Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

The Origin of the Betawi Tribe

One of Betawi Art which is widely known by the public
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) The Betawi tribe is one of the ethnic groups of Indonesia, the initial inhabitants of the city of Jakarta and its surroundings.

Historian Sagiman MD, stated that the existence of the Betawi tribe had existed, since the New Stone Age (Neoliticum), where the native Betawi originated from Nusa Java; Javanese, Sundanese and Madurese.

A similar opinion came from Uka Tjandarasasmita who issued the monograph "Greater Jakarta and Surrounding Areas from the Prehistoric Period to the Kingdom of Pajajaran (1977)," revealing that, the Indigenous Peoples of Jakarta existed around 3,500 - 3,000 BC (BC).

In addition to the above research, there is also research by Lance Castles, which focuses on four historical sketches, namely:

Daghregister, the 1673 diary made by the Dutch who lived in the fortress city of Batavia

Thomas Stanford Raffles notes in History of Java in 1815

Population records for the 1893 Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch Indie

Population Census made by the Dutch East Indies colonizers in 1930

In all the historical sketches of Lance Castles, which began in 1673 (At the End of the 17th Century), these sketches are felt by many other historians to be incomplete, for an explanation of the origin of the Betawi Tribe. This is because in the Chronicle of the Land of Java in the 15th century (1400 AD), the word "Betawi Country" was discovered.

Betawi etymology
Regarding the origin of the word Betawi, according to historians there are several references:

Pitawi (Old Polynesian Malay Language) which means "Prohibition." This vocabulary refers to a complex of sites in the "Batu Jaya," Karawang area.

This was confirmed by historian Ridwan Saidi, by linking that the Building Complex was a Holy City that was previously closed.

Betawi (Brunei Malay) means ear stud. This name refers to the excavation in Babelan, Bekasi Regency. Where in this region until the 1990s there were still many gold studs from the 11th century AD.

Betawi Guling Flora (Cassia Glauca), Family Papilionaceae is a type of Shrub plant, whose wood is sturdy round like a bolster, but easy to grind. In ancient times this type of wood was widely used for making arms; Kris or knife handle. This plant is widely grown in Nusa Kelapa, several areas on the islands of Java and Kalimantan.

Whereas in Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan, the Betawi Guling is called Kayu Bekawi. Differences in pronunciation on the use of the vocabulary "k" and "t" between Kapuas Hulu and Betawi Malay, this is common, like the question word "whether" or "apatah" which has the same meaning.

It is possible that the name Betawi came from the type of plant could be true. Historian Ridwan Saidi; some names of flora species have been used in giving names to places or regions in Jakarta.

As an example; Gambir, Krekot, Bintaro, Grogol etc. "Like the Makassar District, this name has nothing to do with the Makassar people, but rather is taken from the type of grass."

Thus the vocabulary of "Betawi" is not derived from the word "Batavia".

While Batavia is the Latin name for the Land of Batavia, which in Roman times was thought to be located around the city of Nijmegen, the Netherlands, where today the remnants of the location are known as "Betuwe".

During the Renaissance, Dutch historians tried to legitimize Batavia as a status of their "Progenitor", henceforth calling themselves the Batavians.

This led to the emergence of the Batavian Republic, and took the name "Batavia" for the name of their colony.

As happened in Indonesia, where they changed the name of the City of Jayakarta to Batavia from 1619-1942.

After 1942 the name Batavia was changed again to Djakarta.

The name Batavia is also used in Suriname, and in the United States, because they also founded the city of Batavia, New York, to the west of the United States, such as; Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, and Batavia, Ohio.

Whereas the use of the word Betawi as a tribe, during the Dutch East Indies, began with the establishment of an organization called "Perawempoelan Kaoem Betawi" in 1923, initiated by Husni Thamrin.

3500 - 3000 BC (BC)

According to Historian Sagiman MD, Betawi history has existed since the Stone Age (Neolithic).

According to Yahya Andi Saputra, the indigenous Betawi people are residents of Nusa Java, which is a Cultural Unity. Language, Art, and Traditional Faith, but then made them their own tribe. Which may be caused by, among others:

First, the rise of kingdoms.
Second, the arrival of the nation and the influence of the nation from outside Nusa Java.
Third, there is the Development of Economic Progress from each region.

2nd century
According to Yahya Andi Saputra, Jakarta and its surroundings, including the territory of the Salakanagara, located at the foot of Mount Salak, Bogor.

5th century
The indigenous Betawi people were the people of the Salakanagara kingdom, where trade with China had advanced, which was marked by the sending of a Trade Envoy to China from Salakanagara in 432.

At the end of the 5th century the Hindu kingdom of Tarumanagara stood on the edge of the Citarum River, which is considered by some historians, that Tarumanagara was a continuation of the Salakanagara Kingdom, which moved its royal capital from the foot of Mount Salak to the Citarum River Bank.

The indigenous Betawi people became the people of the Tarumanagara kingdom, with the Royal Capital located on the banks of the Candrabagha River, which by Poerbatjaraka was identified with the Bekasi river.

Candra means moon or sasi, becoming Bhagasasi / Bekasi, which is located on the eastern edge of Jakarta. It was here, according to Poerbatjaraka estimates, the location of the Tarumanengara (Hindu) Royal Palace.

7th century
In the 7th century the Kingdom of Tarumanagara was conquered by the Kingdom of Srivijaya (Buddha).

At this time came the Malay population from Sumatra, then they established a settlement on the coast of Jakarta, which then gradually (with a pattern of assimilation) Malay language replaced the position of Kawi as the language of daily communication.

Malay was first only used in coastal areas, but later extended to the footlands of Mount Salak and Mount Gede.

For the Betawi community the family has an important meaning. Family life is considered sacred. Family members must uphold family dignity.

10th century
Around the 10th century, there was competition between the Malays (the Srivijaya Kingdom) and the Javanese Wong who were none other than the Kediri Kingdom.

Competition that led to the war, where the Chinese people for the sake of the continuation of their trade, they stand on two legs, or partly sided with the Kingdom of Srivijaya, and partly sided with the Kingdom of Kediri.

After the war, control of the sea is divided in two;
West side starting from Cimanuk, also the Sunda Port is controlled by Srivijaya.

The east side of Kediri is controlled by Kediri.
Sriwijaya asked Syailendra in Central Java to help oversee Sriwijaya's territorial waters in western Java. But Syailendara was gradually unable, finally Sriwijaya was forced to bring migrants from the western part of the Malay ethnic group to Kalapa.

It was during this period that there was a significant spread of Malay in the Kalapa Kingdom, due to a larger wave of immigration than the native population who used Sundanese Kawi as the lingua franca in the Kalapa Kingdom.

European Colonial Period

16th century
The agreement between Surawisesa (King of the Kingdom of Pajajaran) with the Portuguese in 1512, allowed the Portuguese to build a community in Sunda Kalapa, which resulted in a mixed marriage between the local population and the Portuguese, which in turn lowered the blood of the Portuguese mixture.

It was from this mixed community that Keroncong music was born, or known as Keroncong Tugu.

After the VOC made Batavia as the center of its commercial activities, the VOC needed a lot of manpower to open agricultural land, and build the city's economic wheels.

That's when the VOC bought a lot of slaves from the Balinese authorities, because at that time in Bali there were still slavery practices.

Therefore there is still Balinese vocabulary and grammar remaining in the Betawi language today.

The progress of the Batavian trade attracted various ethnic groups from all over the world, as well as; China, Arabia and India to work in this city.

The influence of foreign tribes who come here, is seen from the Betawi wedding dress that many elements of Arabic and Chinese.

Various place names in Jakarta leave historical clues about the arrival of various other ethnic groups to Batavia, such as; Kampung Melayu, Kampung Bali, Kampung Ambon, Kampung Jawa, Kampung Makassar and Kampung Bugis.

Bugis house in the northern part of Jl. Mangga Dua in the Bugis village area that began in 1690. At the beginning of the 20th century there were still several houses like this in the City area.

