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Diponegoro War - 1825 AD - 1830 AD

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Diponegoro War (English: The Java War, Dutch: De Java Oorlog), was a large and comprehensive war that lasted for five years (1825-1830) that took place in Java, the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), between colonial forces The Netherlands under the leadership of General De Kock against the native population led by a Yogyakarta prince named Pangeran Diponegoro.

In this war there have been many casualties. Both the victims of property and lives. Dutch documents quoted by historians say that around 200,000 people were killed. Meanwhile on the part of Dutch soldiers, the death toll numbered 8,000.

The Diponegoro War was one of the biggest battles the Dutch had experienced during the colonization of the archipelago. This war involved the whole of Java, so this war was called the Java War.

After its defeat in the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, the Dutch government which was in economic difficulties tried to close their cash vacuum by imposing various taxes in its colonies, including in the Dutch East Indies. In addition, they also conduct business and trade monopolies to maximize profits. These taxes and monopolistic practices were suffocating the people of Indonesia, who at that time had suffered greatly.

To further strengthen its power and economy, the Dutch began trying to dominate other kingdoms in the archipelago, one of which was the Kingdom of Yogyakarta. When Sultan Hamengku Buwono IV died, his nephew, Sultan Hamengku Buwono V, who was only 3 years old, was appointed ruler. However, in practice, the royal government was implemented by Patih Danuredjo, someone who was easily influenced and submitted to the Dutch. The Netherlands is considered to appoint someone who is not in accordance with the choices / customs of the palace.

In mid-May 1825, the Dutch government which initially ordered the construction of a road from Yogyakarta to Magelang via Muntilan, changed its plans and turned the road through Tegalrejo. Apparently in one sector, the Dutch crossed the tomb of Prince Diponegoro's ancestors. This made Prince Diponegoro offended and decided to take up arms against the Dutch. He then ordered his subordinates to pull out stakes that passed through the tomb. But the Dutch still installed these stakes even though they had fallen. Angry, Prince Diponegoro replaced the stakes with spears.

The Dutch who had a reason to arrest Prince Diponegoro because they were considered to have revolted, on 20 July 1825 surrounded his residence. Urgent, the Prince and his family and troops fled westward to the Village of Dekso in Kulonprogo Regency, and continued southward to arrive at Selarong Cave which is located five kilometers west of Bantul City. Meanwhile, the Dutch - who failed to capture Prince Diponegoro - burned down the Prince's residence.

Prince Diponegoro then made Goa Selarong, a cave located in Kentolan Lor Hamlet, Guwosari Pajangan Bantul, as its base. The prince occupied a western cave called Goa Kakung, which was also his hermitage. While Raden Ayu Retnaningsih (the most loyal concubine accompanied the Prince after his two wives died) and his retinue occupied Goa Putri in the east.
After the attack, began a major war that would last 5 years. Under the leadership of Diponegoro, the indigenous people united in the spirit of "Sadumuk bathuk, sanyari bumi, which was pressured by pati"; a head of an inch of soil is defended to death. During the war, 15 of the 19 princes joined Diponegoro. Diponegoro's struggle was assisted by Kyai Maja who was also the spiritual leader of the rebellion. In this Java war, Prince Diponegoro also coordinated with the I.S.K.S. Pakubowono VI and Raden Tumenggung Prawirodigdoyo Gagatan Regent.

The course of war
Open battles with the deployment of infantry, cavalry and artillery troops (which since the Napoleonic wars have been a mainstay weapon in frontal battles) on both sides have been fierce. Front battles took place in dozens of cities and villages throughout Java. The battle took place so fiercely that if a territory could be controlled by Dutch troops during the daytime, then that night the territory would have been recaptured by native troops; vice versa. Logistical routes were built from one region to another to support the needs of the war. Tens of gunpowder plants were built in the forests and at the bottom of the cliff. Production of gunpowder and bullets continued while the war was raging. Ciphers and couriers worked hard to find and convey the information needed to devise a war strategy. Information about enemy forces, distance and time, terrain conditions, rainfall made headlines; because the right tactics and strategies can only be built through the mastery of information.

Major indigenous attacks are always carried out in the rainy months; the senopaths are well aware of cooperating with nature as an invincible "weapon". When the rainy season arrives, the Dutch governor will make efforts to ceasefire and negotiate, because heavy tropical rains hamper their troop movements. Malaria, dysentery, etc. are "invisible enemies", weakening morals and physical conditions and even taking the lives of their troops. When a ceasefire occurs, the Dutch will consolidate troops and spread spies and their provocateurs move in villages and cities; incite, divide and even pressure members of the families of the princes and leaders of the people's struggle who fought under the command of Prince Diponegoro. But the native warrior was not daunted and continued to fight against the Dutch.

At the height of the war, the Dutch mobilized more than 23,000 soldiers; something that had never happened at that time where a region that was not too broad like Central Java and a part of East Java was guarded by tens of thousands of soldiers. From a military standpoint, this is the first war involving all the methods known in a modern war. Both the open warfare method, and the guerrilla warfare method are carried out through hit and run tactics and surpressing. This war is not a tribal war or tribal war. But a modern war that utilizes various tactics that at that time had never been practiced. This war was also complemented by psy-war tactics through insinuation and pressure and provocation by the Dutch against those directly involved in the battle; and ciphering activities (espionage) in which both parties spy on one another and find information about the strengths and weaknesses of their opponents.

In 1827, the Dutch attacked Diponegoro by using the fort system so that the Diponegoro Troops were trapped. In 1829, Kyai Modjo, the spiritual leader of the rebellion, was arrested. Following then Prince Mangkubumi and his chief commander Alibasah Sentot Prawirodirjo surrendered to the Dutch. Finally on March 28, 1830, General De Kock succeeded in pinning Diponegoro's troops in Magelang. There, Pangeran Diponegoro stated that he was willing to surrender on condition that the rest of the members of the army be released. So, Prince Diponegoro was captured and exiled to Manado, then moved to Makassar until his death in Fort Rotterdam on January 8, 1855.

The end of the Javanese War was the end of the Javanese aristocratic resistance. The Javanese War claimed many lives on the part of the Indies government as many as 8,000 European soldiers, 7,000 natives, and 200,000 Javanese. So after this war the population of Yogyakarta shrank by half. Considering that for some people the Sultan of Yogyakarta Diponegoro was considered a rebel, it was said that his children and grandchildren were no longer allowed to enter the Palace, until then Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX granted amnesty to Diponegoro's descendants, taking into account the national spirit that Diponegoro had at that time. Now Diponegoro's children and grandchildren can freely enter the Palace, especially to take care of their pedigree, without fear of being expelled.

Photo: Special

Background of the Diponegoro War

There are two reasons for this, the Diponegoro War, in general and in person.

In Umu:
The nobles felt disappointed, because the Dutch had removed the land rent system, from the nobles to farmers who had been running since 1824.

Meanwhile, people increasingly suffer, with various rules, concerning Political Economy, including:
  • Forced labor (free human resources)
  • Land tax
  • The door tax
  • Livestock tax
  • Tax on moving house
  • Tax moving name
  • Taxes renting land or accepting titles
Personally :
  • The eviction was carried out by the Dutch to plan a road through the land of the Diponegoro prince, right across the tomb of Prince Diponegoro's ancestors in Tegalrejo. The installation of the stake, without permission from the kingdom, was opposed by Prince Diponegoro.
  • Diponegoro was ousted from power, having refused to compromise with the Dutch.
This made the Diponegor prince angry, and chose to go to Tegalrejo, and build defenses in Selarong, while support came from everywhere which made Diponegoro's army stronger.

The point:

Economic and Personal Issues

Source: From various sources
Photo: Special

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