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Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

Batik - 400 Years BC

Jogja (DreamLandLibrary) - Batik is a way of making clothing material. Besides batik can refer to two things. The first is the technique of dyeing fabric by using wax to prevent staining of a piece of cloth. In international literature, this technique is known as wax-resist dyeing.

The second understanding is cloth or clothing made with these techniques, including the use of certain motifs that have particularities. Indonesian Batik, as a whole of techniques, technology, and the development of related motifs and culture, has been designated by UNESCO as a Humanitarian Heritage for Oral and Non-Cultural Culture (Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity) since October 2, 2009.

Etymology
The word "batik" comes from a combination of two Javanese words: "amba", which means "writing" and "point" which means "point".

History of Batik Techniques
The art of cloth coloring with staining techniques using night coloring is one of the ancient art forms. The discovery in Egypt shows that this technique has been known since the 4th century BC, with the discovery of mummy wrapping cloth which is also coated with wax to form a pattern. In Asia, batik-like techniques were also applied in China during the T'ang Dynasty (618-907) and in India and Japan during the Nara Period (645-794). In Africa, techniques such as batik are known by the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria, as well as the Soninke and Wolof tribes in Senegal. In Indonesia, batik is believed to have existed since the Majapahit era, and became very popular in the late XVIII century or early XIX century. The batik produced was all written batik until the early twentieth century and the printed batik was only known after World War I or around the 1920s.

Although the word "batik" comes from Javanese, the presence of batik in Java itself is not recorded. G.P. Rouffaer believes that this batik technique was probably introduced from India or Sri Lanka in the 6th or 7th century. On the other hand, J.L.A. Brandes (Dutch archeologist) and F.A. Sutjipto (Indonesian historian) believes that the tradition of batik is native to regions such as Toraja, Flores, Halmahera, and Papua. It should be noted that the area is not an area influenced by Hinduism but is known to have an ancient tradition of making batik.

G.P. Rouffaer also reported that gringsing patterns had been known since the 12th century in Kediri, East Java. He concluded that this pattern could only be formed using a canting tool, so he argued that the canting was found in Java around that time.

Detailed carved cloths resembling batik patterns were worn by Prajnaparamita, a statue of a Buddhist wisdom goddess from 13th century East Java. Clothing details display elaborate plant and flower patterns and patterns similar to traditional Javanese batik patterns that can be found today. This shows that making complicated batik patterns that can only be made with canting has been known in Java since the 13th century or even earlier.

The legend in 17th century Malay literature, Sulalatus Salatin tells of Admiral Hang Nadim who was ordered by Sultan Mahmud to sail to India to get 140 pieces of litter cloth with a pattern of 40 types of flowers on each sheet. Unable to fulfill the command, he made the cloth himself. But unfortunately the ship sank on the way home and was only able to bring four pieces so that made the Sultan disappointed. By some interpreters, who? Litter is interpreted as batik.

In European literature, this batik technique was first told in the book History of Java (London, 1817) written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. He was once the Governor of England on Java during Napoleon's occupation of the Netherlands. In 1873 a Dutch merchant Van Rijekevorsel gave a piece of batik he obtained while visiting Indonesia to the Ethnic Museum in Rotterdam and it was at the beginning of the 19th century that batik began to reach its golden age. When exhibited at the Universelle Exposition in Paris in 1900, Indonesian batik impressed the public and artists.

Since industrialization and globalization, which introduced automation techniques, new types of batik have emerged, known as stamped batik and printed batik, while traditional batik produced by handwriting techniques using canting and wax is called batik. Hugh Clifford recorded the industry in Pekan 1895 for producing batik, rainbow cloth, and telepok cloth.

Batik Culture
Batik is a craft that has high artistic value and has been a part of Indonesian culture (especially Java) for a long time. Javanese women in the past made their skills in making batik a livelihood, so that in the past batik work was exclusively women's work until the discovery of the "Batik Cap" which allowed men to enter this field. There are some exceptions to this phenomenon, namely coastal batik which has a masculine line as can be seen in the "Mega Mendung" style, where in some coastal areas batik work is common for men.

The tradition of making batik was originally a hereditary tradition, so that sometimes a motif can be identified from a particular family batik. Some batik may indicate the status of a person. Even today, some traditional batik motifs are only used by Yogyakarta and Surakarta palace families.

Batik is a legacy of Indonesian (Javanese) ancestors which still exists today. Batik was also first introduced to the world by President Soeharto, who at that time was wearing batik at the UN Conference.

Batik Pattern
Variety of shades and colors of Batik are influenced by various foreign influences. Initially, batik has a limited variety of styles and colors, and some patterns can only be used by certain circles. But coastal batik absorbed various outside influences, such as foreign traders and also in the end, the invaders. Bright colors like red were popularized by the Chinese, who also popularized the phoenix style.

European invaders also took an interest in batik, and the result was a flower style that was previously unknown (such as tulips) and also objects carried by the invaders (building or horse-drawn carriage), including their favorite colors like blue. Traditional batik still retains its style, and is still used in traditional ceremonies, because usually each style has its own symbolism.

Ways of making
Originally batik made on white material made of cotton called cloth Mori. Today batik is also made on other materials such as silk, polyester, rayon and other synthetic materials. Batik motifs are formed with liquid wax by using a device called a canting for fine motifs, or a brush for large motifs, so that the waxy liquid seeps into the fabric fibers.

Cloth that has been painted with wax is then dyed to the desired color, usually starting with light colors. Immersion is then done for other motifs with a darker or darker color. After several coloring processes, the fabric that has been batik is dipped in chemicals to dissolve the wax.

Types of Batik

According to technique
Hand-painted batik is a fabric decorated with batik textures and patterns by hand. Making this type of batik takes approximately 2-3 months.

Batik stamp is a fabric decorated with batik textures and patterns formed with a stamp (usually made of copper). The process of making this type of batik takes approximately 2-3 days.

Painting batik is the process of making batik by directly painting on white cloth.

According to the origin of manufacture

Javanese Batik

Batik motif
  • Batik Tiga Negeri
  • Batik Jawa Hokokai, 1942-1945
  • Batik Buketan asal Pekalongan dengan desain pengaruh Eropa
  • Batik Buketan
  • Batik Lasem
Based on Origin
  • Batik Bali
  • Batik Banyumas
  • Batik Madura
  • Batik Malang
  • Batik Pekalongan
  • Batik Solo
  • Batik Tasik
  • Batik Aceh
  • Batik Cirebon
  • Batik Jombang
  • Batik Banten
  • Batik Tulungagung
  • Batik Kediri
  • Batik Kudus
  • Batik Jepara / Batik Kartini
  • Batik Brebes
  • Batik Minangkabau
  • Batik Belanda
  • Batik Jepang
Based on the Pattern
  • Batik Kraton
  • Batik Sudagaran
  • Batik Cuwiri
  • Batik Petani
  • Batik Tambal
  • Batik Sida Mukti
  • Batik Sekar Jagad
  • Batik Pringgondani
  • Batik Kawung
  • Batik Sida Luhur
  • Batik Sida Asih
  • Batik Semen Rama
Distinctive Clothing Made of Batik
  • Blangkon
  • Kebaya
  • Iket
  • Samping
Reference

  • http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?RL=00170
  • a b c Nadia Nava, Il batik - Ulissedizioni - 1991 ISBN 88-414-1016-7
  • http://pesonabatik.site40.net/Sejarah_Batik.html
  • a b Iwan Tirta, Gareth L. Steen, Deborah M. Urso, Mario Alisjahbana, 'Batik: a play of lights and shades, Volume 1', By Gaya Favorit Press, 1996, ISBN 979-515-313-7, 9789795153139
  • Dewan sastera, Volume 31, Issues 1-6 By Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
  • The Malay Handloom Weavers: A Study of the Rise and Decline of Traditional ... By Maznah Mohamad

External Link

  • (Indonesia) Batik-batik bersejarah
  •  (Indonesia) Batik Fraktal Kontemporer
Pogadaev, Victor (2002). "The Magic of Batik" in "Vostochnaya Kollektsiya" (Oriental Collection), Spring 2002, p. 71-74.

Source:

  • http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batik

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