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Bubat War - 1357 AD

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Bubat War is a war that occurred in 1279 Saka or 1357 AD in the 14th century, namely during the reign of Majapahit king Hayam Wuruk.

The war broke out due to a dispute between Mahapatih Gajah Mada from Majapahit and Prabu Maharaja Linggabuana from the Sunda Kingdom in Pesanggrahan Bubat, which resulted in the death of the entire Sundanese entourage.

The oldest sources of reference regarding the existence of this war are mainly Fiber Pararaton and Sundanese Kidung and Kid Sundayana originating from Bali.

Wedding plans
Bubat War events began with the intention of King Hayam Wuruk who wanted to marry Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi's daughter from Sunda. It is said that Hayam Wuruk's interest in the princess was due to the circulation of the princess's painting in Majapahit; which was painted secretly by an artist at that time, named Sungging Prabangkara. [citation needed]

According to historical records of Pajajaran by Saleh Danasasmita and the Bubat War Manuscript by Yoseph Iskandar, the intention of the marriage was to tighten the long-broken brotherhood between Majapahit and Sunda. Raden Wijaya who became the founder of the Majapahit kingdom was considered to be of Sundanese descent from Dyah Lembu Tal and her husband namely Rakeyan Jayadarma, king of the Sunda kingdom.

This is also recorded in the Rajya Rajya Library i Bhumi Nusantara parwa II sarga 3. [citation needed] In the Babad Tanah Jawi, Raden Wijaya is also called by the name of Jaka Susuruh from Pajajaran. Even so, the Pajajaran historical record is considered weak in truth, especially because the name Dyah Lembu Tal is a male name.

A generally accepted reason is that Hayam Wuruk did intend to marry Dyah Pitaloka with political reasons, namely to bind alliance with the State of Sunda. With the blessing of the Majapahit royal family, Hayam Wuruk sent a letter of honor to Maharaja Linggabuana to propose to Dyah Pitaloka. The wedding ceremony is planned to take place in Majapahit.
The Sundanese royal council itself actually objected, especially Mangkubumi Hyang Bunisora ​​Suradipati. This is because according to adat prevailing in the archipelago at the time, [citation needed] it was not uncommon for the bride to come to the groom. In addition there are allegations [citation needed] that this was a diplomatic trap of Majapahit, which at that time was expanding its power, including by controlling the Dompu Kingdom in Nusa Tenggara.

Linggabuana decided to continue leaving for Majapahit, because of the sense of brotherhood that already existed from the ancestral line of the two countries. Linggabuana left with the Sundanese entourage to Majapahit and was accepted and placed in Pesanggrahan Bubat.

The Sundanese king came to Bubat with his consort and daughter Dyah Pitaloka, accompanied by a few soldiers. According to Kidung Sundayana, [citation needed] Mahapatih Gajah Mada's intention arose to control the Sunda Kingdom. Gajah Mada wants to fulfill the Palapa Oath he made before Hayam Wuruk ascended the throne, because of the various kingdoms in the archipelago that were conquered by Majapahit, only the Sundanese kingdom was not yet controlled.

For this purpose, Gajah Mada made an excuse to assume that the arrival of the Sundanese entourage at Bubangg Pesanggrahan was a form of surrender of the Sunda Kingdom to Majapahit. Gajah Mada urged [citation needed] Hayam Wuruk to accept Dyah Pitaloka not as a bride, but as a sign of submission to the State of Sunda and recognition of Majapahit's superiority over Sunda in the Archipelago. Hayam Wuruk himself was mentioned wavering [citation needed] on this problem, considering that Gajah Mada was the Mahapatih that Majapahit relied on at that time.

The death of Sundanese entourage
Then there was a dispute between the Linggabuana delegation and Gajah Mada. This dispute ended with the cursing of Gajah Mada by Sundanese envoys who were surprised that their arrival was only to give a sign of surrender and acknowledge the superiority of Majapahit, not because of a previous invitation. However, Gajah Mada remained in its original position.

Not to mention Hayam Wuruk gave his decision, Gajah Mada had mobilized its troops (Bhayangkara) to Pesanggrahan Bubat and threatened Linggabuana to recognize the superiority of Majapahit. In order to maintain the honor of being a Sundanese knight, Linggabuana resisted the pressure.

There was an unbalanced war between Gajah Mada and its large army, against Linggabuana with a small royal guard (Balamati) as well as royal officials and ministers who participated in the visit. The incident ended with the death of Linggabuana, the ministers, royal officials and all the Sundanese royal family. The Sundanese king and all the officials of the Sundanese kingdom can be brought in Majapahit and perished in the Bubat field.

Tradisi menyebutkan sang Putri Dyah Pitaloka dengan hati berduka melakukan bela pati, bunuh diri untuk membela kehormatan bangsa dan negaranya.[3] Tindakan ini mungkin diikuti oleh segenap perempuan-perempuan Sunda yang masih tersisa, baik bangsawan ataupun abdi. Menurut tata perilaku dan nilai-nilai kasta ksatriya, tindakan bunuh diri ritual dilakukan oleh para perempuan kasta tersebut jika kaum laki-lakinya telah gugur. Perbuatan itu diharapkan dapat membela harga diri sekaligus untuk melindungi kesucian mereka, yaitu menghadapi kemungkinan dipermalukan karena pemerkosaan, penganiayaan, atau diperbudak.

Tradition says that Hayam Wuruk lamented the death of Dyah Pitaloka. Hayam Wuruk deplored this action and sent an envoy (darmadyaksa) from Bali - who was then in Majapahit to witness the marriage between Hayam Wuruk and Dyah Pitaloka - to convey an apology to Mangkubumi Hyang Bunisora ​​Suradipati who was the acting official of the Sunda king, and said that all these events will be contained in the Sundanese Song or the Sundayana Song (in Bali known as the Sundanese Geguritan) so that the lessons learned. King Hayam Wuruk then married his own cousin, Paduka Sori.

As a result of this Bubat incident, it was said in the note that Hayam Wuruk's relationship with Gajah Mada was tenuous. Gajah Mada itself faced opposition, suspicion, and criticism from Majapahit officials and nobles, because his actions were considered careless and rash. He was considered too brave and presumptuous by not heeding the wishes and feelings of the Crown Prince Raja Hayam Wuruk himself.

This misfortune event also marked the decline of Gajah Mada's career, because then Hayam Wuruk awarded him a land of civilization in Madakaripura (now Probolinggo). Although this action appears as a conferment, this action can be interpreted as a subtle suggestion that Gajah Mada starts to consider retiring, because this land is located far from the capital city of Majapahit so that Gajah Mada began to resign from the state politics of the Majapahit palace. However, according to the Negarakertagama Gajah Mada his name and position are still mentioned, so interpreted that Gajah Mada himself remained in Mahapatih until his death (1364).

This tragedy damaged state relations between the two countries and continued for years to come, the Sunda-Majapahit relations never recovered as before.

Prince Niskalawastu Kancana - the sister of Princess Pitaloka who remained in the Kawali palace and did not go to Majapahit to accompany his family because it was still too small - became the only descendant of the King who was still alive and would later ascend the throne to be King Niskalawastu Kancana.

His policies included breaking diplomatic relations with Majapahit and applying limited isolation in the state relations between the two kingdoms. As a result of this event, Sundanese relatives were enacted with prohibited estri regulations, the contents of which were not permitted to marry from outside the Sunda family, or some said they could not marry Majapahit. This regulation was later interpreted more broadly as a prohibition for Sundanese from marrying Javanese.

The act of courage and virtue of the King of Sunda and daughter of Dyah Pitaloka to carry out the defense of pati (brave death) was respected and glorified by the people of Sunda and was considered as an example. Raja Lingga Buana was nicknamed "Prabu Wangi" (Sundanese: a fragrant king by name) because of his heroism defending the dignity of his country. His descendants, Sundanese kings were later nicknamed Siliwangi which came from the word Silih Wangi which means successor, heir or successor to King Wangi.

Some of these reactions reflect the disappointment and anger of the Sundanese people towards Majapahit, a sentiment which later developed into a kind of competition and hostility between the Sundanese and Javanese, which in some respects are still left to this day. Among other things, unlike other cities in Indonesia, in the city of Bandung, the capital of West Java as well as the Sundanese cultural center, no street called "Gajah Mada" or "Majapahit" was found. Although Gajah Mada is considered a national hero of Indonesia, most Sundanese people consider him inappropriate because of his actions that are considered not commendable in this tragedy.

The interesting thing is, although Bali is often regarded as the heir of Majapahit culture, the Balinese people seem to tend to side with the Sundanese kingdom in this case, as evidenced in the Balinese Song of Sundanese Song. Respect and admiration of the Balinese for the actions of the Sundanese royal family who bravely faced death, it is very possible because of its compatibility with Hindu teachings about the code of conduct and values ​​of ksatriya caste, that the ultimate and perfect death for a ksatriya is at the tip of the sword in the middle battlefield.

These values ​​of heroism and courage are matched in Balinese culture, namely the tradition of bellows, battles to death by men, followed by suicide rituals by women. They choose death rather than surrender, stay alive, but bear the shame, humiliation and defeat.


Photo: Special

The Background of the Bubat War
Bubat War occurred due to a misunderstanding between Prabu Maharaja Linggabuana from the Sunda kingdom, and mahapatih Gajah Mada from the Majapahit kingdom.

Bubat War took place in Bubat Pesanggrahan
Initially the desire of King Hayam Wuruk from the Majapahit kingdom wanted to marry a Sundanese princess named Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi. With the initial motive to make the Sundanese kingdom an ally of Majapahit.

After getting the blessing from the Majapahit royal family, Hayam Wuruk immediately sent a letter of honor to the Sunda kingdom to propose to the royal princess.

The letter also contained Hayam Wuruk's request that his marriage take place in the kingdom of Majapahit.

After deliberation and long thinking, the King of Sunda finally accepted the proposal, and Hayam Wuruk's request.

The Sundanese king left for Majapahit along with the Princess, accompanied by only a handful of royal soldiers. Seeing this, there was a bad intention in Gajah Mada to attack, and conquer the King of Sunda with his entourage.

This was inspired by his desire to fulfill the oath of palapa (at that time the Sundanese kingdom was not yet conquered) which he had made before King Hayam Wuruk became king of Majapahit.

With unbalanced strength, Gajah Mada finally defeated the Sunda king who only brought a few troops.

The point:
Gajah Mada, who is not Javanese, is not loyal to her master. He is only loyal to his ambitions alone. This is what led to slander among the natives of the archipelago. Though not the will of Hayam Wuruk.

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