of geology. Geologists at that time were not even able to provide an explanation of the eruption.

The development of Mount Krakatau

Ancient Krakatau Mountain
Looking at the Krakatau Mountain region in the Sunda Strait, experts estimate that in ancient times there was a very large mountain in the Sunda Strait which finally erupted devastatingly leaving a caldera (large crater) called Mount Krakatau Purba, which was the mother of Mount Krakatau which erupted on 1883. The mountain is composed of andesitic rocks.

The account of the Ancient Krakatau eruption was taken from an Old Javanese text entitled Pustaka Raja Parwa which is thought to have originated from 416 AD. Its contents, among others, state:

"There was a thunderous thunder coming from Mount Batuwara. There was also a terrifying earth shake, total darkness, lightning and lightning. Then came a terrible wind and rain storm and all the storms darkened the whole world. A great flood came from Mount Batuwara and flowed into east towards Mount Kamula ... When the water drowned it, the island of Java separated into two, creating the island of Sumatra "

Geologist Berend George Escher and a number of other experts argue that the natural event that was told came from Mount Krakatau, which in the text is called Gunung Batuwara. According to Raja Parwa's book, the height of the Ancient Krakatau reached 2,000 meters above sea level, and the coastline reached 11 kilometers.

As a result of the great explosion, three quarters of the ancient Krakatau body were destroyed leaving a caldera (large crater) in the Sunda Strait. The sides or edges of the crater are known as Rakata Island, Panjang Island and Sertung Island, in other records referred to as Rakata Island, Rakata Kecil Island and Sertung Island. This eruption was allegedly responsible for the occurrence of the dark ages on earth. Bubonic plague occurs because the temperature cools. This pestilence significantly reduced the number of inhabitants on earth.

This eruption was also thought to have contributed to the end of the heyday of ancient Persia, the transmutation of the Roman Empire to the Byzantine Empire, the end of the civilization of South Arabia, the extinction of the great Maya city, Tikal and the fall of the enigmatic Nazca civilization in South America. The Ancient Krakatau explosion was estimated to last for 10 days with an estimated mass vomit speed reaching 1 million tons per second. The explosion has formed an atmosphere shield of 20-150 meters thick, reducing temperatures by 5-10 degrees for 10-20 years.

The emergence of Mount Krakatoa
Rakata Island, which is one of the three remaining islands of Ancient Krakatau Mountain, grew according to volcanic impulses from the bowels of the earth known as Mount Krakatau (or Rakata Mountain) made of basaltic rock. Then, two volcanoes emerge from the middle of the crater, named Mount Danan and Mount Perbuwatan which then merges with Mount Rakata which appears first. This third union of volcanoes is called Mount Krakatoa.

Mount Krakatoa erupted in 1680 to produce andesitic acid lava. Then in 1880, Mount Perbuwatan actively released lava even though it did not erupt. After that time, there was no more volcanic activity on Krakatau until May 20, 1883. On that day, after 200 years of sleep, there was a small explosion on Mount Krakatau. Those are the first signs of a terrible eruption in the Sunda Strait. These small explosions were then followed by small eruptions which culminated on August 26-27, 1883.

Eruption 1883
On Monday, August 27, 1883, at exactly 10:20, there was an explosion on the mountain. According to Simon Winchester, a geologist graduated from the University of Oxford in England who is also the author of National Geographic said that the explosion was the biggest, loudest sound and the most devastating volcanic event in modern human history. The sound of the eruption was heard up to 4,600 km from the center of the eruption and could even be heard by 1/8 inhabitants of the earth at that time.

According to researchers at the University of North Dakota, the Krakatoa explosion along with the Tambora explosion (1815) recorded the largest Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) in modern history. The Guiness Book of Records records the explosion of Krakatoa as the most intense explosion recorded in history.

Krakatoa explosion has thrown pumice stones and volcanic ash with a volume of 18 cubic kilometers. Volcanic ash bursts reaching 80 km. Hard objects that scattered into the air fell on the plains of Java and Sumatra even to Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Australia and New Zealand.

The eruption destroyed Mount Danan, Mount Perbuwatan and part of Mount Rakata where half of the cone disappeared, making a basin as wide as 7 km and as deep as 250 meters. Sea waves rising as high as 40 meters destroy villages and anything that is on the coast. This tsunami arose not only because of the eruption but also an underwater avalanche.

The death toll was recorded at 36,417 people from 295 coastal villages ranging from Merak (Serang) to Cilamaya in Karawang, west coast of Banten to Tanjung Layar on Panaitan Island (Ujung Kulon and southern Sumatra. In Ujungkulon, flooding came in to 15) km to the west The next day until a few days later, the inhabitants of Jakarta and Lampung inland no longer see the sun.The tsunami waves generated even spread to the coast of Hawaii, the west coast of Central America and the Arabian Peninsula a distance of 7 thousand kilometers.

Anak Krakatau
Starting in 1927 or about 40 years after the eruption of Mount Krakatoa, a volcano, known as the Anak Krakatoa from the ancient caldera region, is still active and continues to increase in height. High growth speed of around 20 inches per month. Every year it gets about 20 feet taller and 40 feet wider. Other notes mention the addition of a height of about 4 cm per year and if calculated, then within 25 years the addition of the height of the Rakata child reached 7,500 inches or 500 feet higher than the previous 25 years. The cause of the high mountain was caused by material coming out of the belly of the new mountain. At present the height of Anak Krakatau reaches about 230 meters above sea level, while Mount Krakatau was 813 meters above sea level.

According to Simon Winchester, even though what happened in Krakatoa's life that was once very frightening, the geological, seismic and tectonic realities in Java and Sumatra will ensure that what happened once will happen again. No one knows for sure when the Child of Krakatoa will erupt. Some geologists predict this eruption will occur between 2015-2083. But the effects of the earthquake on the bottom of the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004 also cannot be ignored.

Anak Krakatau, February 2008

According to Professor Ueda Nakayama, one of Japan's volcano experts, Anak Krakatau is still relatively safe despite being active and there are often small eruptions, only certain times tourists are prohibited from approaching this area because of the danger of incandescent lava spewing this volcano. Other experts claim there is no plausible theory about Anak Krakatau which will erupt again. Even if there are at least 3 more centuries or after 2325 AD But clearly, the number of victims caused is more awesome than the previous eruption. Anak Krakatau is now generally known by the community as "Mount Krakatau" as well, although it is actually a new mountain that grew after the previous eruption.

External links
The page on Krakatau on the Discovery Channel
Krakatau Children photo collection eruption 2011-2012
van Sandick RA 1890. In The Realm of The Volcano. The eruption of Krakatoa and the aftermath. Zutphen, W.J. Thieme & Cie. The online book contains the records of a machine interpreter when Krakatoa erupted
The page contains accounts of witnesses to the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krakatau


Photo: Special

Lake Toba Event - 73000 Years BC

(Ekspedisi Cincin Api Kompas)
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Lake Toba is a volcanic lake with a length of 100 kilometers and 30 kilometers wide, located in North Sumatra Province, Indonesia. This lake is the largest lake in Indonesia and Southeast Asia. In the middle of this lake there is a volcanic island called Samosir Island.

Lake Toba has long been an important tourist destination in North Sumatra besides Bukit Lawang, Berastagi and Nias, attracting domestic and foreign tourists. For more complete information about Lake Toba please see here

History
It is estimated that Lake Toba occurred during the explosion around 73,000-75,000 years ago and is the most recent eruption of the supervolcano (super volcano). Bill Rose and Craig Chesner of Michigan Technological University estimate that volcanic material spewed out of the mountain is 2,800 km³, with 800 km³ ignite rock and 2,000 km³ volcanic ash expected to be blown to the west for 2 weeks. Volcanic dust in the wind has spread to half the earth, from China to South Africa. The eruption occurred for 1 week and throw the dust up to 10 km above sea level.

This incident caused mass death and in some species also followed by extinction. According to some DNA evidence, this eruption also reduced the number of people to around 60% of the total population of the earth at that time, which is about 60 million people. The eruption also contributed to the ice age, although experts are still debating it.

After the eruption, a caldera was formed which was then filled with water and became what is now known as Lake Toba. Upward pressure by magma that has not yet come out causes the appearance of Samosir Island.

An international multidisciplinary research team, led by Dr. Michael Petraglia, revealed in a press conference in Oxford, United States that new archeological sites have been found quite spectacular by geologists in southern and northern India. The site revealed how people survived, before and after the eruption of the volcano (supervolcano) Toba 74,000 years ago, and evidence of life under the ash heap of Mount Toba. Even though the source of the eruption was 3,000 miles away from the ashes.

For seven years, experts from Oxford University have been researching ecosystem projects in India, to look for evidence of life and living equipment they left behind in a barren field. This area of ​​thousands of hectares turned out to be just savanna (grassland). While animal bones scattered. The team concluded, this vast area was covered with dust from ancient volcanic eruptions.

The spread of volcanic dust is very broad, found almost all over the world. Derived from an ancient supervolcano eruption, namely Mount Toba. Allegations lead to Mount Toba, because found evidence of the same form of volcanic dust molecules at 2100 points. Since the caldera crater which has now become Lake Toba in Indonesia, up to 3000 miles, from the source of the eruption. Even surprisingly enough, it turns out that the spread of dust until recorded up to the North Pole. This reminds experts, how powerful the Toba volcanic eruption was at that time.

It is estimated that Lake Toba occurred during the explosion around 73,000-75,000 years ago and is the most recent eruption of the supervolcano (super volcano). Bill Rose and Craig Chesner of Michigan Technological University estimate that volcanic material spewed out of the mountain is 2,800 km³, with 800 km³ ignite rock and 2,000 km³ volcanic ash expected to be blown to the west for 2 weeks. Volcanic dust in the wind has spread to half the earth, from China to South Africa. The eruption occurred for 1 week and throw the dust up to 10 km above sea level.

This incident caused mass death and in some species also followed by extinction. According to some DNA evidence, this eruption also reduced the number of people to around 60% of the total population of the earth at that time, which is about 60 million people. The eruption also contributed to the ice age, although experts are still debating it.

After the eruption, a caldera was formed which was then filled with water and became what is now known as Lake Toba. Upward pressure by magma that has not yet come out causes the appearance of Samosir Island.

An international multidisciplinary research team, led by Dr. Michael Petraglia, revealed in a press conference in Oxford, United States that new archeological sites have been found quite spectacular by geologists in southern and northern India. The site revealed how people survived, before and after the eruption of the volcano (supervolcano) Toba 74,000 years ago, and evidence of life under the ash heap of Mount Toba. Even though the source of the eruption was 3,000 miles away from the ashes.


For seven years, experts from Oxford University examined ecosystem projects in India, to look for evidence of life and living equipment they left behind in a barren field. This area of ​​thousands of hectares turned out to be just savanna (grassland). While animal bones scattered. The team concluded, this vast area was covered with dust from ancient volcanic eruptions.

The spread of volcanic dust is very broad, found almost all over the world. Derived from an ancient supervolcano eruption, namely Mount Toba. Allegations lead to Mount Toba, because found evidence of the same form of volcanic dust molecules at 2100 points. Since the caldera crater which has now become Lake Toba in Indonesia, up to 3000 miles, from the source of the eruption. Even surprisingly enough, it turns out that the spread of dust until recorded up to the North Pole. This reminds experts, how powerful the Toba volcanic eruption was at that time.

Reference
    Jorge A. Vazquez and Mary R. Reid. Probing the Accumulation History of the Voluminous Toba Magma.

    Science # 305, August 13, 2004, p. 991-994.

    Dedi Riskomar., The Biggest Eruption of Mount Toba in the World, General Mind People's Daily, April 1, 2010, p. 30

External links
    (Indonesia) North Sumatra Tourism Site

    North Sumatra Tourism Board


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danau_toba

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture