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Paregreg War - 1404 AD - 1406 AD

Trowulan (DreamLandLibrary) - Paregreg War is a war between Majapahit west palace led by Wikramawardhana, against the eastern palace led by Bhre Wirabhumi. This war occurred in 1404-1406, and became a major cause of Majapahit's decline.

The establishment of the Kingdom of East Majapahit
Majapahit Kingdom was established in 1293 thanks to the cooperation of Raden Wijaya and Arya Wiraraja. In 1295, Raden Wijaya divided the two Majapahit territories to keep their promises during the struggle. The east side was handed over to Arya Wiraraja with the capital city in Lumajang.

In 1316 Jayanagara, son of Raden Wijaya, crushed the Nambi rebellion in Lumajang. After this event, the eastern region reunited with the western region.

According to Pararaton, in 1376 a new mountain emerged. This event can be interpreted as the emergence of a new kingdom, because according to Chinese chronicles from the Ming Dynasty, in 1377 in Java there were two independent kingdoms who both sent ambassadors to China. The Western Kingdom was headed by Wu-lao-po-wu, and the Eastern Kingdom was headed by Wu-lao-wang-chieh.

Wu-lao-po-wu is the Chinese spelling for Bhra Prabu, another name for Hayam Wuruk (according to Pararaton), while Wu-lao-wang-chieh is Bhre Wengker alias Wijayarajasa, Rajadewi's husband.

Wijayarajasa was apparently ambitious to become king. After the death of Gajah Mada, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi, and Rajadewi, he built the eastern palace in Pamotan, so that in Pararaton, he also held the Bhatara Parameswara ring in Pamotan.

Lineage of Bhre Wirabhumi
Paregreg War is a war that is identical with the figure of Bhre Wirabhumi.

Bhre Wirabhumi's real name is unknown. According to Pararaton, he was Hayam Wuruk's son from a concubine, and became the adopted son of Bhre Daha's wife Wijayarajasa, namely Rajadewi. Bhre Wirabhumi then married Bhre Lasem the Alemu, the daughter of Bhre Pajang (Hayam Wuruk's younger sister).

According to Nagarakretagama, Bhre Wirabhumi's wife was Nagarawardhani the daughter of Bhre Lasem alias Indudewi. Indudewi is the daughter of Rajadewi and Wijayarajasa. The news in Nagarakretagama is more trustworthy than Pararaton, because it was written when Bhre Wirabhumi was still alive.

So in conclusion, Bhre Wirabhumi was born from a concubine Hayam Wuruk, became the adopted son of Rajadewi (Hayam Wuruk's aunt), and was later married to Nagarawardhani Rajadewi's grandson.

Cold War Wikramawardhana and Bhre Wirabhumi
During the reign of Hayam Wuruk and Wijayarajasa, relations between Majapahit in the west and east palaces were still filled with feelings of reluctance, considering that Wijayarajasa was Hayam Wuruk's in-laws.

Wijayarajasa died in 1398. He was succeeded by his adopted son and grandson's husband, Bhre Wirabhumi as the king of the eastern palace. Meanwhile Hayam Wuruk died in 1389. He was replaced by his nephew and son-in-law, Wikramawardhana.

When Indudewi died, the position of Bhre Lasem was handed over to his daughter, Nagarawardhani. But Wikramawardhana also appointed Kusumawardhani as Bhre Lasem. That is why, in Pararaton there were two Bhre Lasem, namely Bhre Lasem Sang Halemu, Bhre Wirabhumi's wife, and Bhre Lasem Sang Ahayu Wikramawardhana's wife.

This dispute in Bhre Lasem's position created a cold war between the western and eastern palaces, until finally Nagarawardhani and Kusumawardhani both died in 1400. Wikramawardhana immediately appointed his son-in-law as the new Bhre Lasem, namely Bhre Tumapel's wife.

Paregreg War
After the appointment of the new Bhre Lasem, the cold war between the western and eastern palaces turned into a dispute. According to Pararaton, Bhre Wirabhumi and Wikramawardhana had a fight in 1401 and then did not greet each other.

A dispute between the two kings erupted into the Paregreg War in 1404. Paregreg means war step by step in a slow tempo. The winning parties also took turns. Sometimes battles are won by the east, sometimes won by the west.
Akhirnya, pada tahun 1406 pasukan barat dipimpin Bhre Tumapel putra Wikramawardhana menyerbu pusat kerajaan timur. Bhre Wirabhumi menderita kekalahan dan melarikan diri menggunakan perahu pada malam hari. Ia dikejar dan dibunuh oleh Raden Gajah alias Bhra Narapati yang menjabat sebagai Ratu Angabhaya istana barat.
Raden Gajah brought the head of Bhre Wirabhumi to the western palace. Bhre Wirabhumi was then kidnapped in Lung named Girisa Pura.

As a result of the Paregreg War
After the defeat of Bhre Wirabhumi, the eastern kingdom reunited with the western kingdom. However, many subordinate areas outside Java were released without being prevented. For example, in 1405 the West Kalimantan region was captured by the Chinese empire. Then followed by the release of Palembang, Malay and Malacca, which grew up as busy trading ports, which were independent from Majapahit. Then off the area of ​​Brunei, which is also located on the northern Borneo Island.

In addition, Wikramawardhana also owed compensation to the Chinese ruling Ming Dynasty. As mentioned above, the Chinese know that in Java there are two kingdoms, west and east. Admiral Ceng Ho was sent as an ambassador to visit the two palaces. At the time of Bhre Wirabhumi's death, Ceng Ho's entourage was in the eastern palace. A total of 170 Chinese people were victims.

For the accident, Wikramawardhana was fined 60,000 tahil in compensation. Until 1408 he was only able to pay in 10,000. Finally, Emperor Yung Lo freed the fine out of pity. This event was recorded by Ma Huan (Ceng Ho's secretary) in his book, Ying-ya-sheng-lan.

After the Paregreg War, Wikramawardhana brought Bhre Daha's daughter Bhre Wirabhumi as a concubine. From the marriage was born Suhita who ascended the throne in 1427 to replace Wikramawardhana. In this Suhita government, revenge was carried out by executing Raden Gajah in 1433.

Paregreg War in Javanese Literature
The Paregreg incident was recorded in the memories of the Javanese people and told for generations. At the time of the development of Islamic empires in Java, the story of Paregreg was brought back in Fiber Kanda, Fiber Damarwulan, and Fiber Blambangan.

Narrated in Serat Kanda, there was a war between the Queen of Kencanawungu, the ruler of Majapahit in the west, and Menak Orange, the ruler of Blambangan in the east. Menak Orange finally died at the hands of the Damarwulan messenger sent by Ratu Kencanawungu.

After that, Damarwulan married Kencanawungu, and became the king of Majapahit with the title Prabu Mertawijaya. From the marriage then was born Brawijaya V who became the last king of Majapahit.

Photo: Special

The Background of the Paregreg War
Raden Wijaya's division of Majapahit power, led to the Paregreg War, which led to the collapse of the Majapahit empire.

Initially it happened due to a dispute between the kingdoms of East Majapahit under Bhre Wirabumi as the heir to the Wijayarajasa throne, with the Occupation of the West Majapahit as the heir to the throne of Bhra Prabu, which was under the direction of Wikramawardhana

There was a dispute between East Majapahit and West Majapahit, because of the struggle for the title of Bhre Lasem against his wife, or queen of the Kingdom of West Majapahit and the Kingdom of East Majapahit.

In the end, Bhre Wirabhumi was killed by Raden Gajah whose title was Bhra Narapati who served as the queen of the West Palace Angabhaya.

As a result of the Paregreg War
Weakening of the government, and many regions broke away from Majapahit, and continued to undergo a process of disintregation, which made Majapahit collapse

The point:
Civil War fights for Honor.

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture