Window of Archipelago

Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

The Final Journey of King Siliwangi VIII (1567 AD - 1579 AD)


Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Jayadewata or Prabu Dewantaprana Sri Baduga Maharaja or Prabu Siliwangi is one of the most famous and powerful Raja Pajajaran. He has a lot of followers and makes Sunda famous throughout the archipelago.

The title as King Wangi was given to him by his people, because of his obstinacy in maintaining the honor and dignity of the Sunda Galuh United Kingdom from the attack of the Majapahit Kingdom, during the "Bubat War", in 1,357 AD

He died along with all his beautiful attendants, bodyguards, and daughter, Dyah Pitaloka. Prabu Wangi's predicate as a tribute to all the services, and devotion of the King, so that the name becomes Fragrant or Fragrant.

Name of the Kings of the Sunda-Galuh United Kingdom (Capital: Pajajaran / Kawali - Galuh / Saunggalah), namely:
  • King Linggadéwata (1311-1333)
  • Prabu Ajiguna Linggawisésa (1333-1340)
  • Prabu Ragamulya Luhurprabawa (1340-1350)
  • Prabu Maharaja Linggabuanawisésa / Sri Baduga Maharaja I Linggabuanawisésa (who died in the Bubat War, 1,350 AD - 1,357 AD) Prabu Wangi
  • Prabu Guru Mangkubumi Bunisora ​​Suradipati or Prabu Guru in Jampang, Adik Linggabuanawisesa (1,357 AD - 1,371 AD)
  • Prabu Niskala Wastu Kancana son of Linggabuanawisesa or Anggalarang or Wangisutah (1,371 AD - 1,475 AD) Prabu Siliwangi I
  • Sri Baduga Maharaja Ratu Aji (Aji - Not Hajj) / Prabu Susuktunggal (1,475 AD - 1,482 AD) Prabu Siliwangi II as King of Sunda only. This is because after the death of Prabu Niskala Wastu Kancana, the kingdom was split in two between Prabu Susuktunggal and Prabu Dewa Niskala (a king of Surawisesa Kingdom in Galuh Kawali 1,475 AD - 1,482 AD) in an equal position.
  • Jayadéwata Sri Baduga Maharaja, son of Dewa Niskala, Jayadéwata holds the title Sri Baduga Maharaja / Raden Pamanah Rasa / Pangeran Jaya Dewata (1,482 AD - 1,521 AD) Prabu Siliwangi III
  • Prabu Surawisesa (1,521 AD - 1,535 AD) Prabu Siliwangi IV
  • Prabu Déwatabuanawisésa / Ratu Dewata (1,535 AD - 1.543 AD) Prabu Siliwangi V
  • Prabu Sakti / Ratu Sakti (1,543 AD - 1,551 AD) Prabu Siliwangi VI
  • Prabu Nilakendra Tohaan in Majaya (1,551 AD - 1,567 AD) Prabu Siliwangi VII
  • Prabu Suryakancana or Prabu Ragamulya (1,567M - 1,579 AD), as the last king, due to the collapse of the kingdom, after the capital of the kingdom was conquered by Maulana Yusuf of the Sultanate of Banten in the year 1,579 AD Prabu Siliwangi VIII
According to Prof. Dr. Ayatrohaedi, Prabu Bunisora ​​Suradipati (Prabu Wangi's younger brother) is not referred to as Prabu Siliwangi, because only as "Queen of Panyelang" or "King of the Settlers".

So King Siliwangi is counted starting from Niskala Wastu Kancana (son of King Wangi), so the sequence is as mentioned above. That is because in general, the King's lineage is, referring to the Nasab Raja in a male line to the lineage above it.

Therefore, the Linggabuana prabu's younger brother, Bunisora ​​Suradipati, is not counted as King Siliwangi, because he is not his descendant.

While the Tanah Impian Team uses general Nasab, except in certain situations, for example Prabu Wangi does not have a Son.

On the other hand, some cultural observers assumed that Prabu Bunisora ​​Suradipati, the younger brother of Sri Baduga Maharaja I Linggabuanawisésa alias Prabu Wangi, included "Siliwangi". So King Bunisora ​​is counted as "Siliwangi I". So that there are 9 people who have King Siliwangi's title.

Siliwangi is Title
From a manuscript written in 1,518 AD, when Sri Baduga was still alive. King Siliwangi's plays in various versions cored the story of the character to become king in Pakuan.

Sri Baduga is better known by the name Prabu Wangi, who in Kropak 630 as a pantun play.

Jayadewata or Sri Baduga Maharaja I Linggabuanawisésa (who died in the Bubat War, 1,350 AD - 1,357 AD), which was identified with King Wangi, was actually the beginning of the emergence of the term King Siliwangi for his descendants.

So the name Prabu Siliwangi is a nickname for Sundanese kings who replaced the previous Sundanese king, after the predicate of King Wangi appeared.

Also read: Prabu Siliwangi VIII's Prediction

This is exactly the same as the history of the Javanese, who recorded five kings named Prabu Brawijaya, and the most well-known coincidence was the last one, Prabu Brawijaya V, which also ended with Moksa (Ngahiyang).

Also read: The Final Trip of Prabu Brawijaya V - (1,413 AD - 1,478 AD)

While the history of Sundanese people, there are eight King Siliwangi where the most talked about is the last one, King Siliwangi VIII, which also happens to end with Moksa (Ngahiyang).

Also read: Hoax: Siliwangi VIII converted to Islam

According to the Cirebon Wangsakerta script (written for 21 years, 1,677 AD - 1,698 AD with Javanese script), strengthened by the opinion of Prof. Dr. Ayatrohaedi, archeologist, linguist, Sundanese history researcher, and professor of archeology at the Faculty of Literature at the University of Indonesia, actually there is no Sundanese king named Prabu Siliwangi.

His descendants are still there

Armed with the "Mandate of Galunggung": There used to be now, not before, then there is not now.

Then it can be said that the descendants of Siliwangi still exist today.

Departing from the father line (geneology line), the descendants to this day have the right to call Siliwangi. Even though they no longer have the political power of the state, the title Siliwangi can be used by their descendants (seuweu-siwi), from Garwa Padmi (Empress).

Etymology
The meaning of Siliwangi is derived from the words "Silih" and "Wawangi", meaning as a substitute for King Wangi.

Reader Rajyarajya I Bhumi Nusantara II revealed that the Sundanese regarded Sri Baduga as a replacement for Prabu Wangi, as a penance that had been lost.

The manuscript with its essence includes:

In the Bubat battlefield, King Wangi was undaunted by the large Majapahit army led by the Patih Gajah Mada.

Prabu Maharaja was very knowledgeable in weapons, and adept at fighting, not willing to be ruled or colonized by others, he destroyed many of his enemies.

He fought for prosperity and welfare of his people throughout the Sunda Tatar earth. Even though in the end, he and all his retinue fell dead.

But the attitude of the knight the King Maharaja, very proud of the family, the ministers of the kingdom, the army, and the people of the Sundanese Tatars.

That pride made King Maharaja Linggabuanawisésa / Sri Baduga Maharaja I Linggabuanawisésa called the King Maharaja Mewangi, hereinafter he was referred to as "Prabu Wangi". Then the descendants are called by the name Prabu Siliwangi.

In addition, according to old tradition, people are not allowed to mention the real title of King - farewell, therefore through the pantun Siliwangi is popular.

As Prabu Siliwangi known in Sundanese literature, at the time of Wangsakerta, revealed, that Siliwangi is not a personal name

"Kawalya ta wwang Sunda versus ika wwang Carbon mwang sakweh ira wwang Jawa Kulwan anyebuta Prabhu Siliwangi king Pajajaran. Dadyeka Dudu is self-serving roomie.

Meaning :
"Only Sundanese and Cirebon people and all West Javanese call King Siliwangi Raja Pajajaran. So that name is not his personal name. "

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Forecast King Prabu Siliwangi VIII


Main Literacy

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Prabu Siliwangi VIII's prediction, commonly referred to by Sundanese people as "Uga Wangsit Prabu Siliwangi"

Like the Javanese people who adhere to some predictions, such as Jayabaya, Sabdo Palon and Naya Genggong (1,413 AD - 1,478 AD).

It is time for us all to return to the local wisdom of the leaders of the Nusantara kingdoms. One of them was King Siliwangi VIII, the last King of Padjajaran (1,567 AD - 1,579 AD).

Also read: Hoax: Siliwangi VIII converted to Islam

Maybe we can read Uga Wangsit Prabu Siliwangi VIII, which is believed to be conveyed in one of his predictions, when the Padjajaran Kingdom was increasingly pressed from the attacks of the Banten and Demak Islamic kingdoms, he also said, among others:

"Our journey only reaches today. Even if you remain loyal to me, I cannot take you to live in misery, in tatters, and endure hunger (figurative words before he departs Moksa / Ngahiyang).

Also read: Sabdo Palon & Naya Genggong Nagih Janji

You now have to choose the good for yourself, in the face of future life, so that one day you can live happy, prosperous, and prosperous.

So that one day you can revive the ever glorious Padjajaran.

Now you have to choose, I give the order. I don't think it deserves to be the King, while all my people are hungry, miserable, and difficult.

I will not obstruct you, because I gave the order for you to choose. Whoever joins me, please gather in the South (Tegal Buleud, Sukabumi - at that time the center of Padjajaran's power in Pakuan-Bogor, was taken over by Banten, which was allied with Demak, and also Mataram).

At that time, the alliance of the two Banten-Demak Islamic kingdoms became stronger, and controlled the entire North Coast of Java.

Another prediction from King Siliwangi VIII, the desire to return to the city of memories, please gather to the North. You must know that there will be no city to go to.

Many of you will become ordinary people, and if there are any of you who hold office, even though they are high, they have no power.

What is meant by the North by King Siliwangi VIII geographically is Sunda Kelapa Harbor, which he described in the forecast correctly.

You (followers of King Siliwangi VIII who chose to move to the North), there will be many guests coming from far away, but that guest will only trouble you. You will only be pitted against sheep, for their sake.

When Padjajaran middle will be parallel again in the midst of the existing power at that time. All members of the group wish to make a fortune of wealth resulting from incorrect results. Nobody likes the truth and goodness.

Also read: The Final Trip of King Siliwangi VIII (1,567 AD - 1,579 AD)

Later your time will come from your group which will be the leader to rebuild the Sundanese nation, which seems to be interpreted geologically / geographically / geopoitically, not Sundanese in terms of Ethnicity.

If we look at a variety of literature that studies the archipelago geologically / geographically / geopolitically, then there are two terms. Big Sunda and Little Sunda.
  • Consists of Java, Madura, Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi.
  • Lesser Sundas consist of Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku.
From the research conducted by E. Rokajat Asura in his book, which launched on the Interpretation of the Silangsangi Wangsit and Kebangkita Nusantara, has the same view. That in the context of the Greater Sunda and Lesser Sundas, the forecast of King Siliwangi VIII must be placed. Not Sundanese in an ethnic context.

So what is meant by East and West, is not geographically in the archipelago, but looks at events that began in the 17th century until Indonesia became independent on August 17, 1945, that we were colonized by the Dutch, Portuguese and British (people from the West). But we have also been colonized by Japan in 1942-1945 (people from the East).

At present, global competition between the US and China in the Asia-Pacific region is intense. While Indonesia's position in the context of the Great Sunda and the Lesser Sunda in a geographical perspective, is clearly the target of the struggle for influence, and the Proxy War between the two of them.

Meaning contextually, Prabu Siliwangi VIII's prediction in Wangsit Siliwangi is very accurate.

How the Indonesian people (Big Sunda and Sunda Keci) have been targeted by the duo of the US Duo (United States - West and Saudi Arabia - Middle East) + China (East Asia)

King Siliwangi had already predicted it geo-politically.

In closing, the Tanah Impian Team saw strong indicators that could be translated from Uga Wangsit Prabu Siliwangi VIII

The point of the forecast is so that we can find a solution, not to surrender. (Message from Mojopahit's grandchildren)

When Siliwangi VIII's grandchildren join hands with Prabu Brawijaya V's grandchildren, Nusantara or Indonesia will rule the world.

Also read: The Final Trip of King Siliwangi VIII (1,567 AD - 1,579 AD)

Main Literacy

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Hoax: Siliwangi VIII converted to Islam


Main Literacy
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Defeating and destroying a nation without having to fight, is to mislead the history of the nation, which is its enemy.

Also read: Hoax: Brawijaya V converted to Islam

The question is whether Arabs see Indonesia as an enemy, the same question can be asked, do other countries also see Indonesia as an enemy.

The answer, is not a matter of enemies or not enemies, but they want to control our natural resources, for the prosperity of their people. So in all sorts of ways (machiavellian), until how dare they claim that they are "Defenders of God" - while if they pray, they still ask to be protected by God.

Before reading "Siliwangi VIII converted to Islam", you need to keep in mind, why the Dream Land Team is very concerned about the need for the purity of Nusantara History

This is how they destroy our nation:
First, they obscured, misled, and confused the history of the archipelago
Second, they decide on knowledge about Our Ancestors
Third, they fabricated New History
According to the Chronicle of Cirebon in his early days Prabu Siliwangi merad (Gone / Moksa / Ngahiyang) after Pajajaran (Galuh) was defeated by Cirebon.

It seems necessary to explain beforehand, that there are also many people who do not know, that King Siliwangi is a title for Raja Pajajaran, which started from the son of King Wangi, who became King Siliwangi I

Also read: Prabu Siliwangi VIII's Prediction

Written in the Stone Inscription, it seems that King Siliwangi died normally, and the throne was handed over to his son King Surawisesa (King Siliwangi IV).

In the Carita Parahyangan Manuscript, the government of Sri Baduga is explained, including:

"Purbatisi Purbajati, where is my maturity, the enemy is a fierce enemy. Like kreta tang lor kidul kulon wetan has a taste of cretan.

Meaning:
The teachings of the ancestors were held in high esteem so that no enemy would come, whether in the form of warriors or mental illness. Happy prosperity in the north, west and east. The only ones who don't feel prosperous are the households that are greedy for religious teachings.

From this manuscript, it is known that many Pajajaran people have converted to Islam.

However, if it is also considered that King Siliwangi Sri Baduga Maharaja (King Siliwangi III) embraced Islam, this is still "possible" because there is no clear source, which states so.

In the Carita Parahyangan Manuscript, it was explained that King Siliwangi was circumcised, but circumcised was Sundanese Pituin Culture, aka Original Sundanese Culture. Thus, the circumcision of King Siliwangi III did not necessarily make King Siliwangi III embrace Islam. This can be further explained by the fact that Jesus Christ (Jesus Christ) was also circumcised, and surely Jesus Christ did not embrace Islam.

King Siliwangi III has a very well-known name in Bogor, namely Sri Baduga Maharaja Ratu Aji (Aji - Not Hajj). Whether disengajja or not, many write Aji as Hajj, as stated in the paragraph above.

From there interpreted that King Siliwangi VIII, which is actually a descendant of King Siliwangi VIII as a Muslim.

Even though King Siliwangi III himself was a devout Hindu, until the end of his life ..

Prabu Siliwangi Moksa (Ngahiyang)
Moksa is only known in Hinduism. So those who reach moksa are certainly penganut agama Hindu.

It turns out that what is mostly told in stories as the mongsa Siliwangi is King Siliwangi III, whether this is intentional or not.

Intentional because in order to disrupt history, unintentionally, because he has many wives, which is unusual in Sundanese culture.

Deliberate, even though the grave is clearly known, this is only to confuse. Because moksa people don't have graves.

As long as the term Prabu Siliwangi began to be used, the most famous King Siliwangi was Jayadewata alias Pamanah Rasa aka Sri Baduga Maharaja (King Siliwangi III) had 150 or 151 wives.

So it is not surprising, if he has always been a byword in Sundanese society.

Meanwhile, Prabu Raga Mulya alias Prabu Suryakancana (Prabu Siliwangi VIII) was the one who was moksa. He was the last King until the Kingdom of Pajajaran collapsed (collapsed) in 1,579 Maeshi.

Sribaduga (Prabu Siliwangi III) or Sri Baduga Maharaja Ratu Aji (Aji - Not Hajj) is the ancestor of Prabu Suryakancana who also holds the title "Siliwangi" (Prabu Siliwangi VIII) from the path of Nhay Kentring Manik Mayangsunda who is still Hindu.

The figure of Nhay Kentring Manik Mayangsunda who still adheres to Hinduism is recorded in the Bogor Pantun, Ageman Sunda Buhun Scripture.

This is why Putri Padmawati (Kentring Manik Mayang Sunda), prefers to remain in Kadaton Surabima in Sindang Barang, not in Pakuan. Suspected because for the sake of more to solidify his belief in the Sunda Agarna (So an sich is actually not Hinduism - But Buhun / Sundanese Ancestor Religion)

Putri Padmawati's ancestors came from "Nusa Bima" not from Pajajaran (Partini Sardjono, 1991). Therefore, his father, Prabu Panji Haliwungan (Susuk Tunggal) named his Sura as Sura Bima.

His son, Prabu Guru Gantang from historical records is called Prabu Surawisesa (1,521 AD - 1,533 AD), born in Sindang Barang ..

The descendants of King Siliwangi III (1,482 AD - 1,521 AD), enthroned in Pakuan (now Bogor) of the Empress (Garwa Padmi) are as follows:
  • Surawisesa (1,521 AD - 1,535 AD), enthroned in Pakuan
  • Ratu Dewata (1,535 AD - 1,543 AD), enthroned in Pakuan
  • Ratu Sakti (1,543 AD - 1,551 AD), enthroned in Pakuan
  • Ratu Nilakendra (1,551 AD - 1,567 AD), left Pakuan because of the attack by Hasanudin and his son, Maulana Yusuf
  • Raga Mulya (1,567 AD - 1579 AD), known as Prabu Surya Kencana, ruled from Pandeglang
Raga Mulya (Prabu Siliwangi VIII) was the last king of the Sunda Kingdom with the capital at Pakuan Pajajaran. This name in the Wangsakerta script is also referred to as Prabu Suryakancana.

In Carita Parahiyangan, known by the name Nusya Mulya, Prabu Suryakancana is not domiciled in Pajajaran, but in Pulasari, Pandeglang.

Therefore, he is also known as Pucuk Umun (Panembahan) Pulasari, who may be domiciled in Kaduhejo, Menes District on the slopes of Mount Palasari.

So what is meant is that King SIliwangi Moksa is the last Siliwangi, namely King SIliwangi VIII, also known as Prabu Suryakancana (Raga Mulya). It is known from the Pantun Bogor, that the ancestors of the mother consort Nhay Kentring Manik Mayang Sunda who are Hindu.

Prabu SIliwangi VIII is told to be imprisoned in Kaduhejo Gunung Palasari, Banten, at a location thought to be the center of his ancestral Salakanagara kingdom. He also told merad (Gone / Moksa / Ngahiyang) in this place.

The term "Nu Siya Mulya" means you think Mulya,

This is likely an insult to his self as a result of being defeated in war. All the descendants of King Siliwangi Sri Baduga Maharaja from Garwa Padmi Nhay Kentring Manik Mayang Sunda were destroyed (mud).

In Pustaka Nusantara III / 1 and Kertabhumi I / 2 stated,

"Pajajaran vanished ekadaśa śuklapaksa Wesakamasa sewu limang or punjul siki ikang Śakakala"

That is,
"Pajajaran disappeared on the 11th bright part of the Wesaka month in 1501 Saka."

The date coincides with May 8, 1,579 AD

Also read: The Final Trip of King Siliwangi VIII (1,567 AD - 1,579 AD)

Main Literacy

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

Pakuan Pajajaran - 1433 AD


Parahyangan Agung Jagatkharta, Pura Terbesar di Asia Tenggara
Bogor (DreamLandLibrary) - Pakuan Pajajaran or Pakuan (Pakwan) or Pajajaran was the seat of government of the Sunda Kingdom, a kingdom which for several centuries (7th to 16th centuries) had stood in the western region of Java. Pakuan Pajajaran's location is in the Bogor area, West Java now. In the past, in Southeast Asia there was a custom of saying the name of the kingdom by the name of its capital so that the Sunda Kingdom was often referred to as the Pajajaraan Kingdom. The locations of Pajajaran in the 15th and 16th centuries can be seen on the map of the Portuguese Colonial Dominions in India and the Malay Archipelago - 1498-1580 which can be seen on the link:

http://www.themapdatabase.com/category/location/asia/indonesia/

The main sources of history containing information about daily life in Pajajaran from the 15th century to the beginning of the 16th century can be found in the ancient text of the Bujangga Manik. The names of places, cultures and customs of the time are detailed in the ancient manuscripts. 

Destruction
Pakuan Pajajaran was destroyed, razed to the ground, in 1579 due to an attack by the Sundanese kingdom, the Sultanate of Banten. The end of the Sunda Kingdom era was marked by the bringing of Palangka Sriman Sriwacana (king's throne), from Pakuan Pajajaran to the Surosowan Palace in Banten by Maulana Yusuf's troops.

The 200x160x20 cm stone was brought to Banten because of political tradition so that in Pakuan Pajajaran the coronation of the new king was no longer possible, and indicated Maulana Yusuf was the legitimate successor of Sundanese power because his great-grandmother was the daughter of Sri Baduga Maharaja, king of the Sunda Kingdom. Palangka Sriman Sriwacana can now be found in front of the former Surosowan Palace in Banten. The people of Banten call it Watu Gilang, meaning shiny or radiant, the same meaning as the word Sriman.

At that time it was estimated that there were a number of courtiers who left the palace and then settled in the Lebak area. They applied strict mandala life procedures, and now they are known as Bedouins.

Toponimi Pakuan and Pajajaran
The origin and meaning of Pakuan are found in various sources. Below are the search results from these sources in chronological order :

    Carita Waruga Manuscript Manuscript (1750s). In this Old Sundanese text it is explained that the name Pakuan Pajajaran is based that at that location there are many Pakujajar trees.

    K.F. Holle (1869). In an article titled De Batoe Toelis te Buitenzorg (Batutulis in Bogor), Holle said that near the city of Bogor there was a village called Cipaku, along with a river that had the same name. There are many nail trees found. So according to Holle, the name Pakuan has something to do with the presence of Cipaku and the nail tree. Pakuan Pajajaran means a lined nail tree ("op rijen staande pakoe bomen").

    G.P. Rouffaer (1919) in the 1919 Stibbe edition of the Encyclopedie van Niederlandsch Indie. Pakuan contains the meaning of "nails", but must be interpreted as "spikes of the universe" (spijker der wereld) which symbolizes the king's persona as in the title Paku Buwono and Paku Alam. "Pakuan" according to Fouffaer is equivalent to "Maharaja". The word "Pajajaran" is interpreted as "standing parallel" or "balanced" (evenknie). What Rouffaer meant was to stand on equal footing with Majapahit. Even though Rouffaer did not summarize the meaning of Pakuan Pajajaran, but from his description it can be concluded that Pakuan Pajajaran in his opinion means "Maharaja who stands parallel or in balance with (Maharaja) Majapahit". He agreed with Hoesein Djajaningrat (1913) that Pakuan Pajajaran was founded in 1433.

    R. Ng. Poerbatjaraka (1921). In the writings of De Batoe-Toelis bij Buitenzorg (Batutulis near Bogor) he explained that the word "Pakuan" should have come from the ancient Javanese language "pakwwan" which was then spelled "pakwan" (one "w", this was written on the Batutulis Inscription). In Sundanese tongue the word will be pronounced "pakuan". The word "pakwan" means tent or palace. So, Pakuan Pajajaran, according to Poerbatjaraka, means "a lined palace" (aanrijen staande hoven).

 H. ten Dam (1957). As an agricultural expert, Ten Dam wants to examine the socio-economic life of West Java farmers with an initial approach in terms of historical development. In his writings, Verkenningen Rondom Padjadjaran (Introduction to Pajajaran), the notion of "Pakuan" has something to do with the "phallus" (stone pillar) which was planted next to the Batutulis inscription as a sign of power. He reminded that in Carita Parahyangan it was mentioned that the figures of the Haluwesi and the Susuktunggal which he considered still had the meaning of "nails".

He argues that "pakuan" is not a name, but a common noun meaning capital (hoffstad) which must be distinguished from the palace. The word "Pajajaran" is reviewed based on the topography. He referred to the Wikler Captain's report (1690) which reported that he crossed the Pakuan palace in Pajajaran which was located between the "Great River" and "Sungai Tanggerang" (now known as Ci Liwung and Ci Sadane). Ten Dam draws the conclusion that the name "Pajajaran" appears because for several kilometers Ci Liwung and Ci Sadane flow parallel. So, Pakuan Pajajaran in the sense of Ten Dam is Pakuan Pajajaran or "Dayeuh Pajajaran".

The terms "Pakuan", "Pajajaran" and "Pakuan Pajajaran" can be found in the Batutulis Inscription (numbers 1 & 2) while number 3 can be found in the Kebantenan Inscription in Bekasi.

In the Carita Parahiyangan manuscript there is a sentence that reads "The Susuktunggal, inyana nu nyieunna palangka Sriman Sriwacana Sri Baduga Maharajadiraja Ratu Haji in Pakwan Pajajaran nad mikadatwan Sri Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati, inyana pakwan Sanghiyang Sri Ratu Dewata" Sriwacana (for) Sri Baduga Maharaja Ratu Ruler in Pakuan Pajajaran who resides in the palace of Sri Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati, that is, the Sanghiyang Sri Ratu Dewata).

Sanghiyang Sri Ratu Dewata is another title for Sri Baduga. So the so-called "pakuan" is the "cadaton" named Sri Bima and his rivals. "Pakuan" is a place for a king to live, usually called a palace, a palace or a palace. So Poerbatjaraka's interpretation is in line with the meaning referred to in Carita Parahiyangan, which is "palace lined up". This interpretation is even closer when the name of the palace is long enough but consists of independent names. It is estimated that there are five (5) palace buildings, each named: Bima, Punta, Narayana, Madura and Suradipati. This is perhaps what is commonly referred to in the classic term "panca persada" (five kratons). Suradipati is the name of the main palace. This can be compared with other palace names, namely Surawisesa in Kawali, Surasowan in Banten and Surakarta in Jayakarta in the past.

Because of the long name, maybe people prefer to summarize it, Pakuan Pajajaran or Pakuan or Pajajaran. The name of the palace can be expanded to become the name of the capital and eventually the name of the country. For example: The names of the Surakarta Hadiningrat Palace and Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Palace, which expanded to become the capital and regional names. Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat in everyday language is simply called Yogya.

The opinion of Ten Dam (Pakuan = capital) is correct in its use, but it is wrong in terms of semantics. In the Tome Pires report (1513) it was stated that the capital of the Sundanese kingdom was named "Dayo" (dayeuh) and was located in a mountainous area, two days' journey from the port of Kalapa at the Ciliwung estuary. He heard the name "Dayo" from residents or enlargers of the Port of Kalapa. So clearly, the Port of Kalapa uses the word "dayeuh" (not "pakuan") if it intends to refer to the capital. In everyday conversation, the word "dayeuh" is used, while in literature "pakuan" is used to refer to the royal capital.

Because the location of Pakuan is between two parallel rivers, Pakuan is also called Pajajaraan.

Research on the Location of the Former Pakaja Pajajaran
In the kropak (writing on palm leaves or palm leaves) which is given number 406 in Central Mueseum there are instructions that point to the location of Pakuan. Kropak 406 has been partially issued specifically under the name Carita Parahiyangan. In the unpublished section (commonly called fragment K 406) there is a description of the story of the establishment of the Sri Bima palace, Punta, Narayana Madura Suradipati:

"In this place, according to Kadatwan, I am a Bujangga Sedamanah who calls Sri Kadatwan Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati. Anggeus ta tuluy diprebolta my Maharaja Tarusbawa deung Bujangga Sedamanah. On the upstream side Ci Pakancilan. Katimu Bagawat Sunda Mayajati. Ku Bujangga Sedamanah in the haraupeun Maharaja Tarusbawa.

Meaning: That's where the former palace that by Bujangga Sedamanah was named Sri Kadatuan Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati. After it was finished [built] it was blessed by Maharaja Tarusbawa and Bujangga Sedamanah. Wanted upstream Ci Pakancilan. Bagawat Sunda Majayati was discovered. By Bujangga Sedamanah brought before Maharaja Tarusbawa.
    ”
From ancient sources it can be seen that the location of the palace will not be too far from the "upstream of Ci Pakancilan". The headwaters of the river are located near the current location of the village of Lawanggintung, because the headwaters of the river are called Ciawi. From that script we also know that since the Pajajaran era the river has been named Ci Pakancilan. Only the pantun interpreter then translates it into Ci Peucang. In Old Sundanese and Old Javanese the word "deer" does indeed mean "peucang".

VOC News
The first written report on the location of Pakuan was obtained from the record of the VOC troop expedition ("Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie" / Association of East Indian Councils) which our nation commonly called Kumpeni. Because Britain also had a union similar to the name EIC ("East India Company"), the VOC was often called the Dutch Kumpeni and the EIC was called the British Kumpeni.

After reaching an agreement with Cirebon (1681), the Dutch Kumpeni signed an agreement with Banten (1684). In the agreement it was determined that Ci Sadane be the boundary of both parties.

Scipio Report

Two important notes from the Scipio expedition are:

    Travel notes between Parung Angsana (Tanah Baru) to Cipaku via Tajur, about the location of the "Unitex" Factory now. Here is one part of his notes: "The road and the land between Parung Angsana and Cipaku are clean land and there are a lot of fruit trees, apparently once inhabited".

    Painting the road after he crossed Ci Liwung. He noted "Passing two paths with fruit trees that lined up straight and three ruins of a ditch". From the members of his army, Scipio received information that all were relics from King Pajajaran.

From his journey it was concluded that the footsteps of Pajajaran that could still give a "facial impression" of the kingdom were "the Batutulis Site".

Scipio's discovery was immediately reported by Governor General Joanes Camphuijs to his superiors in the Netherlands. In a report written on December 23, 1687, he reported that according to population belief, dat hetselve paleijs en specialijck de verheven zitplaets van den getal tijgers bewaakt ent bewaart wort (that the palace was primarily a seat that was raised to the king of "Java" Pajajaran now still foggy and guarded and cared for by a large number of tigers).

Apparently the report from Parung Angsana residents had something to do with an expedition member who was pounced on by a tiger near the Ci Sadane stream on the night of August 28, 1687. It is estimated that the Batutulis site was once a tiger's den and this has fostered the myth of a link between Pajajaran that vanished with the presence of a tiger.

Adolf Winkler's Report (1690)
The Scipio report moved the leaders of the Dutch Kumpeni. Three years later the expedition team was re-formed led by Captain Adolf Winkler. Winkler's army consisted of 16 white men and 26 Makasarese as well as a measuring expert.

A brief tour of the Winkler expedition is as follows:
Like Scipio, Winkler departed from Kedunghalang via Parung Angsana (Tanah Baru) then south. He passed a large road which Scipio called twee lanen ("a two-lane road"). This is not against Scipio. Winkler said the road was parallel to the Ci Liwung flow and then formed a right angle. Therefore he only recorded one road. Scipio considers the road that turns sharply as the two roads that meet.

After passing the Jambuluwuk river (Cibalok) and crossing the "Pakuan moat deep and upright walled (" de diepe dwarsgragt van Pakowang ") whose edge stretches towards Ciliwung and reaches the road to the southeast 20 minutes after the statue. Ten minutes later (10.54 o'clock) ) arrived at the location of the village of Tajur Agung (at that time there was no.) One minute later, he arrived at the base of the durian road which was only 2 minutes away on a relaxing horse riding.

If you go back to Scipio's note which says that the road and land between Parung Angsana and Cipaku are clean and everywhere is full of fruit trees, it can be concluded that the "Unitex" complex was in the Pajajaran era the "Royal Garden". "Tajur" is an Old Sundanese word meaning "planting, plant or garden". Tajuragung is the same meaning as "Kebon Besar" or Kebun Raya. As a royal garden, Tajuragung becomes a place for the royal family to hang out, and because of this, part of the road is planted with durian trees on both sides.

From Tajuragung Winkler to the Batutulis area, take the road that later (1709) passed by Van Riebeeck from the opposite direction. This road leads to the city gate (the location is near the nail factory "Tulus Rejo" now). Therein lies the first Lawanggintung Village before moving to "Sekip" and then the current location (permanent name Lawanggintung). So the Pakuan gate on this side is on the section of the road in Bantarpeuteuy (in front of the LIPI housing complex). There used to be a gintung tree.

    In Batutulis Winkler found a neat rocky floor or path. According to the introduction of his introduction, therein lies the royal palace (het conincklijke huijs soude daerontrent gestaen hebben). After measuring, the floor stretched toward the old paseban. There were found seven banyan trees.

    Near the road Winkler found a large, beautifully shaped stone. The rocky road was located before Winkler arrived at the Bautulis site, and because of the inscribed stone the journey continues to the "Purwagalih" statue site, so the location of the road must be located in the northern part of the inscribed stone. Between a rocky road with a beautiful boulder connected by "Gang Amil". The land in the northern part of Gang Amil is joined by Balekambang ("floating house"). Balekambang is for chatting with the king. Examples of bale kambang that are still intact are those found in the former Kingdom Center of Klungkung in Bali.

With these indications, the location of the Pajajaran palace must be located on the land bounded by Jalan Batutulis (west side), Gang Amil (south side), the former trench which is now used as housing (east side) and the "stone fortress" found by Scipio before reaching the inscription site (north side). Balekambang is located to the north (outside) of the fort. The banyan tree should be near the Pakuan gate at the current Bondongan bridge location.

From the Amil Gang, Winkler entered the place where the stone was inscribed. He reported that the "Pakuan Palace" was surrounded by a wall and inside there was a stone containing the writing as much as 8 1/2 lines (He mentioned that because the 9th line only contained 6 letters and a pair of closing marks).

What's important is that for both stones Winkler uses the word "stond" (standing). So after being displaced for about 110 years (since the Pajajaran was buried, broken up or destroyed, by the Banten forces in 1579), the stones were still standing, still in their original position.

    From the inscription, Winkler headed to the place of the statue (commonly called Purwakalih, 1911 Pleyte still records the name Purwa Galih). There are three statues which according to Pleyte's informants are Purwa Galih, Dark Nyawang and Kidang Pananjung. The name of the trio is found in the Babad Pajajaran written in Sumedang (1816) during the regency of Prince Kornel, then adapted in the form of a poem 1862. Chronographers adapted several characteristics of the former royal center as well as the residents of Parung Angsana in 1687 knowing the relationship between "Kabuyutan" Batutulis with the kingdoms of Pajajaran and Prabu Siliwangi. According to this chronicle, "the color measles tree" (now only stumps) is located not far from the square.

Report of Abraham van Riebeeck (1703, 1704, 1709)
Abraham is the son of Jan van Riebeeck the founder of Cape Town in South Africa. His exploration in the Bogor and surrounding areas was carried out as a high ranking VOC employee. Twice as Inspector General and once as Governor General. A visit to Pakuan in 1703 was accompanied by his wife who was carried on a stretcher.

Travel route 1703: Benteng - Cililitan - Tanjung - Serengseng - Pondokcina - Depok - Pondokpucung (Citayam) - Bojongmanggis (near Bojonggede) - Kedunghalang - Parungangsana (Tanah Baru).

1704 travel route: Benteng - Tanahabang - Karet - Ragunan - Serengseng - Pondokcina and so on are the same as route 1703.

1709 travel routes: Benteng - Tanahabang - Karet - Serengseng - Pondokpucung - Bojongmanggis - Pagerwesi - Kedungbadak - Panaragan.

Unlike Scipio and Winkler, van Riebeeck always came from the direction of Empang. Therefore he can know that Pakuan is located on a plateau. This will not be seen by those who enter Batutulis from the Tajur direction. What is special about Van Riebeeck's report is that he always writes about de toegang (the entrance) or de opgang (the way up) to Pakuan.

Some things that can be revealed from Van Riebeeck's three trips are:

    Empang Square turned out to be the former outer square in the Pakuan era separated from the fortress of Pakuan with a deep moat (now the trench stretches from Kampung Lolongok to Ci Pakancilan).

The present Bondongan climb, in Pakuan's era, is a narrow and climbing entrance that can only be passed by a horse rider or two people on foot.

    The low land on both sides of the Bondongan hill used to be a steep trench and the bottom continued to the foot of the Pakuan fortress. The Bondongan Bridge, which was once the city gate.

    Behind the fortress of Pakuan in this section there is an upper trench that surrounds the edge of the city of Pakuan on the Ci Sadane side.

On his 1704 visit, across the "road" to the west of the statue of "Purwa Galih" he had built a resting hut ("somerhuijsje") named "Batutulis". This name is then attached to a place name in the area around the inscription.

Research result
Batutulis inscription has been studied since 1806 by making "handprints" for the University of Leiden (The Netherlands). The first reading attempt was made by Friederich in 1853. Until 1921 there were four experts who examined its contents. However, only Cornelis Marinus Pleyte devoted to the location of Pakuan, the others only explored the contents of the inscription.

Pleyte's research results were published in 1911 (his own research took place in 1903). In his writings, Het Jaartal op en Batoe-Toelis nabij Buitenzorg or "Year number on Batutulis near Bogor", Pleyte explained,

    "Waar alle legenden, zoowel als de meer geloofwaardige historche berichten, het huidige dorpje Batoe-Toelis, als plaats waar eenmal Padjadjaran's koningsburcht stond, aanwijzen, kwam het er aleen nog op aan. Naar eenige trending.

    (In the case of legends and more reliable historical news, the Batutulis village which is now directed as a place for the Pajajaran kingdom's castle; the problem that arises is to trace its exact location).

A little contradiction from Pleyte: although at first he appointed the village of Batutulis as the location of the palace, but then he expanded the circle of its location to cover the entire territory of the present Batutulis Village. Pleyte identified the castle with the royal city and the Sri Bima Narayana Madura Suradipati union with Pakuan as the city.

Babad Pajajaran depicts that Pakuan is divided into "Dalem Kitha" (Jero kuta) and "Jawi Kitha" (Outside kuta). The right understanding is "inner city" and "outer city". Pleyte still found a land fort in the Jero Kuta area which stretches towards Sukasari at the meeting of Jalan Siliwangi with Jalan Batutulis.

Other researchers such as Ten Dam suspect the location of the palace near the Lawang Gintung village (former) of the Army Engineer Dormitory. Suhamir and Salmun even pointed to the current location of the Bogor Palace. But Suhamir and Salmun's opinion was not supported by archaeological data and historical sources. His guess is based only on the assumption that the famous "Leuwi Sipatahunan" in the old plays lies in the Ci Liwung channel in the Bogor Botanical Gardens. According to the classic story, leuwi (lubuk) was used to bathe in the daughters of the palace. Then the logic is drawn that the location of the palace is certainly not far from the "Leuwi Sipatahunan".

Bogor Pantun leads to the location of the former "Cakrabirawa" Regiment Dormitory (Kesatrian) near the city border. The area is said to be a former Tamansari kingdom named "Mila Kencana". But this is also not supported by older historical sources. In addition, the location is too close to Kuta, where the topography is the weakest point for the defense of Pakuan City. The city of Pakuan is surrounded by natural fortresses in the form of steep river cliffs on three sides. Only the southeastern part of the city limits is flat. In this section also found the rest of the largest city fort. Lawanggintung residents interviewed by Pleyte called the rest of the fort "Kuta Maneuh".

In fact, almost all researchers were guided by the report of Captain Winkler (visit to Batutulis June 14, 1690). The key to Winkler's report is not the hoff (palace) used for the inscription site, but the word "paseban" with seven banyan bars at the location of Gang Amil. Before it was repaired, this Amil Gang was indeed an old-fashioned nuance and on its edges many old "balay" stones were found.

Further research proved that the fortress of Pakuan City covered the area of ​​Lawangsaketeng that Pleyte once questioned. According to Coolsma, "Lawang Saketeng" means "porte brisee, bewaakte in-en uitgang" (folding gates that are guarded inside and outside). Kampung Lawangsaketeng is not located exactly at the former location of the gate.

The fort at this place is located on the edge of Kampung Cincaw which descends steeply to the end of the Ci Pakancilan valley, then continued with the cliffs of the Concrete Alley next to Rangga Gading Cinema. After crossing Suryakencana Street, turn southeast along the road. The row of shops between Jalan Suryakencana and Jalan Roda in this section up to Gardu Tinggi is actually erected on the former foundation of the fort.

Furthermore, the fort follows the peak of the Ci Liwung valley. Rows of stalls near Siliwangi Street - Batutulis Street were also erected on the former foundations of the fort. In this part the fort meets the Inner City fortress which stretches to Jero Kuta Wetan and Dereded. The outer fort continues along the peak of the Ci Liwung slope past the PAM office complex, then crosses Jalan Pajajaran, at the city border, turning straight southwest through Jalan Siliwangi (here used to be a gate), continuing extending to Kampung Lawang Gintung.

In Kampung Lawanggintung the fort is continued with "natural fort" which is the steep peak of Ci Paku cliff until the location of Batutulis Train Station. From here, the Pakuan City boundary runs along the railroad track to the Ci Pakancilan cliff after passing the location of the Bondongan Bridge. Ci Pakancilan cliff separates the "edge of the fort" from the "fort" on the cliffs of Kampung Cincaw.

Reference

    "Maharadja Cri Djajabhoepathi, Soenda’s Oudst Bekende Vorst", TBG, 57. Batavia: BGKW, pages 201-219, 1915)

    Original sources of Jakarta's history, Volume I: Jakarta's historical documents up to the end of the 16th century

    Sundanese Age of Pajajaran Culture, Volume 2, Edi S. Ekajati, Pustaka Jaya, 2005

    The Sundanese Kingdom of West Java From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal Center of Bogor, Herwig Zahorka, Cipta Loka Caraka Foundation, Jakarta, 2007-05-20

Note
    ^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. hlm. 437.
    ^ Danasasmita, Saleh (1983). Sejarah Bogor (Bagian I). PEMDA BOGOR.

Source : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerajaan_Pajajaran

Photo: Special

Sunda Galuh - 670 M


Bogor (Dreamland Library) - Sunda Kingdom Galuh is a kingdom which is a union of two major kingdoms in the Sunda Land that are closely related, namely the Kingdom of Sunda and the Kingdom of Galuh. The two kingdoms are fractions of the Tarumanagara kingdom. Based on historical relics such as inscriptions and ancient manuscripts, the capital of the Sunda Kingdom was in what is now the city of Bogor, while the capital city of the Galuh Kingdom was the town of Kawali in Ciamis Regency.

Royal name
Many historical heritage sources mention the combination of these two kingdoms with the name of the Sunda Kingdom only. The first journey of Prabu Jaya Pakuan (Bujangga Manik) around the island of Java is described as follows:
  • Sadatang ka tungtung Sunda
  • Meuntasing di Cipamali
  • Datang ka alas Jawa
When I reach the Sundanese border
I crossed Cipamali (now called Brebes)
and enter me into the Javanese jungle

According to Tome Pires (1513) in his travel notes, "Summa Oriental (1513 - 1515)", he wrote that:

    The Sunda kingdom takes up half of the whole island of Java; others, to whom more authority is attributed, say that the Sunda kingdom must be a third part of the island and an eight more. It ends at the river chi Manuk. They say that from the earliest times God divided the island of Java from that of Sunda and that of Java by the said river, which has trees from one end to the other, and they say the trees on each side of the line over to each country with the branches on the ground.

So, it is clear that the combination of the two kingdoms is only called by the name of the Sunda Kingdom.

Information about the existence of the two kingdoms is also found in several other historical sources. The inscription in Bogor tells a lot about the Sunda Kingdom as a fraction of Tarumanagara, while the inscription in the Sukabumi area tells about the state of the Sunda Kingdom until the time of Sri Jayabupati.

The establishment of Sundanese and Galuh kingdoms
Distribution of Tarumanagara
Tarusbawa, who came from the Kingdom of Sunda Sambawa, in 669 AD replaced the position of his in-laws, Linggawarman, the last king of Tarumanagara. Because Tarumanagara's prestige in his day had greatly declined, he wanted to restore the fragrance of the Purnawarman era based in purasaba (capital) of Sundapura. In 670 AD, he changed the name Tarumanagara to the Sunda Kingdom. This incident was made an excuse by Wretikandayun, founder of the Galuh Kingdom and still the Tarumanegara royal family, to separate themselves from the power of Tarusbawa.

With the support of the Kingdom of Kalingga in Central Java, Wretikandayun demanded to Tarusbawa that the Tarumanagara area be divided in two. This support can occur because the crown prince Galuh named Mandiminyak, has an affair with the daughter Parwati Maharani Shima from Kalingga. In a weak position and wanting to avoid a civil war, Tarusbawa accepted Galuh's demands. In 670 AD, the Tarumanagara territory was divided into two kingdoms; namely the Kingdom of Sunda and the Kingdom of Galuh with the 

Citarum River as its boundary.

Also Read: Tarumanagara Kingdom and Kalingga Kingdom.

The location of the capital city of Sunda
Maharaja Tarusbawa then established a new royal capital in the interior near the headwaters of the Cipakancilan River. [3] In Carita Parahiyangan, this Tarusbawa character is only called by his title: Tohaan in Sunda (Sundanese King). He became a Sundanese kings and ruled until 723 AD

Sunda as a royal name is recorded in two stone inscriptions found in Bogor and Sukabumi. The presence of the Jayabupati inscription in the Cibadak area had raised suspicions that the capital of the Sunda Kingdom was located in that area. But the allegation was not supported by other historical evidence. The contents of the inscription only mentions the prohibition of fishing in the Cicatih River which belongs to the Sanghiyang Tapak Kabuyutan area. Likewise, the presence of stones bearing the words Purnawarman in Pasir Muara and Pasir Koleangkak which does not indicate the location of the capital Tarumanagara.

Kalingga involvement
Because the crown prince died before Tarusbawa, the daughter of the crown prince (named Tejakancana) was adopted as the royal heir's son and heir. This daughter's husband is a great-grandson Wretikandayun named Rakeyan Jamri, who in 723 replaced Tarusbawa to become the 2nd King of Sunda. As the ruler of the Sunda Kingdom he was known by the name Prabu Harisdarma and after mastering the Galuh Kingdom was known by the name Sanjaya.

The mother of Sanjaya is SANAHA, the grandson of Ratu Shima from Kalingga, in Jepara. The father of Sanjaya is Bratasenawa / SENA / SANNA, the third Galuh King, a close friend of Tarusbawa. Sena was the grandson of Wretikandayun from his youngest son, Mandiminyak, the second king of Galuh (702-709 AD). Sena in 716 AD was coup from Galuh's throne by PURBASORA. Purbasora and Sena are actually one mother's siblings, but another father. Sena and her family escaped to Sundapura, the center of the Sunda Kingdom, and asked Tarusbawa for help. Very ironic indeed, Wretikandayun, Sena's grandfather, previously demanded Tarusbawa to separate Galuh Kingdom from Tarumanegara / Sunda Kingdom. In the future, Sanjaya, who was the successor to the legitimate kingdom of Galuh, attacked Galuh, with the help of Tarusbawa, to depose Purbasora. After that he became the King of the Sundanese Kingdom of Galuh.

Sanjaya was the ruler of the Sunda Kingdom, Galuh Kingdom and Kalingga Kingdom (after Ratu Shima died).

As heir of the Kalingga Kingdom, Sanjaya became the ruler of North Kalingga called Bumi Mataram (Ancient Mataram) in 732 AD. The power in West Java was handed over to his son from Tejakencana, Tamperan Barmawijaya alias Rakeyan Panaraban. He is the half-brother Rakai Panangkaran, the son of Sanjaya from Sudiwara, daughter of Dewasinga Raja Kalingga Selatan or Bumi Sambara.

Jayabupati inscription
Fill the inscription
It has been revealed at the outset that the name Sunda as a kingdom is also explicit in the inscriptions found in the Sukabumi area. This inscription consists of 40 lines so it requires four (4) pieces of stone to write it. The four stone inscribed were found in the flow of the Cicatih River in the Cibadak area, Sukabumi. Three were found near the Bantar Muncang village, one was found near Pangcambat Village. The uniqueness of this inscription is arranged in Old Javanese letters and language. The four inscriptions are now stored in the Central Museum with code numbers D 73 (from Cicatih), D 96, D 97 and D 98. Fill in the first three stones (according to Pleyte):

    D 73:
    // O // Swasti shakawarsatita 952 karttikamasa tithi dwadashi shuklapa-ksa. Ha. ka. ra. color shade. irika diwasha nira prahajyan sunda ma-haraja shri jayabhupati jayamana-hen wisnumurtti samarawijaya shaka-labhuwanamandaleswaranindita harogowardhana wikra-mottunggadewa, ma-

    D 96:
    gaway tepek i purwa sanghyang tread ginaway denira shri jayabhupati prahajyan sunda. mwang tan hanani baryya baryya shila. irikang lwah tan pangalapa fish this time. Makahingan sanghyang tread wates kapujan i upstream, i sor makahingan it sanghyang tates wates kapujan i wungkalagong if I have cooked the pre-inscription pagagasy. really sapatha.

    D 97:
    Oath Denira Prahajyan Sunda. It's over.

Translation of the contents of the inscription, is as follows:

    Congratulations In Saka year 952 Kartika month on the bright part of 12, Hariang day, Kaliwon, Sunday, Wuku Tambir. This is when Sundanese King Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa, made a sign east of Sanghiyang Tread. Made by Sri Jayabupati Raja Sunda. And do not violate this provision. In this river, don't (anyone) catch fish on this side of the river within the boundary of the Sanghyang Tapak worship area upstream. Downstream in the boundary of Sanghyang Tapak worship area on two large tree trunks. Then an inscription (edict) was made which was confirmed by Oath.

The oath uttered by the King of Sunda is complete in the fourth inscription (D 98). Consisting of 20 lines, essentially calling on all the supernatural powers in the world and in heaven to help protect the king's decision. Anyone who violates this provision is sentenced to all those powers to be destroyed by sucking his brain, breathing his blood, boiling his intestines and cleaving his chest. The oath was closed with a sentence of exclamation, I wruhhanta kamung hyang kabeh (know by all of you).

Inscription date
The date of making Jayabupati Inscription coincided with October 11, 1030. According to the Indonesian Archipelago Library, Parwa III sarga 1, Sri Jayabupati ruled for 12 years (952 - 964) saka (1030 -1042 AD). The contents of the inscription in every way shows the style of East Java. Not only letters, language and style, but also the title of a king who is similar to the title of a king in the Darmawangsa Palace. The Sri Jayabupati figure in Carita Parahiyangan is called by the name Prabu Detya Maharaja. He was the 20th king of Sunda after Maharaja Tarusbawa.

Cause of division
It has been revealed before, that the Sunda Kingdom is a fraction of Tarumanagara. The event occurred in 670 AD This is in line with Chinese news sources which state that the Tarumanagara envoy who last visited the country occurred in 669 AD Tarusbawa did indeed send an envoy informing his coronation to the Chinese Emperor in 669 AD He himself was crowned on the 9th the bright part of the month of Jesta in 591 Saka, roughly coinciding with May 18, 669 AD

Sanna and Purbasora
Tarusbawa was a good friend of Bratasenawa's eyebrow Sena (709 - 716 AD), the third Galuh King. This figure is also known as Sanna, the king of the Canggal Inscription (732 AD), as well as the uncle of Sanjaya. This friendship also encouraged Tarusbawa to take Sanjaya as his son-in-law. Bratasenawa alias Sanna or Sena was deposed from Galuh's throne by Purbasora in 716 AD Purbasora was the grandson of Wretikandayun from his eldest son, Batara Danghyang Guru Sempakwaja, founder of the Galunggung kingdom. While Sena was the grandson of Wretikandayun from his youngest son, Mandiminyak, the second Galuh king (702-709 AD).

Actually Purbasora and Sena are one mother's siblings because of the illicit relationship between Mandiminyak and Sempakwaja's wife. Sempakwaja's figure could not replace his father's position as the Galuh King because he was toothless. Meanwhile, a king must not have physical disabilities. For this reason, his youngest brother inherited the Galuh throne from Wretikandayun. But, Sempakwaja's son felt that he was still entitled to Galuh's throne. Moreover, the origins of the unfavorable King Sena have added to Purbasora's desire to usurp the Galuh throne from Sena.

With the help of troops from his in-laws, Raja Indraprahasta, a kingdom in the present Cirebon area, Purbasora staged the struggle for the Galuh throne. Sena finally fled to Pakuan, asking King Tarusbawa for protection.

Sanjaya and Balangantrang
Sanjaya, the daughter of Sena's sister Sannaha, intends to retaliate against Purbasora's family. For that he asked the help of Tarusbawa, Sena's best friend. His desire was carried out after becoming the King of Sunda who ruled on behalf of his wife.

Before that he had prepared special forces in the Sawal Mountain area with the help of Rabuyut Sawal, who was also a good friend of Sena. This special force was immediately led by Sanjaya, while Sundanese troops were led by Patih Anggada. The attack was carried out at night silently and suddenly. The entire Purbasora family died. The only ones who escaped were Purbasora's son-in-law, who became Patih Galuh, along with a handful of troops.

The patih was named Bimaraksa, better known as Ki Balangantrang because he was also a royal senapati. Balangantrang is also the grandson of Wretikandayun from the second son named Resi Guru Jantaka or Rahyang Kidul, who cannot replace Wretikandayun because of suffering from "kemir" or hernia. Balangantrang hid in the village of Gègèr Sunten and secretly gathered anti-Sanjaya forces. He received support from the kings in the Kuningan area and also the remnants of the Indraprahasta army, after the kingdom was also crushed by Sanjaya in retaliation for helping Purbasora overthrow Sena.

Sanjaya got a message from Sena, that except for Purbasora, other members of the Galuh palace family must remain respected. Sanjaya himself did not desire to be the ruler of Galuh. He carried out the attack just to remove his father's revenge. After defeating Purbasora, he immediately contacted his uwak, Sempakwaja, in Galunggung and asked him that Demunawan, Purbasora's younger brother, be approved as the ruler of Galuh. But Sempakwaja refused the request for fear that it would be Sanjaya's trick to eliminate Demunawan.

Sanjaya himself could not contact Balangantrang because he did not know of his whereabouts. Finally Sanjaya was forced to take the right to be crowned as Galuh King. He realized that his presence in Galuh was not well liked. Apart from that, as Sunda King he himself had to be domiciled in Pakuan. For the government leadership in Galuh he appointed Premana Dikusuma, Purbasora's grandson. Premana Dikusuma at that time was the regional king. At the age of 43 years (born in 683 AD), he has been known as the sage king because of his diligence to study religion and ascetic since young. He has the nickname Bagawat Sajalajaya.

Premana, Pangrenyep and Tamperan
The appointment of Premana by Sanjaya is reasonable because he is Purbasora's grandson. In addition, his wife, Naganingrum, was the son of Ki Balangantrang. So the husband and wife represent the descendants of Sempakwaja and Jantaka, the first and second sons of Wretikandayun.

Premana and Naganingrum themselves have a son named Surotama alias Manarah (born 718 AD, so he was only 5 years old when Sanjaya attacked Galuh). Surotama or Manarah is known in classical Sundanese literature as Ciung Wanara. Later, Ki Bimaraksa alias Ki Balangantrang, great-grandmother from his mother, would unravel the sad story that befell his ancestral family and at the same time prepare Manarah to take revenge.

To tie Premana Dikusumah's loyalty to the central government in Pakuan, Sanjaya arranged this Galuh King with Dewi Pangrenyep, Anggada's daughter, Patih Sunda. Besides that Sanjaya appointed his son, Tamperan, as Patih Galuh while leading the Sundanese "garnizun" in the Galuh capital.

Premana Dikusumah accepted the position of King Galuh because of forced circumstances. He did not dare to refuse because Sanjaya had the same character as Purnawarman, being kind to the subordinate king who was loyal to him and at the same time was unforgiving towards his enemies. The refusal of Sempakwaja and Demunawan can still be accepted by Sanjaya because they belong to the older generation whom he must respect.

Premana's position is difficult, as King Galuh who is subordinate to the Sunda King, which means he must submit to Sanjaya who killed his grandfather. Because of such turmoil, he preferred to leave the palace to meditate near the Sunda border east of Citarum and at the same time leave his wife, Pangrenyep. He handed over the government affairs to Tamperan, Patih Galuh who also became Sanjaya's "eyes and ears". Tamperan inherits his great-grandmother's character, Mandiminyak who likes to make scandals. He was involved in a scandal with Pangrenyep, Premana's wife, and led to the birth of Kamarasa alias Banga (723 AD).

The scandal happened for several reasons, first the Pangrenyep bride was only 19 years old and then left by an imprisoned husband; both of them are of the same age and have been acquainted for a long time in Keraton Pakuan and are both great-grandchildren of Maharaja Tarusbawa; thirdly they both felt inner pain because his presence as a Sundanese in Galuh was not well liked.

To erase traces of Tamperan to hire someone to kill Premana and at the same time be followed by other troops so that the Premana killer was killed too. All of these incidents apparently smelled by old senapati Ki Balangantrang.

Tamperan as king
In 732 AD Sanjaya inherited the throne of the Mataram Kingdom from his parents. Before he left the West Java region, he arranged the division of power between his son, Tamperan, and Demunawan Teacher's Receipts. Sunda and Galuh became the authority of Tamperan, while the Kuningan and Galunggung Kingdoms were ruled by Resi Guru Demunawan, the youngest son of Sempakwaja.

Thus Tamperan became the ruler of Sunda-Galuh to continue his father's position from 732 - 739 AD. Meanwhile Manarah alias Ciung Wanara secretly prepared a plan for the capture of the Galuh throne with the guidance of his great-grandfather, Ki Balangantrang, in Gunter Sunten. Apparently Tamperan neglected to watch this step child that he treated like his own child.

In accordance with the Balangantrang plan, the invasion of Galuh was carried out during the day to coincide with the cockfighting party. All royal authorities were present, including Banga. Manarah along with members of his squad were present at the arena as a hatcher. Balangantrang led Geger Sunten's troops to attack the palace.

The coup was successful in such a short time as events in 723 when Manarah succeeded in conquering Galuh in one night's time. The king and consort Pangrenyep including Banga can be held captive in cockfighting rinks. Banga is then left free. In the evening he managed to free Tamperan and Pangrenyep from detention.

However, it was known by the guards who immediately told Manarah. There was a battle between Banga and Manarah which ended in Banga's defeat. Meanwhile the army that pursued the king and empress released their arrows in the darkness, killing Tamperan and Pangrenyep

Manarah and Banga
News of Tamperan's death was heard by Sanjaya who was then ruling in Mataram (Central Java), who then with a large army attacked the Galuh purasaba. But Manarah had guessed that so he had prepared an army which was also supported by remnants of the Indraprahasta army which at that time had changed its name to Wanagiri, and the kings in the Kuningan area that had been defeated by Sanjaya.

The great war of fellow descendants of Wretikandayun was finally resolved by Raja Resi Demunawan (born 646 AD, when he was 93 years old). In the negotiations at the Galuh palace an agreement was reached: Galuh was handed over to Manarah and Sunda to Banga. Thus through this 739 Galuh agreement, Sunda and Galuh which during the period 723 - 739 were in one power split again. In the agreement it was also determined that Banga would be a subordinate king. Although Banga was not happy, he accepted the position. He himself felt that he could live on Manarah's kindness.

To strengthen the agreement, Manarah and Banga were set up with the two great-grandchildren of Demunawan. Manarah as the ruler of Galuh was entitled Prabu Jayaprakosa Mandaleswara Salakabuana married Kancanawangi. Banga as the King of Sunda held the title Prabu Kretabuana Yasawiguna Aji Mulya and was paired with Kancanasari, Kancanawangi's sister.

Sundanese and Galuh descendants later
Old manuscripts from the district of Ciburuy, Bayongbong, Garut, written in the 13th or 14th century, reported that Rakeyan Banga had built the Pakuan moat. This was done in preparation for establishing himself as an independent king. He fought 20 years before succeeding in becoming a recognized ruler to the west of Citarum and free from his position as the king of subordinates of Galuh. He reigned 27 years (739-766).

Manarah, with the title Prabu Suratama or Prabu Jayaprakosa Mandaleswara Salakabuwana, was blessed with long life and ruled in Galuh between 739-783. [4] In the year 783 he did manurajasuniya, which resigned from the royal throne to do penance until the end of his life. He just died in 798 at the age of 80 years.

In chronicle texts, the position of Manarah and Banga is often confused. Not only in terms of age, where Banga was considered older, but also in their placement as king. In old texts, the lineage of the kings of Pakuan always starts with the Banga figure. The genealogical chaos and position placement began to appear in the Carita Waruga Guru script, written in the mid-18th century. The most striking mistake in the chronicle is the story of Banga who is considered the founder of the Majapahit kingdom. In fact, Majapahit was only founded by Raden Wijaya in 1293, 527 years after Banga died.

Manarah's offspring broke up only until his great-grandson named Prabulinggabumi (813 - 852). Galuh's throne was handed over to her sister's husband, Rakeyan Wuwus alias Prabu Gajah Kulon (819 - 891), Banga great-grandson who became the 8th King of Sunda (counted from Tarusbawa). Since 852, the two kingdoms of the Tarumanagara fraction were ruled by Banga descendants; as a result of marriage between the relatives of the Sundanese, Galuh, and Kuningan (Saunggalah) kraton.

Relationship between Sundanese Galuh and Sriwijaya
Sri Jayabupati whose inscriptions discussed above were the 20th King Sunda. He is the son of Sanghiyang Ageng (1019 - 1030 AD). His mother was a Srivijaya princess and still a close relative of King Wurawuri. The consort of Sri Jayabupati was the daughter of Dharmawangsa, king of Medang Kingdom, and sister of Dewi Laksmi, wife of Airlangga. Because of the marriage Jayabupati received the title award from his in-laws, Dharmawangsa. That title is included in the Cibadak inscription.

Raja Sri Jayabupati had experienced a tragic event. In his position as the Sundanese Crown Prince of Sriwijaya descent and Dharmawangsa's son-in-law, he had to witness the growing hostility between Srivijaya and his in-laws, Dharmawangsa. At the height of the crisis he was only a spectator and was forced to remain silent in disappointment because he had to "witness" Dharmawangsa being attacked and destroyed by Raja Wurawuri for Sriwijaya's support. He was told about the occurrence of the invasion by the Srivijaya, but he and his father were threatened to be neutral in this matter. The Wurawuri attack in the Calcutta Inscription (stored there) called the pralaya occurred in 1019 AD

Relationship with the founding of Majapahit
Prabu Guru Darmasiksa Prabu Sanghyang Wisnu has a crown prince Rakeyan Jayadarma, and is domiciled in Pakuan. According to the Rajya Rajya Library i Bhumi Nusantara parwa II sarga 3, Rakeyan Jayadarma is the son-in-law of Mahisa Campaka in East Java, because he is married to his daughter named Dyah Lembu Tal. Mahisa Campaka is the son of Mahisa Wong Ateleng, who is the son of Ken Angrok and Ken Dedes from the Singhasari Kingdom.
Rakeyan Jayadarma and Dyah Lembu Tal were the sons of Sang Nararya Sanggramawijaya, or better known as Raden Wijaya who was said to have been born in Pakuan. In other words, Raden Wijaya is the 4th derivative of Ken Angrok and Ken Dedes. Because Jayadarma died at a young age, Lembu Tal was not willing to stay longer in Pakuan. Finally, Raden Wijaya and his mother returned to East Java.

In the Babad Tanah Jawi Raden Wijaya is also called Jaka Susuruh from Pasundan. As a descendant of Jayadarma, he is the legitimate successor to the throne of the Sunda-Galuh Kingdom, namely when Prabu Guru Darmasiksa Prabu Sanghyang Wisnu died. Jayadarma's death vacated the crown prince's position, because Raden Wijaya was in East Java and later became the first king of Majapahit.

List of Sundanese kings Galuh

Sundanese kings to Sri Jayabupati
Below is the order of the Sundanese kings to Sri Jayabupati, totaling 20 people:


Sundanese kings to Sri Jayabupati
NoRajaMasa pemerintahanKeterangan
1Maharaja Tarusbawa669-723
2Sanjaya Harisdarma723-732cucu-menantu no. 1
3Tamperan Barmawijaya732-739
4Rakeyan Banga739-766
5Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang766-783
6Prabu Gilingwesi783-795menantu no. 5
7Pucukbumi Darmeswara795-819menantu no. 6
8Prabu Gajah Kulon Rakeyan Wuwus819-891
9Prabu Darmaraksa891-895adik-ipar no. 8
10Windusakti Prabu Dewageng895-913
11Rakeyan Kemuning Gading Prabu Pucukwesi913-916
12Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Wanayasa916-942menantu no. 11
13Prabu Resi Atmayadarma Hariwangsa942-954
14Limbur Kancana954-964anak no. 11
15Prabu Munding Ganawirya964-973
16Prabu Jayagiri Rakeyan Wulung Gadung973-989
17Prabu Brajawisesa989-1012
18Prabu Dewa Sanghyang1012-1019
19Prabu Sanghyang Ageng1019-1030
20Prabu Detya Maharaja Sri Jayabupati1030-1042
Note: Except for Tarusbawa (no. 1), Banga (no. 4), and Darmeswara (no. 7) who only ruled in the western region of the Citarum River, the other kings ruled in Sunda and Galuh.

The Kings of Galuh to Prabu Gajah Kulon

Below is the order of the kings of Galuh to Prabu Gajah Kulon, totaling 13 people

The Kings of Galuh to Prabu Gajah Kulon

NoRajaMasa pemerintahanKeterangan
1Wretikandayun670-702
2Rahyang Mandiminyak702-709
3Rahyang Bratasenawa709-716
4Rahyang Purbasora716-723sepupu no. 3
5Sanjaya Harisdarma723-724anak no. 3
6Adimulya Premana Dikusuma724-725cucu no. 4
7Tamperan Barmawijaya725-739anak no. 5
8Manarah739-783anak no. 6
9Guruminda Sang Minisri783-799menantu no. 8
10Prabhu Kretayasa Dewakusalesywara Sang Triwulan799-806
11Sang Walengan806-813
12Prabu Linggabumi813-852
13Prabu Gajah Kulon Rakeyan Wuwus819-891ipar no. 12
Note: Sanjaya Harisdarma (no. 5) and Tamperan Barmawijaya (no. 7) were in power in Sunda and Galuh. The reunification of the two kingdoms of Sunda and Galuh was carried out again by Prabu Gajah Kulon (no. 13).

Sunda-Galuh kings after Sri Jayabupati
Below is the order of the Sunda-Galuh kings after Sri Jayabupati, who numbered 14 people:

Sunda-Galuh kings after Sri Jayabupati
NoRajaMasa pemerintahanKeterangan
1Darmaraja1042-1065
2Langlangbumi1065-1155
3Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Ménakluhur1155-1157
4Darmakusuma1157-1175
5Darmasiksa Prabu Sanghyang Wisnu1175-1297
6Ragasuci1297-1303
7Citraganda1303-1311
8Prabu Linggadéwata1311-1333
9Prabu Ajiguna Linggawisésa1333-1340menantu no. 8
10Prabu Ragamulya Luhurprabawa1340-1350
11Prabu Maharaja Linggabuanawisésa1350-1357tewas dalam Perang Bubat
12Prabu Bunisora1357-1371paman no. 13
13Prabu Niskala Wastu Kancana1371-1475anak no. 11
14Prabu Susuktunggal1475-1482

Reunification of Sunda-Galuh

When Wastu Kancana died, the kingdom was once again split in the government of his children, namely Susuktunggal who was in power in Pakuan (Sunda) and Dewa Niskala who was in power in Kawali (Galuh).

Sri Baduga Maharaja (1482-1521) who was the son of God Niskala as well as Susuktunggal's son-in-law reunited the Sunda and Galuh kingdoms.

After the collapse of Sunda Galuh by the Sultanate of Banten, this former kingdom is widely referred to as the Kingdom of Pajajaran.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K court_Sunda_dan_K kingdom_Galuh

Photo: Special

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