20th century
According to Uka Tjandarasasmita, the original inhabitants of Jakarta had existed since 3500-3000 BC.

Another anthropologist, Prof. Dr. Parsudi Suparlan, stated that awareness as a Betawi people at the beginning of the formation of the ethnic group had not yet taken root.

In everyday relationships, they more often call themselves based on the locality of their residence, such as Kemayoran people, Senen people, or Rawabelong people.

Recognition of the existence of Betawi people as an ethnic group and as a social and political unit in a broader scope (at that time was the Dutch East Indies), namely with the emergence of the Kaoem Betawi Shop in 1923, initiated by Husni Thamrin, as a Betawi community figure.

Only then did all the Betawi people realize that they were a group, namely the Betawi group.

There are also those who argue that the Betawi people not only included a mixed society in the Batavia fort built by the Dutch, but also included residents outside the fort, who were called the Betawi proto community.

Local residents outside the fortress Batavia, at that time already used the Malay language, which is commonly used in Sumatra.

Since the end of the last century and especially after independence (1945), Jakarta has been flooded with immigrants from all over Indonesia, so that Betawi people have become minority host citizens.

In 1961, Betawi 'tribes' numbered approximately 22.9 percent of the + 2.9 million population of Jakarta at the time, this showed that the Betawi people were increasingly pushed to the periphery, even displaced out of Jakarta.

Art and culture
Indigenous art and culture of Jakarta or Betawi residents can be seen from archaeological findings, such as earrings that were found in excavations in Babelan, Bekasi District dating from the 11th century AD.

In addition, Betawi culture also occurs from a process of cultural mix between indigenous tribes with a variety of ethnic migrants, or commonly known as Mestizo.

Since ancient times, the area of ​​the former Salakanagara kingdom, which came to be known as "Kalapa" (now Jakarta), has been an area that attracted migrants from within and outside the archipelago.

Mixed culture, has existed since the leadership of King Pajajaran, Prabu Surawisesa, where Prabu Surawisesa entered into an agreement with Portugal, from the result of the mixing of cultures between Indigenous people, and this Portuguese was born Keroncong Tugu.

The tribes that inhabit Jakarta now include Javanese, Sundanese, Malay, Minang, Batak, and Bugis. Apart from the inhabitants of the archipelago, Betawi culture also absorbs many foreign cultures, such as Arabic, Chinese, Indian, and Portuguese cultures.

The Betawi tribe, as a native of Jakarta, have been marginalized by migrants. They left Jakarta and moved to areas in the provinces of West Java and Banten.

Betawi culture was eliminated by other cultures, both from Indonesia and Western and Middle Eastern Culture.

Native Betawi people speak Kawi (ancient Javanese), using hanacaraka letters. Betawi natives have lived in Jakarta, and its surroundings since the Stone Age.

The mixed nature of Betawi or Malay dialect in Jakarta, or Batavia Malay is a reflection of the Betawi culture in general, which is the result of the marriage of various cultures, both originating from other regions in the archipelago and foreign cultures.

Until now, there are still many regional names, and river names that still use Sundanese, such as; Ancol, Pancoran, Cilandak, Ciliwung, Cideng (which originated from Cihideung, and later changed to Cideung, and tearkhir became Cideng), and others which are still in accordance with the naming described in the ancient Bujangga Manik script which is currently stored in the Bodleian library , Oxford, England.

The Betawi dialect is divided into two types, namely the central Betawi dialect and the edge Betawi dialect. The middle Betawi dialect generally reads "é" while the edge Betawi dialect is "a".

Central or central Betawi dialects are often considered to be true Betawi dialects, because they originate from where Jakarta began, namely the Betawi neighborhoods around Jakarta Kota, Sawah Besar, Tugu, Cilincing, Kemayoran, Senen, Kramat, to the southernmost boundary in Meester (Jatinegara ).

Betawi dialect fringe starting from Jatinegara to the South, Condet, Jagakarsa, Depok, Rawa Belong, Ciputat to the southern edge, and the edge of West Java. Examples of speakers in the middle Betawi dialect are Benyamin S., Ida Royani and Aminah Cendrakasih, because they are indeed from the Kemayoran and Kramat Sentiong areas.

While examples of peripheral Betawi dialect speakers are Mandra, and Pak Tile. The clearest example is when they say kenape / why (why). The Betawi dialect clearly states "é", while the Betawi edge is "a".

In the arts, Betawi people have the Kromong Gambang from Chinese music, but there is also Rebana which is rooted in Arabic music traditions, Samrah orchestra comes from Malay, Keroncong Tugu with a Portuguese background, and Tanjidor with a Dutch background.

Nowadays, Betawi tribes are famous for the art of Lenong, Gambang Kromong, Rebana Tanjidor, and Keroncong. Betawi also has traditional songs such as "Kicir-kicir".

Betawi dance art is a combination of cultural elements within the community. Example: Topawi Betawi dance, Yapong influenced by Jaipong Sunda dance, Cokek and others.

In the beginning, Betawi dance art was influenced by Sundanese and Chinese culture, such as Yapong dance with dancers' costumes typical of Beijing Opera performers.

Betawi traditional drama, among others: Lenong and Tonil. This traditional play usually portrays the daily lives of Betawi people, interspersed with songs, rhymes, jokes, and humorous jokes. Sometimes lenong actors can interact directly with the audience.

The folklore that developed in Jakarta in addition to well-known folklore such as Si Pitung, is also known by other folklore such as the jampang series which tells the Betawi champions, both in their struggles and in their lives that are known as "hard".

In addition to telling the world champion or warrior martial arts, the story of Nyai Dasima is also known, which illustrates colonial life. Other stories are Mirah from Marunda, Murtado Macan Kemayoran, Juragan Boing and others.

Traditional weapon
Jakarta's special weapon is a bendo, or a machete that is sheathed made of wood.

Traditional house
Betawi traditional / traditional house is a kebaya house

Most of the Betawi people follow Islam, but those who follow Christianity; Protestants and Catholics also exist but very few.

Among the Betawi ethnic groups who are Christians, some claim that they are a mixed offspring of the local population and the Portuguese.

This is reasonable because in the early 16th century, Surawisesa, Raja Pajajaran entered into an agreement with the Portuguese which allowed the Portuguese to build a fort and a warehouse in the port of Sunda Kalapa, so that the Portuguese community was formed in Sunda Kalapa.

This Portuguese community still exists today, and settled in the Kampung Tugu area, North Jakarta.

In Jakarta, Betawi people are now as a result of assimilation between ethnic groups, before the era of the development of the New Order, divided into several professions according to the scope of their respective regions (villages).

In the Kemanggisan village and around Rawabelong, many are farmers who work as flowers (orchids, Japanese frangipani, etc.).

In general, many become teachers, instructors and educators, among others K.H. Djunaedi, K.H. Suit, etc. Profession of traders, and batik also much involved.

Kampung Kuningan is a place for dairy farmers.
Kemandoran village where the land is not as fertile as Kemanggisan. Foreman, defender, champion silat many encountered in this region, among others; Pitung's comrade in arms from Rawabelong.

Kampung Paseban many residents are office workers since the days of the Netherlands, although their pencak silat ability is also not in doubt. Teachers, instructors, religious teachers, and the profession of retail traders are also often practiced.

Tebet residents are Betawi evictors from Senayan, because of the launching of the Ganefo program that was initiated by Bung Karno, in order to create the Bung Karno Sports Complex / Gelora that we know today.

Behavior and nature
Most people's assumptions about the Betawi people are rarely successful, both in terms of economics, education, and technology.

Though not a few Betawi people who succeeded. Some of them are Muhammad Husni Thamrin, Benyamin Sueb, and Fauzi Bowo Governor of DKI Jakarta (2007 - 2012).

There are some positive things from the Betawi people, among others; their social spirit is very high, although sometimes in some cases it is too excessive, and tends to be tendentious.

Sapto Satrio Mulyo

Sources: from various sources

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture