Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Matrilineal became Patrilineal - 1401 AD

Pekanbaru (Dreamland Library) - During the heyday of Bandar Malacca in the 15th century on the Malay Peninsula, in the Coal and Asahan regions of North Sumatra, many Minangkabau communities lived and implemented the Minangkabau system which was Matrilineal

Before turning into Patrilineal at the insistence of Sultan Deli. At present the Minangkabau descent has merged into the Malay communities of the east coast of North Sumatra.


Photo: Special

The oldest inscription in Indonesia - 300 AD

Manado (DreamLandLibrary) - Pinawetengan Inscription - 300 AD, Ancient Minahasa script called the Malesung Script.

The written speech of Maeres Literature on this stone contains a Regional Divisions Conference, or a kind of Declaration to maintain unity.

The Pinawetengan Stone, found in West Tompaso District, is a natural stone on which is written in Hieroglyphic Letters (writings and alphabet of Ancient Egypt).

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

The Beginning of Historical Record - 500 Years BC

Istana Phartenon
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Recognition from the Greeks, that the historical record of the past, can be said to begin in Greece in about 500 Years BC. At that time the writing of history or historiography, was still in the form of a "fusion" between Medical Science and Law.


Meanwhile, if we see, that during the Development of Buddhism, where there is already a Buddhist Book, which has been arranged properly.

Buddha, has recorded a detailed history in 563 BC, so be careful with the claims of foreign researchers.

Photo: Special

Declaration of Reform of the Minahasa Government System - 300 AD

Pinawetengan Inscription
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Minahasa (formerly called Tanah Malesung) is a peninsula area in the province of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. This area is located in the northeastern part of the island of Sulawesi, which covers an area of ​​27,515 square km, and consists of four regions, namely: Bolaang Mongondow, Gorontalo, Minahasa and the Sangihe and Talaud islands.

Minahasa is also famous for its fertile land which is home to a variety of plants and animals, land and sea. There are various plants such as coconuts and clove gardens, and also a variety of fruits and vegetables. North Sulawesi's fauna includes among other rare animals such as Maleo, Kuskus, Babirusa, Anoa and Tangkasi (Tarsius Spectrum).

Etymology of Minahasa
The name of the Minahasa land has been changed several times: Batacina-Malesung-Minaesa and finally the current name Minahasa which means "to become one entity". This name comes from the war against the southern Bolaang Mangondow Kingdom. However, other sources say that the original name of the Minahasa Malesung, which means "spinning rice", was later changed to Se Mahasa, which means "those who unite," and finally Minahasa, meaning [3] "to become one entity."

The ancient Minahasa writings called the Malesung Script are found in several stone inscriptions including those in Pinawetengan. Malesung script is a hieroglyphic writing, which until now is still difficult to translate.

Kingdom and Government
The royal government in North Sulawesi developed into a large kingdom that had wide influence outside Sulawesi or Maluku. In 670, the leaders of different tribes, who all spoke different languages, met a stone known as Watu Pinawetengan. There they established an independent state community, which would form a unit and stay together and would fight any outside enemy if they were attacked. The part of Minahasa tribal children who developed their government so that it had broad influence was the children of the Tonsea tribe in the 13th century, whose influence reached Bolaang Mongondow and other areas. Then the mixed descendants of the Pasan Ponosakan and Tombulu children built a royal government and separated from the other four tribes in Minahasa. Read David DS Lumoindong's writings about the Kingdom in North Sulawesi.

The etymology of Minahasa comes from the words Mina-Esa (Minaesa) or Maesa which means to be one or unite, meaning that the hope is to unite various Minahasa sub-ethnic groups consisting of Tontemboan, Tombulu, Tonsea, Tolour (Tondano), Tonsawang, Ponosakan, Pasan and Bantik.

The name "Minahasa" itself was only used later. "Minahasa" generally means "has become one". Palar noted, based on several historical documents that the first time to use the word "minahasa" was J.D. Schierstein, Resident of Manado, in his report to the Governor of Maluku on October 8, 1789. "Minahasa" in the report is interpreted as Landraad or "State Council" (State Council) or also "Regional Council".

The name Minaesa first appeared in the association of the "Tonaas" in Watu Pinawetengan (Batu Pinabetengan). The name Minahasa which was popularized by the Dutch first appeared in the Resident J.D. Schierstein, October 8, 1789, which is about peace that has been carried out by the sub-ethnic groups Bantik and Tombulu (Tateli), the event is remembered as the "Tateli War". The Minahasa tribe consists of various tribes or Pakasaan which means unity: Tonsea (covering North Minahasa Regency, Bitung City, and the Old Tonsea region in Tondano), Toulour tribe children (including Tondano, Kakas, Remboken, Eris, East Lembean and Kombi) , Tontemboan tribe children (including South Minahasa Regency, and parts of Minahasa Regency), Tombulu tribe children (including Tomohon City, part of Minahasa Regency, and Manado City), Tonsawang tribe children (including Tombatu and Toulonde), Ponosakan tribe children (including Belang) , and Pasan (including Ratahan). The only tribal children who have scattered territory are Bantik tribes who inhabit the land of Maras, Molas, Bailang, Talawaan Bantik, Bengkol, Buha, Singkil, Malalayang (Minanga), Kalasey, Tanamon and Somoit (scattered in the northern and western coastal villages North Sulawesi). Each tribe has different languages, vocabularies and dialects, but one can understand the meaning of certain vocabularies, for example the word kawanua, which means the same origin from the village.

The Origin of Minahasa People
The Minahasa region of North Sulawesi is thought to have been first inhabited by humans in thousands of years in the third and second BC. [6] Austronesians originally inhabited southern China before moving and colonizing areas in Taiwan, the northern Philippines, the southern Philippines, and to Kalimantan, Sulawesi and the Moluccas.
According to Minahasa mythology in Minahasa is a descendant of Toar Lumimuut and. Initially, the descendants of Toar Lumimuut-divided into 3 groups: Makatelu-pitu (three times seven), Makaru-siuw (twice nine) and Pasiowan-Telu (nine times three). They are multiplied quickly. But soon there were disputes between people. Their leader named Tona'as then decided to meet and talk about this. They met at Awuan (north of the current Tonderukan hill). The meeting was called Pinawetengan u-nuwu (dividing language) or Pinawetengan um-posan (dividing ritual). At that meeting the descendants were divided into three groups named Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan and according to the groups mentioned above. At the place where this meeting took place a memorial stone called Watu Pinabetengan (Stone Divide) was then built. This is a favorite tourist destination.

The Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan groups and later established their main territories which were Maiesu, Niaranan, and Tumaratas respectively. Soon several villages were established outside the area. The new villages then became the ruling centers of a group of villages called Puak, then walak, comparable to today's districts.

Then a new group of people arrived on the Pulisan peninsula. Due to various conflicts in this area, they then moved inland and established villages around a large lake. These people are therefore called Tondano, Toudano or Toulour (meaning water people). This lake is Lake Tondano now. Minahasa Warriors.

In the following years, more groups came to Minahasa. There were: people from the islands of Maju and Tidore who landed at Atep. These people are the ancestors of Tonsawang subethnic. people from Tomori Bay. This is the ancestor of the subethnic Pasam-Bangko (Ratahan and Pasan) people from Bolaang Mangondow who are the ancestors of Ponosakan (Belang). people from the islands of Bacan and Sangi, who later occupied Lembeh, Talisei Island, Manado Tua, Bunaken and Mantehage. This is Bobentehu subethnic (Bajo). They landed in what is now called Sindulang. They then established an empire called Manado which ended in 1670 and became the Walak of Manado. people from Toli-toli, who in the early 18th century landed first at Panimburan and then went to Bolaang Mangondow - and finally to where Malalayang is now. These people are the ancestors of the subethnic Bantik.

These are the nine sub-ethnic groups in Minahasa, which explain the number 9 in Manguni Maka-9:

Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tonsawang, Ratahan pasan (Bentenan), Ponosakan, Babontehu, Bantik.

Eight of the ethnic groups are also separate linguistic groups.

The name Minahasa itself appeared when the Minahasa Bolaang Mangondow fought against. Among the Minahasa heroes in the war against the Mangondow Bolaang were: Porong, Wenas, Dumanaw and Lengkong (in the war near the Lilang village), Gerungan, Korengkeng, Walalangi (near Panasen, Tondano), Wungkar, Sayow, Lumi, and Worotikan (in the war with Amurang Bay).

Most Minahasa residents are Christians, and it is also one of the ethnic groups that is most closely related to western countries. The first contact with Europeans occurred when Spanish and Portuguese traders arrived there. When the Dutch arrived, Christianity spread throughout. Old traditions became influenced by the existence of the Dutch. The word Minahasa comes from the confederation of each tribe and the existing statues are proof of the old tribal system.

Bunaken Marine Park
In front of the coast of the city of Manado is the island of Manado Tua with a very beautiful diving area where the island of Bunaken is one of the famous islands around this environment.

Minahasa people known as descendants of Toar Lumimuut around the 1st century (first) ancestral settlements first settled around the coast of Likupang, then moved to the mountains of Wulur Mahatus, the southern region of Minahasa then developed and moved to Nieutakan (the area around the new tompaso at this time). At this time the government used the royal system. A king reigns according to lineage.

The history of the Minahasa people is generally written by foreigners who came to this land are mostly missionaries. Some of them: Rev. Scwarsch, J. Albt. T. Schwarz, Dr. JGF Riedel, Ps. Wilken, Ps. J. Wiersma. There are three central figures associated with the ancestors of the Minahasa people, namely Lumimuut, Toar and Karema.

Karema, understood as "man of the sky", and Lumimuut and Toar are the ancestors and forerunners of the Minahasa people. The early humans in Minahasa came from Lumimuut and Toar, the original place of Lumimuut and Toar and their descendants was called Wulur Mahatus. These early groups then proliferated and migrated to several areas in the Minahasa land.

Minahasa people at that time were divided into 3 (three) groups namely: Makarua Siow (2x9): regulators of Worship and Customary Makatelu Pitu (3x7): governing the government of Pasiowan Telu (9x7): People

Classification based on blood descent. When present leaders who were increasingly corrupt and arbitrary government, then there was a popular revolution that overthrew the monarchy.

Pinawetengan Inscription
Batu Pinawetengan is located in West Tompaso District. It is a natural stone on top of which is written in hieroglyphic letters, which has not yet been solved how to read it. This stone is the place of the Toar Peace Conference and is a milestone in the history of changes in the government system of the Toar Lumimuut descendants. According to Paulus Lumoindong, the Deliberation took place around 300-400 AD. According to David DS Lumoindong, even the writing of this inscription is parallel or even older than the Kutai Inscription in 450 AD

Declaration of Governance System Reform
When the number of Lumimuut-Toar descendants increases, they once held a meeting at a place with a large stone (the stone which was later called Watu Pinawetengan). Deliberation was led by Tonaas Wangko Kopero and Tonaas Wangko Muntu-untu I (old / first).

The system of social governance finally changed after going through a deliberation that declared an electoral system, an ancient democratic state government, the results of the deliberations were written on a stone inscription which came to be known as Watu Pinawetengan. According to Paulus Lumoindong the incident occurred around 400-500 AD.

Dr. research results J.P.G. Riedel, that it happened around the year 670 in Minahasa there had been a deliberation at the Pinawetengan watu meant to uphold the customs and division of the Minahasa area.

There they established an independent state association, which would form a unity and stay together and would fight any enemy from outside if they were attacked, Ratahan later joined the Minahasa union around 1690. The Tou-Ure Assembly probably did not take part in the deliberations at Pinawetengan to vow one descendant of Toar and Lumimuut where all Pakasa'an call themselves Mahasa as long as the word Esa means one, until Tou-Ure is forgotten in the old Minahasa story.

The division of the Minahasa region is divided into several sub-tribes, namely: Tontewoh tribe (Tonsea): northeast region of the Tombulu tribe: territory to the north big tombasian At that time the Minahasa mainland was not yet populated, only a few areas were populated, in the Ranoyapo River line, Soputan Mountain, Kawatak Mountain, Rumbia River, Kalawatan. The development of tribal children such as Tonsea, Tombulu, Toulour, Tountemboan, Tonsawang, Ponosakan and Bantik tribes.

Tribal Development {Expansion}
It cannot yet be traced in what century the Tountewo broke in two into Pakasa 'Toundanou and Tounsea until Minahasa had four Pakas'an. Namely Toumpakewa changed to Tontemboan, Toumbulu ', Tonsea and Toundanou. The condition of Pakasa'an in Minahasa in Dutch times seems to have changed again where the Tontemboan Pakasa'an has divided the Pakasa'an area of ​​Toundanouw and the Tondano, Touwuntu and Toundanou were born. Tondano's Pakasa'an consists of walas Kakas, Romboken and Toulour. The Touwuntu Pakasa'an consists of the walaks of Tousuraya and Toulumalak which are now called Pasan and Ratahan. Toundanou's clothing consists of the wal Tombatu and Tonsawang.

Walak and Pakasa'an The Toulour walak region is somewhat different because besides covering the mainland it also lakes at Lake Tondano between the Tounour sub-walak namely Touliang and Toulimambot. Those who do not have Pakasa'an are the Bantik walaks scattered in Malalayang, Kema and Ratahan even in Mongondouw - although the ethnic Bantik are also descendants of Toar and Lumimuut. According to the ethnic legends of the late Bantik, it was too late to come to the deliberations at the Pinawetengan Inscription. There are three names of Muntu-Untu dotu in the Minahasa legend namely 7th-century Muntu-Untu from Toungkimbut (Tontemboan). Muntu-12th-century origin of Tonsea-according to Tonsea terms. And Muntu-Untu in the 15th century in Spain meant that there were three large deliberations on the Pinawetengan stone to pledge to remain united.

Government system
The system of government in the four main tribes consists of: Walian: Religious / traditional leader and shaman Tonaas: Hard people, experts in agriculture, women, those who are elected as chief walter Teterusan: Commander of the War Potasan: Advisor

In the History of Ratahan, Pasan, Ponosakan from the data book published in 1871. In the early 16th century the Ratahan area was bustling with trade with Ternate and Tidore, its port called Mandolang Benten (Bentenan), now called Belang. This port at that time was more crowded than the port of Manado. The formation of Lords and Pasans is told as follows; at the time of the Mongondouw king named Mokodompis occupied the area of ​​Tompakewa, then Lengsangalu from the country of Pontak brought his taranak to the "Pikot" region south of Mandolang-Bentenan (Belang). Lengsangalu had two sons namely Raliu who later founded the Pelolongan country which later became Ratahan, and Potangkuman married a Towuntu girl and then founded the Pasan state. The State of Toulumawak was headed by the head of the country of a woman married to a Kema Tonsea named Londok who could no longer return to Kema because of a boat of Tolour people. Because [Kingdom of Ratahan] was friendly with the Portuguese, the area was attacked by "Shell" pirates (South Philippines) and Tobelo pirates.

Expel colonization movements against Spain

The Minahasa also fought a war with Spain which began in 1617 and ended in 1645. This war was triggered by the Spanish injustice against the Minahasa people, especially in terms of rice trade, as the main commodity at that time. Open war occurred later in the year 1644-1646. The end of the war was a complete defeat of Spain, so it was successfully expelled by the waranei (Minahasa knights.

Movement to drive out colonialism against the Dutch Company with the VOC

In the span of 1679 to 1809, it was the period of the Dutch Company with its VOC. During this period, there was quite a tension between the customary law of the Minahasa people and Dutch law. The meeting between the Dutch people and the Minahasa did not happen well, because the motivation of the Dutch people was certainly there to colonize. While the Minahasa people do not like being colonized. A number of agreements were made to try to conquer the Minahasa people. But, resistance must also occur, the peak is the Tondano War which occurred in 1808 to 1809.

The Tondano War, which lasted for 11 months and 4 days, was a heresy. For the sake of maintaining the sovereignty of the Land of Minahasa, the Minahasa warriors were willing to die. On the evening of the evening of August 5, 1809, the war fiercely fought, and ended with the defeat of the Minahasa people. This historical fact, as well as proving that the Minahasa people are people who are willing to risk their lives for the independence of their land, read the book "Heroes of the Minahasa War Against the Dutch" by David DS Lumoindong. At the same time it also corrected the stigma of many people to the Minahasa people, that "the Minahasa people were lickers of the Netherlands". That stigma is certainly not true, because the Tondano War, is the Minahasa War against the Dutch.

Expel occupation of Japanese opponents
The Minahasa struggle for independence since 1808 continues to flare up and begin waging guerrilla warfare throughout Indonesia. Minahasa warriors entered the Dutch army to learn everything in order to form a great force that could finally win the war. In the era leading up to Indonesian Independence, the Minahasa struggle movement had moved nationally by utilizing all Dutch and Japanese facilities. Minahasa people build Christian Forces, Associations of intellectuals, cultural associations. The Minahasa succeeded in gaining Dutch trust, even the Dutch army leaders were entrusted to the Minahasa people, such as the KNIL Army. The position held by the Minahasa people was a great force united with fighters from other regions so that Indonesia was independent. Great figures who were instrumental in giving birth to the Indonesian nation include Dr.G.S.J.Sam Ratulangi, A.Maramis, Kawilarang, Ventje Sumual,

There are a small number of Minahasa people who use the Japanese surname because some Minahasa people are married to Japanese people. The Land of Minahasa in ancient times was called [Land of Malesung] because of its shape like dimples or overflowing and bumpy soil. Minahasa slogan: "Si Tou Tumou Tou" which means humans live to humanize other humans, with the slogan of the struggle "I Yayat U Santi" which means going forward to develop the country.

Movement to drive out the colonial era of independence

The Minahasa struggle for independence continues to flare up while maintaining independence. War 14 February 1946.


Photo: Special

#references libraries

Nusantara Self-Defense Has Been Around 15,000 Years BC

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Since when was Silat martial arts in the archipelago? This is the opinion of Donald Frederick Draeger (15 April 1922 - 20 October 1982), an expert on Asian martial arts and an American marine.

He is known as a martial arts expert because he conducts in-depth research and learns directly from many Japanese, Korean and Chinese branches of martial arts. He also choreographed fights in a variety of action action films including one of them being the James Bond series, "You Only Live Twice" (1967), starring Sean Connery.

According to Draeger, during the Palaeolithic period (around 15,000 years BC), primitive humans in Java known as pithecantropus erectus were already familiar with fighting techniques or simple martial arts, namely with the hand of an empty hand or with the development of using a stick or stone weapon. Drager put forward this theory by proposing the findings of the Ngandong and Wadjak skulls which were found with simple stone tools such as stone axes. Stones sharpened to one side by breaking one another. The hand-held stone ax he called a simple weapon in a fight or as equipment for other purposes, such as hunting or food processing or clothes. In the next period (Mesolithic and Neolithic, 15,000 - 3,000 BC), primitive humans in the archipelago landscape began to make progress by refining their equipment and weapons. Draeger suspects that the art of martial arts has progressed in terms of stance due to the refinement of the stone ax weapon.

In Indonesian classical times, according to Draeger - who also wrote the Javanes Silat Martial Art of Self Shield - the evidence of martial arts can be seen not only from various weapon artifacts found from the classical period (Hindu-Buddhist) but also in relief sculpture- reliefs containing the attitudes of horses for martial arts in the temple Prambanan and Borobudur. In his book Draeger wrote that at the time his book was prepared (mid 1970s) weapons and martial arts of silat were inseparable from the Indonesian people. Silat can be seen that its needs are not only from physical exercise, but also from spiritual relations that are closely related to Indonesian culture.


  • Kampung Silat Jampang
Photo: Special

Is There a Vocabulary Relationship Below?

Illustration of Connectedness
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Maybe the vocabulary has no direct connection, but friends decide to make it into an archive. So if one day a significant relationship is found, we already have a little info.

Lima is the capital of Peru - Inca culture exists in Peru
The city has a population of around 6.2 million. About a third live in slums below the poverty line. The city was founded by Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535.


The 'Crazy' River in Arizona, USA
Arizona, a state located in the southwestern United States is very famous for its natural beauty, including the desert and rivers. Uniquely, besides having the city 'Tempe', Arizona also has a river called Indonesia, the River 'Crazy'. This 'Crazy' River is a tributary of the Colorado River which lies between New Mexico and Arizona. This river has a length of about 650 miles or more than 1000 kilometers.


Francisco ‘Lima’, Brazil
The thing called Indonesia in the next world is the name of defensive midfielder from AS Roma. Not much different from Karel 'Pitak', this former Brazilian footballer was also awarded the name Indonesia. He is Francisco 'Five'. I do not know on what basis he is called 'five', but certainly in his heyday, the man who was born on April 17, 1971 turned out to also be numbered 5 (five) in accordance with his last name. Either coincidentally or intentionally, what is clearly Francisco 'Five' is the figure of a soccer player who has undoubtedly individual speed and skill.


Photo: Special

Relations between Lake Tempe in Sulawesi and City of Tempe in Arizona

Tempe Town Lake Arizona
Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Maybe the two places do not have a direct relationship, but friends in the community decide to make it an archive. So if one day a significant relationship is found, we already have a little info.

Arizona in the United States
Tempe is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States of America, with a population of more than 175,000 in 2008.

The city is located in the eastern part of the Phoenix Metropolitan Valley Area, bordered by Phoenix and Guadalupe to the west, Scottsdale to the north, Chandler to the south, and Mesa to the east.

And the City of 'Tempe' is the location of the headquarters of the American airline US Airways Group and has the oldest and largest Arizona State campus in Arizona.


While Lake Tempe in South Sulawesi is "Lake Purba", meaning possible the name Tempe, although both the lake is a duplicate of Lake Tempe Purba.

Photo: Special

Pre-History - 1998100 BC

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Homo erectus fossils found in several sites on Java show the possibility of population continuity from 1.7 million years (Sangiran) to 50,000 years ago (Ngandong). A long period of time shows a change in features that results in two different subspecies (H. erectus paleojavanicus which is older than H. erectus soloensis). Swisher (1996) proposed the thesis that up to 50,000 years ago they had lived a contemporary with modern humans H. sapiens.

Migration of H. sapiens (modern humans) into the archipelago is estimated to occur in the span of time between 70 000 and 60 000 years ago. Austrolomelanesoid-type people, who later became the ancestors of several indigenous tribes in the Malay Peninsula (Semang), the Philippines (Negrito), Aboriginal Australia, Papua, and Melanesia, entered the Sunda Exposure area. They then moved east. Niah Cave in Sarawak has the oldest skeletal remains that represent this community (around 60 to 50 thousand years old). Skull remains were also found in caves in karst areas in Java (Sewu Mountains). They are supporters of Paleolithic culture who are not yet familiar with crop cultivation or raising livestock and live gathering (hunt and gathering).

The discovery of a skeleton series of human-like creatures on Liang Bua, Flores Island, opens up the possibility of a third hominid species, now known as H. floresiensis.

Furthermore, about 2500 years before Christ, there was migration by Austronesian speakers from Taiwan to the Philippines, then south and Indonesia, and east to the Pacific. They are the ancestors of the tribes in the Nusantara region.

This Austronesian person understands farming, shipping and even astronomy. They also have a simple system of governance and a leader (little king). The arrival of immigrants from India in the last centuries before Christ introduced them to a more advanced system of governance (kingdom).


Photo: Special

Kumari Kandam - Sumatra

Kasedhiya Kumari Kandam sing nyambung karo pulau Sumatra
Lampung (DreamLandLibrary) - While the previous Kumari Kandam theory, continued or connected with the Continent of Australia or to the left of the Archipelago

Photo: Special

Austronesia - 2500 BC

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - About 2,500 years before Christ, there was a migration by Austronesian Speakers from Taiwan to the Philippines, then south, and Indonesia (Returning to the Village), and east to the Pacific. They are the ancestors of the tribes in the Nusantara region.

This Austronesian person understands how to farm (farming), shipping and even astronomy. They also already have a simple Governance System, and have a leader (Little King). The arrival of immigrants from India in the last centuries before Christ introduced them to a more advanced Governance System (Kingdom).


Its spread
The Austronesian language family is a language family that is very widely distributed in the world. From Taiwan and Hawaii at the north end to New Zealand (Aotearoa) at the south end and from Madagascar at the west end to Easter Island (Rapanui) at the east end.

Austronesian term
Austronesian refers to the geographical area where the population speaks Austronesian languages. The region includes Formosa Island, the Archipelago (including the Philippines), Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and the Island of Madagascar. Literally, Austronesian means "Southern Islands" and comes from the Latin austrālis which means "south" and the Greek nêsos (plural: nesia) which means "island".

If Javanese is included in Suriname, then geography also covers the area. The study also shows the existence of Malay-speaking communities on the coast of Sri Langka [

The origin of the Austronesian people
To get an idea of ​​the homeland of the Austronesian nation, scholars investigated evidence from archeology and genetic science. Study of genetic science gives conflicting results. Some researchers find evidence that the ancient Austronesian homeland was on the Asian continent. (such as Melton et al., 1998), while others follow linguistic research which states the Austronesians initially settled in Taiwan. From the point of view of the history of linguistics, the Austronesian nation originated from Taiwan because on this island one can find the deepest division of Austronesian languages ​​from the native Formosan family. Formosan languages ​​form nine out of ten branches in the Austronesian language family [3]. Comrie (2001: 28) found this out when he wrote:

"... Formosan languages ​​are more diverse from one another than all Austronesian languages ​​combined into one so that it can be concluded that there is a genetic divide in the Austronesian language family between the languages ​​of Taiwan and the rest. Indeed, the genetic makeup of languages ​​in Taiwan is so diverse that it is possible for these languages ​​to comprise several major branches of the Austronesian language family as a whole. "

At least since Sapir (1968), linguists have accepted that the chronology of the distribution of a family of languages ​​can be traced from areas of great linguistic diversity to areas of small linguistic diversity. Although some scholars suspect that the number of branches among Taiwanese languages ​​may be less than Blust's estimate of 9 (like Li 2006), there is little debate among linguists with an analysis of diversity and conclusions drawn about the origin and the direction of the Austronesian language family migration.

Evidence from archeology suggests that Austronesian peoples settled in Taiwan about eight thousand years ago [4]. From this island sailors migrated to the Philippines, Indonesia, then to Madagascar near the African continent and to the entire Pacific Ocean, perhaps in several stages, to all parts of which are now covered by Austronesian languages ​​[5]. Evidence from the history of language suggests that this migration began about six thousand years ago [6]. However, the evidence from the history of language cannot bridge the gap between these two periods.

The view that the evidence from linguistics connects ancient Austronesian languages ​​with Chinese-Tibetan languages ​​as proposed by Sagart (2002), is a minority view as stated by Fox (2004: 8):

"Implied in the discussion about the grouping of Austronesian languages ​​is an agreement that the Austronesian homeland is in Taiwan. This area of ​​origin might also include the Penghu islands between Taiwan and China and perhaps even coastal areas in mainland China, especially if Austronesian ancestors were seen as populations of dialect communities living in scattered coastal settlements. "

The linguistic analysis of ancient Austronesian language stops at the west coast of Taiwan. Austronesian languages ​​that were spoken in mainland China did not survive. The only exception, Chamic, is the migration that took place only after the spread of the Austronesians

It is rather difficult to define the familial structure of Austronesian languages ​​because the Austronesian language family consists of languages ​​that are very similar and closely related to the continuity of large dialects making it difficult to recognize boundaries between branches. Even in the best divisions there are now many groups in the Philippines and Indonesia classified by their geographical location rather than by their relationships with one another. But it is clear that the greatest genealogical diversity is found in Taiwanese languages ​​and the smallest diversity is found in the Pacific islands, thus supporting the theory of spread from Taiwan or China.

The following classification of Austronesian languages ​​was submitted by Blust. The classification he proposes is not the first and in fact he also lists at least seventeen other classifications and discusses the features and details of the grouping. Some Formosan linguists dispute the details of the classification but this classification in broad outlines remains a reference point for the analysis of linguistics today. It can be seen that the nine main branches of Austronesian languages ​​are all Formosan languages.

  • Atayalik (Atayal, Seedik) [Other names for Seediq: Truku, Taroko, Sediq]
  • East Formosa
  • North (Basai-Trobiawan, Kavalan)
  • Middle (Amis, Nataoran, Sakizaya)
  • Southwest (Siraya)
  • Puyuma
  • Paiwan
  • Broken
  • Tsouik (Tsou, Saaroa, Kanakanabu)
  • Bunun
  • Western Lowlands
  • Central-Western Plains (Taokas-Babuza, Papora-Hoanya)
  • Thao
  • Northwest Formosa (Saisiyat, Kulon-Pazeh)
  • Malayo-Polynesian (See below)
Classification of Malay-Polynesian branch languages
The following is a simplified classification of the Malay-Polynesian branch languages ​​by Wouk & Ross (2002)

  • Kalimantan-Filipino language or Malayo-Outer West Polynesia (Outer Hesperonia): consists of many languages ​​such as Dayak Ngaju, Gorontalo, Bajau, Minahasa, Tagalog, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Kapampangan, Malagasy, and Tausugo languages
  • Core Malayo-Polynesian Language (Possibly spread from Sulawesi Island)
  • Sundanese-Sulawesi or Malayo-West Polynesia (Hesperonia Dalam), for example: Western Indonesia, Bugis, Aceh, Cham (in Vietnam and Cambodia), Malay, Indonesian, Iban, Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Chamoru, and Palau
  • Malayo-Middle Eastern Polynesia
  • Central Malayo-Polynesian or Bandanesian languages: around the Banda Sea namely languages ​​on the islands of Timor, Sumba, Flores, and also in Maluku
  • Malayo-East Polynesia or also called Melanesian language South Halmahera-West Papua-Sea: several languages ​​on the island of Halmahera and west of the island of Irian, for example Taba and Biak languages
  • Oceanic Language: Includes all Austronesian languages ​​in Melanesia from Jayapura to the east, Polynesia and most of Micronesia
One of the largest branches is the Sundik branch which decreases Austronesian languages ​​with the largest number of speakers, namely: Javanese, Malay (and Indonesian), Sundanese, Madurese, Acehnese, Batak and Balinese.

Kinship with other language families. Genealogical relations between the Austronesian language family and other linguistic families in Southeast Asia have been proposed and are commonly called the Austro-language Phyla. The Australian phylum hypothesis states that all languages ​​in southern China are actually related, namely the Austronesian language family, the Austro-Asian language, the Tai-Kadai language and the Hmong-Mien language (also called Miao-Yao).

Schematically, the hypothetical language family is hypothetically as follows:

  • Austronesian
  • Tai-Kadai
  • Hmong-Mien
  • Austro-Asiatic
The speakers of the four groups of languages ​​suspected of being related lived in an area that now includes southern China until approximately 2000 BC - 1000 BC. At that time the Han, who were speakers of Sino-Tibetan languages, from northern China invaded south and Austrarian speakers scattered. This is thought to be the reason why Austronesian migrated to Taiwan and other Southeast Asian islands and the Pacific Ocean.

Some of the Australian phylum hypotheses also propose a change from the dwarf root where the Austronesian language holds both syllables while the Austro-Asiatic language stores the first syllable and the Tai-Kadai language holds the second syllable. As an example:

Austronesia purba
*mata ‘mata
Austro-Asiatik purba
*măt ‘mata'’
Tai-Kadai purba
*taa ‘mata

However, the only proposal for complying with the comparison method is the "Austro-Tai" hypothesis which links the Austronesian language family to the Tai-Kadai language family. Roger Blench (2004: 12) notes about Austro-Tai that:

"Ostapirat assumes a simple model of a split with the Daik [Tai-Kadai] as Austronesians who settled in their native region. However this seems unlikely because Daik seems to be a branching of the Old Filipino language and does not have the complexity of the Formosan languages. It might be better seen that Daik Purba speakers migrate back from the northern Philippines to the area on Hainan Island. This could explain the difference between Hlai, Be, and Daik as a result of radical restructuring due to contact with speakers of Miao-Yao and Sinitic languages. "

Or in other words, the grouping under Tai-Kadai will be a branch of the Kalimantan-Filipino language. However, none of these proposals received wide acceptance from the language science community.

Example comparison of vocabulary in language families in each region








Japanese Classification

It has also been suggested that Japanese may be a distant relative of the Austronesian language family. [Some have grouped this language into Austronesian language families based on several Japanese phonology and phonology. But others argue that Japanese belongs to the Altai language family and is particularly similar to the Mongolian branch of language. Korean is most likely to belong to the same language family. Korean is similar to Japanese but so far no one has connected it with the Austronesian language family. However, it should also be noted that the Altai language family is still being disputed.

An example is a few words from Japanese that are thought to originate from the Austronesian language family:
  • hi which means fire and comes from * PAN (Proto-Austronesian): * Xapuy
  • to meaning wood
Some words from the Sikka - Maumere (Flores) language which are thought to originate from the Austronesian language family:
  • ai which means wood
  • fire which means fire
The hypothesis of the relationship of Japanese as a sister of Austronesian languages ​​was rejected by almost all linguists because there is little evidence of a relationship between Japanese and Austronesian languages ​​and most linguists think that this slight similarity is the result of the influence of languages Austronesian in Japanese, maybe through substratum. Those who propose this scenario suggest that the Austronesian language family once covered the islands in the north and south of Taiwan. Furthermore, there is no genetic evidence for a close relationship between speakers of Austronesian languages ​​and Japonic languages, so that if there is a pre-historical interaction between speakers of ancient Austronesian languages ​​and ancient Japonic languages, it is more likely that the interaction is a simple cultural exchange over significant ethnic mix. Genetic analysis shows consistently that the Ryukyu people between Taiwan and the main islands of Japan are more similar to Japanese than are native to Taiwan. This suggests that if there was an interaction between ancient Austronesians and ancient Japonic peoples, this interaction might have occurred in the eastern Asian continent before the introduction of Austronesian languages ​​into Taiwan (or at least before the hypothetical extinction of Austronesian languages ​​from mainland China), and languages Japonic language to Japanese.

The Austronesian language family is defined using the language comparison method to find common words, ie words that are similar in sound and meaning and can be shown to originate from the same word from ancient Austronesian language according to a regular rule. Some words of the same age are very stable, for example the word for eyes in many Austronesian languages ​​is "eye" also starting from the northernmost language in Taiwan to the southernmost language in Aotearoa.

Below is presented as an example to show kinship, number words from one to ten in several Austronesian languages. Note: / e / must be read as taling (for example in the word "hard") and / é / as pepet (for example in the word "lémpar"). If there are mistakes, readers are welcome to correct them.

* lima
Toba Batak
sampulu(baca: /m/ hilang, menjadi /sappulu/
Jawa Kuna
Jawa Baru
Kaili(Rai)- Sulteng
Sabu- NTT
Kei- Maluku

Database of vocabulary words Austronesian languages ​​(links provided below articles) record words (coded according to compatibility) for about 500 Austronesian languages.

Below is presented as an example to show kinship, number words from one to ten in several Austronesian languages. Note: / e / must be read as taling (for example in the word "hard") and / é / as pepet (for example in the word "lémpar"). If there are mistakes, readers are welcome to correct them.

Typology and structure
It is difficult to draw meaningful generalizations about the languages ​​that make up a family as diverse as the Austronesian language family. In broad outline, Austronesian languages ​​can be divided into three language groups: Filipino type, Indonesian type, and post-Indonesian type [8]. The first group is characterized by first-order verb tenses and Filipino-style grammatical alterations, a phenomenon often referred to as focusing. Related literature is beginning to shun the use of this term because many linguists feel that phenomena in this type of language are better referred to as grammatical sounds.

Austronesian languages ​​generally use word repetition.
The phonology of Austronesian languages ​​is classified as simple with very limited syllabic rules and a small number of phonemes. Many Austronesian languages ​​do not allow syllables and consonant clusters. Some languages ​​do have consonant clusters but this is the influence of other languages, especially from Sanskrit, and other Indo-European languages.

Some languages ​​even borrow phonemes from other languages ​​such as retroflex in Javanese and phonemes blow in Madura which are thought to be absorbed from Sanskrit. But many experts oppose that these phonemes are borrowed from Sanskrit. They argue that these phonemes are only self-development.

Number of speakers
In total there are around 300 million speakers of Austronesian languages. Following are Austronesian languages ​​sorted from languages ​​with the most speakers.

Jumlah penutur bahasa-bahasa Austronesia
Jumlah Penutur

Sebagai Bahasa Ibu
Sebagai Bahasa Resmi
Bahasa Jawa

Bahasa Sunda

Bahasa Melayu

Bahasa Indonesia
Bahasa Tagalog
Bahasa Cebu
Bahasa Malagasy

Bahasa Batak

Bahasa Madura

Bahasa Ilokano
Bahasa Minangkabau

Bahasa Hiligaynon
Bahasa Bikol

Bahasa Banjar

Bahasa Bali

Bahasa Bugis

Bahasa Tetum

Bahasa Samoa

Bahasa Fiji
Bahasa Tahiti

Bahasa Tonga

Bahasa Māori

Bahasa Kiribati

Bahasa Chamorro

Bahasa M̧ajeļ

Bahasa Nauru

Bahasa Hawai'i
* Statistik untuk kedua bahasa diperdebatkan.

Official status
The most important Austronesian language judging from its official status is Malay, which is the official language in Indonesia (as Indonesian), Malaysia and Brunei. Indonesian also has the working language status in Timor Leste m. Filipino (Filipino), which is the standard form of Tagalog, is the official language of the Philippines. In Timor Leste, Tetum, which also includes an Austronesian language, became the official language in addition to Portuguese. In Madagascar, Malagasy is the official language. In Aotearoa (New Zealand), Maori also has official language status in addition to English.
  • ^ a b von Humboldt, Wilhelm (2010). Über Die Kawi-Sprache Auf Der Insel Jav: Bd. Über Die Kawi-Sprache. Über Den Malayischen Sprachstamm. Beilage Zur Einleitung Des Ersten Bandes. Nabu Press. hlm. 604. ISBN 1-143-43662-8 ISBN 978-1-143-43662-8.
  • ^ Vajracharya S. [ Malay Minority of Sri Lanka: Defending Their Identity]
  • ^ Blust, R. (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li (Ed.) 'Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics' (pp. 31-94). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • ^ Peter Bellwood, Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian archipelago, Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press, 1997
  • ^ Diamond, Jared M (2000). Taiwan's gift to the world. (PDF). Nature 403:709-710.
  • ^ Blust, R. (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li (Ed.) 'Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics' (pp. 31-94). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • ^ Thurgood, Graham (1999). From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects. Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications No. 28. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
  • ^ Ross, John (2002). "Final words: research themes in the history and typology of western Austronesian languages" in Wouk, Fay & Malcolm Ross (Eds.) The history and typology of Western Austronesian voice systems (pp. 451-474). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics

  • ^ a b von Humboldt, Wilhelm (2010). Über Die Kawi-Sprache Auf Der Insel Jav: Bd. Über Die Kawi-Sprache. Über Den Malayischen Sprachstamm. Beilage Zur Einleitung Des Ersten Bandes. Nabu Press. hlm. 604. ISBN 1-143-43662-8 ISBN 978-1-143-43662-8.
  • ^ Vajracharya S. [ Malay Minority of Sri Lanka: Defending Their Identity]
  • ^ Blust, R. (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li (Ed.) 'Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics' (pp. 31-94). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • ^ Peter Bellwood, Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian archipelago, Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press, 1997
  • ^ Diamond, Jared M (2000). Taiwan's gift to the world. (PDF). Nature 403:709-710.
  • ^ Blust, R. (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li (Ed.) 'Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics' (pp. 31-94). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • ^ Thurgood, Graham (1999). From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects. Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications No. 28. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
  • ^ Ross, John (2002). "Final words: research themes in the history and typology of western Austronesian languages" in Wouk, Fay & Malcolm Ross (Eds.) The history and typology of Western Austronesian voice systems (pp. 451-474). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics
  • Bellwood, Peter, 1979, Man’s Conquest of the Pacific. The Prehistory of Southeast Asia and Oceania, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bellwood, Peter, 1985, Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago, Orlando, Florida: Academic Press.
  • Bellwood, Peter, 1987, The Polynesians: Prehistory of an Island People, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • P. Benedict, 1975, Austro-Thai Language and Culture. With a Glossary of Roots, New Haven: HRAF Press.
  • O.C. Dahl, 1951, Malgache et Maanjan., Oslo: Egede Instituttet.
  • Dempwolff, Otto, 1956, Perbendaharaan Kata-kata dalam Berbagai Bahasa Polinesia, Terjemahan Sjaukat Djajadiningrat. Jakarta: Pustaka Rakyat.
  • Diamond, Jared, 1997, Guns, Germs and Steel, W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Isidore Dyen, 1956, “Language Distribution and Migration Theory”, di Language, 32: 611-626.
  • Fox, James J., 1995, Austronesian societies and their transformations, Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University.
  • Kern, Hendrik, 1956, Pertukaran Bunyi dalam Bahasa-bahasa Melayu-Polinesia, Terjemahan Sjaukat Djajadiningrat. Jakarta: Pustaka Rakyat.
  • Hendrik Kern, 1957, Berbagai-bagai Keterangan berdasarkan Ilmu Bahasa dipakai untuk Menetapkan Negeri Asal Bahasa-Bahasa Melayu-Polinesia, Terjemahan Sjaukat Djajadiningrat. Jakarta: Pustaka Rakyat.
  • Wolff, John U., "Comparative Austronesian Dictionary. An Introduction to Austronesian Studies", Language, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 145-56, Mar 1997, ISSN-0097-8507
External links
  • (Inggris) Ethnologue : "Austronesian"
  • (Inggris) Basis Data Perbendaharaan Kata Bahasa-Bahasa Austronesia
  • (Inggris) Summer Institute of Linguistics site showing languages (Austronesian and Papuan) of Papua New Guinea.
  • (Inggris) Austronesian Language Resources (tak berfungsi? dipindahkan?) (@
  • (Inggris) Spreadsheet of 1600+ Austronesian and Papuan number names and systems - ongoing study to determine their relationships and distribution

Source :

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture