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La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Abraham - 2000 Years BC (from the Perspective of Judaism and Christianity)

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Abraham (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם, Avraham Tiberias Standard ʾAḇrāhām Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom; Arabic: ابراهيم, Hebāhīm; Ge'ez :, əAbrəham) is an important figure in the Bible and Al-Quran.

Judaism and Christianity recognize it as a patriarch, while in the Islamic tradition he is known as the Prophet Abraham. In the Abrahamic religious tradition, Abraham is the spiritual father of many people.

According to the Bible, Abraham was called by God from Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan, around 2000 BC. There he made a covenant: Abraham was asked to acknowledge that Yahweh was God and the highest and only universal authority, and for that Abraham would be blessed with innumerable offspring. His life told in Genesis (chapters 11-25) can reflect various traditions.

His real name is Abram (Hebrew: אַבְרָם, Avram Tiberias Standard ʾAḇrām; "praised father (ab)" or "[my] father is praised / glorified" (compare Abiram). Later in his life he was known by the name "Abraham", often also referred to as av hamon (goyim) "father of many (nations)" according to Genesis 17: 5, although in Hebrew this word has no literal meaning.

Abraham in the view of celestial religion
Abraham has a very important meaning for all celestial religions, namely Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Islam regards Ibrahim as the father of the believers, because Allah decreed it so. He is an ideal example of a person called mu'min. This was demonstrated by his perfect surrender to God, with his willingness to slaughter his beloved son.

Judaism views Abraham as one of their ancestors. In the Hebrew Scriptures, God often declares himself to be "the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob". This happened for example when God revealed himself to Moses in the wilderness in Midian: "Again He said: 'I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.' Then Moses covered his face, because he was afraid to look at God. " (Exodus 3: 6).

For Christians, Abraham is the father of believers. His faith is an example for everyone. The Hebrews says thus: "By faith Abraham obeyed, when he was called to go to the land which he would receive as his inheritance, then he departed without knowing where he was going ... By faith Abraham, when he was tempted, offered Isaac. He, who has received that promise, is willing to offer his only child "(Hebrews 11: 8, 17).

Thus, Abraham is the same father for all three religions, while also reminding that all three have the same root, monotheism. For this reason, Ibrahim is also called the Father of World Monotheism.

Abraham in Islam
In Islam, Abraham is called Ibrahim. He is one of the five prophets Ulul Azmi. In the Qur'an it is stated that Ibrahim made a long search for God. He once worshiped the sun, moon and stars before finally repenting. Ibrahim was also an opponent of his pagan society including his father Azar. In the Qur'an it is also mentioned that Ibrahim was not a Jew or a Christian, but he was Muslim. Unlike in the Book of Genesis, interpreters of the Qur'an agree that what Ibrahim slaughtered was not Ishaq but Isma'il even though in the Qur'an (Surah Ash Shaaffaat: verses 102-107) only mentioned that Ibrahim (or Abraham) would sacrifice his child and did not mention the child's name.

Islamic historian al-Tabari believes that the promise written in the letter Ash Shaaffaat verses 100-101 was given to Ibrahim while still in Syria and only had one wife, namely Sara, so the child who was sacrificed was Isaac:

    "From the evidence mentioned earlier in the Quran it really is Isaac, the word of God tells us about the prayer of his friend, Ibrahim, when he left his people to move to Syria with Sara. Ibrahim prayed, 'I will go to my Lord who will guide me. Give me a godly child. ' This was before he came to know Hagar, who would become Ishmael's mother, and after mentioning the prayer, God then described this prayer and said that he had predicted to Abraham that he would have a gentle child, and God also said Abraham's vision of the sacrifice of his child if the child old enough to walk with him. The Quran does not mention that news about boys will be given to Ibrahim except in the case of Isaac, where Allah says, '

And his wife, standing beside him laughed when We gave him news about Ishaq, and after Ishaq, Yaqub ', and' Then he became afraid of them '. They say. 'Do not be afraid!' and give him news about wise children. Then his wife approached, complained and struck his face, and exclaimed, 'The barren old woman'. So, when the Koran mentions Allah giving the news of the birth of a boy to Ibrahim, it refers to Sara (and to Ishaq) and the same is true for the word of God 'So We gave him news of a gentle child', as this is true for all reference in the Quran. "

    The narration which mentions the child named Ishaq descended to us through Abu Kurayb-Zayd b. al-Hubab-al-Hasan b. Dinar- 'Ali b. Zayd b. Jud'an-al-Hasan-al-Ahnaf b. Qays-al-'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib- The Prophet said in a conversation,' Then we redeemed him with a large sacrifice. ' And he also said, 'He is Ishaq.' "

    According to al-Husayn b. Yazid al-Tahhan - Ibn Idris - Dawud b. Abi Hind - 'Ikrimah - Ibn' Abbas: The one whom Abraham was told to sacrifice was Ishaq. According to Ya'qub - Ibn 'Ulayyah - Dawud -' Ikrimah - Ibn 'Abbas: The victim was Ishaq.

According to Moses b. Harun - 'Amr b. Hammad - Asbat - al-Suddi - Abu Malik and Abu Salih - Ibn 'Abbas and Murrah al-Hamdani - Ibn Mas'ud and some of the Prophet's companions: Ibrahim was instructed in a dream to "carry out your promise that if Allah gives a son through Sara, you will sacrifice it. "

Abraham according to Jewish and Christian views
Abraham's real name is Abram. He is the son of Terah, originally from Ur of the Chaldeans. Abram was born when Terah was 130 years old (remembering Abram was 75 years old when Terah died at the age of 205 years). Then Terah took Abram, his son, and his grandson Lot, the son of Haran, and Sarai, his son-in-law, Abram's wife, his son; He traveled with them from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan. Then they came to Haran and settled there. Terah is 205 years old; then he died in Haran. After that, Abram and his wife Sarai, Lot (son of Abram's brother, Haran), and all his followers, then went to Canaan. Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran. God commanded Abram to go to "the land that I will show you", and promised to bless him and make him a great nation. Believing in this promise, Abram went to Shechem, and received a new promise that the land would be given to his descendants. After building an altar to commemorate this agreement, he went and pitched a tent between Bethel and Ai, where he built another altar and "called on the name of the Lord."

Here he stayed for some time, until when there was a dispute between his shepherds and Lot's shepherds. Abram proposed to Lot that they separated, and allowed his nephew to choose first. Lot chose fertile land east of the Jordan, while Abram, after receiving another promise from the LORD, went to Mamre, near Hebron, and built another altar to the Lord.

Pray for Sodom
In the story of Lot and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abram appears when he begs God to pity Sodom. At that time, the LORD told Abram that He would come down and see whether they had really behaved like those who have reached Him or not.

In Egypt
Due to intense hunger, Abram and his family went to Egypt (26:11, 41:57, 42: 1), where he feared that the beauty of his wife would captivate the Egyptians. Because of that he lied that Sarai was his sister. This did not save him from Pharaoh, who took him for his personal harem and gave Abram many cattle and slaves. But when the LORD struck a terrible plague on Pharaoh, Abram and Sarai left Egypt.

Hagar and Ishmael
Because Sarai could not conceive, God's promise that Abraham's descendants would inherit the promised land seemed impossible. Sarai, according to the custom at the time, gave her servant named Hagar to Abram. When Hagar conceived Abram's son, he became arrogant and looked down on Sarai. Sarai drove him out into the desert. Hagar was promised that his offspring would become so numerous, "that they could not be counted because of the number." So Hagar returned and her son Ishmael was the first descendant of Abram. In Islam, Ishmael is Abram's heir. Hagar and Ishmael were later driven out of Abram by Sarai forever (Genesis 21), but the Bible says that Ishmael was a child born to a slave named Hagar, an Egyptian woman who was a slave to Abraham's family - servant to Sara. According to customs at that time, which counted as children are from legitimate wives, in this case Isaac was the most entitled to be called an heir.

In Christianity and Judaism it is stated that the so-called descendants of Abraham are from Isaac (Genesis 21:12 But God said to Abraham: "Do not be disgraced by your heart because of your children and slaves; in all that Sarah tells you, you must listen to it, for will be called your descendants of Isaac.)

Circumcision agreement
The name Abraham was given to Abram (and Sara to Sarai) at the same time as the circumcision agreement (Genesis 17), which is practiced in Judaism and Islam to this day. Now Abraham was promised not only to have many descendants, but also that this descendant would come from Sarah, and also that the land where he lived would belong to his descendants. This agreement was fulfilled through Isaac, even though God promised that Ishmael would become a great nation. The covenant of circumcision (unlike other promises) has two sides and conditionals: if Abraham and his descendants fulfill their promise, the LORD will be their Lord and give them the land.

Abraham's test of faith
Some time after the birth of Isaac, Abraham was commanded by God to sacrifice Isaac on Mount Moriah. Before Abraham could obey this, he was prevented by an angel and he sacrificed a ram. In return for this obedience he received another promise that he would make his descendants "very much like stars in the sky and like sand by the sea", and that they "would occupy the cities of their enemies."

Sara died

Sara died in old age, 127 years. At that time, Isaac was 37 years old and was not married. To bury his wife, Abraham bought a plot of land along with a cave called the Cave of Machpela from Efron the son of Zohar, the Hittite. After that Abraham buried his wife Sara in the cave of the Machpelah field east of Mamre, which is Hebron in the land of Canaan. Third wife, Ketura

Abraham mengambil pula seorang isteri, namanya Ketura. Perempuan itu melahirkan baginya Zimran, Yoksan, Medan, Midian, Isybak dan Suah. Yoksan memperanakkan Syeba dan Dedan. Keturunan Dedan ialah orang Asyur, orang Letush dan orang Leum. Anak-anak Midian ialah Efa, Efer, Henokh, Abida dan Eldaa. Itulah semuanya keturunan Ketura.

Warisan Abraham
Abraham memberikan segala harta miliknya kepada Ishak, tetapi kepada anak-anaknya yang diperolehnya dari gundik-gundiknya ia memberikan pemberian; kemudian ia menyuruh mereka--masih pada waktu ia hidup--meninggalkan Ishak, anaknya, dan pergi ke sebelah timur, ke Tanah Timur.

Akhir hayat
Abraham mencapai umur 175 tahun lalu ia meninggal. Ia mati pada waktu telah putih rambutnya, tua dan suntuk umur, maka ia dikumpulkan kepada kaum leluhurnya. Dan putra-putranya, Ishak dan Ismael, menguburkan dia dalam gua Makhpela, di padang Efron bin Zohar, orang Het itu, padang yang letaknya di sebelah timur Mamre, yang telah dibeli Abraham dari bani Het; di sanalah terkubur Abraham dan Sara isterinya.

Centuries later this tomb became a place of religious visit and Muslims built the Ibrahim Mosque in this place.

Time calculation
Difference in age

    Abraham is older than
        Sara: 9 years (Genesis 21: 5)
        Ishmael: 86 years (Genesis 16, Genesis 17)
        Isaac: 100 years (Genesis 17, Genesis 21)

    Abraham was 75 years old when he left Haran for the land of Canaan (Genesis 12: 4).
    Abraham was 85 years old when Sara gave Hagar his servant to Abraham to have children; at that time they had lived in Canaan for 10 years (Genesis 16: 3).
    Abram was 86 years old when Hagar gave birth to Ishmael for him (Genesis 16:16)
    Abraham was 99 years old when he was circumcised (Genesis 17:17 and 24).
    Abraham was 100 years old when Sarah gave birth to Isaac for him (Genesis 21: 5).
    Abraham died at the age of 175, when Isaac was 75 years old, Ishmael was 89 years (Genesis 23: 1), and Esau and Jacob were 15 years old (Genesis 25).

Family tree

According to the biblical account, Abraham's genealogy is as follows:




Referensi dan pranala luar

    ^ Kejadian 11:26
    ^ Kejadian 11:19, Kejadian 16:3, Kejadian 25:1
    ^ Kejadian 16:15
    ^ Kejadian 21:2-3
    ^ Kejadian 25:2
    ^ Kejadian 11:26
    ^ Kejadian 20:12
    ^ Kejadian 11:31
    ^ Kejadian 23:19, Kejadian 25:9
    ^ Kejadian 25:7
    ^ Garis waktu
    ^ menyatakan, "Bentuk 'Abraham' tidak memberikan makna apapun dalam bahasa Ibrani". Banyak penafsiran yang diajukan, termasuk analisis terhadap unsur pertama abr- "kepala" atau "pemimpin", namun kata ini tidak menghasilkan makna yang berarti untuk unsur yang kedua.
    ^ Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari, Vol. II, Prophets and Patriarchs, trans. William M. Brenner [State University of New York Press, Albany 1987], p. 89
    ^ Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari, Vol. II, Prophets and Patriarchs, trans. William M. Brenner [State University of New York Press, Albany 1987], pp. 82-83
    ^ Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari, Vol. II, Prophets and Patriarchs, trans. William M. Brenner [State University of New York Press, Albany 1987], p. 84
    ^ Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari, Vol. II, Prophets and Patriarchs, trans. William M. Brenner [State University of New York Press, Albany 1987], p. 86
    ^ Kejadian 11:31-32
    ^ Kejadian 12:1-3
    ^ Kejadian 12:5-8
    ^ a b (Indonesia) I. Snoek. 2004, Sejarah Suci, Jakarta: Gunung Mulia. Hlm. 43.
    ^ Kejadian 23:1-19
    ^ Kejadian 25:1-6
    ^ Kejadian 25:5-6
    ^ Kejadian 25:7-10 
Sumber :
Dari Adam sampai IbrahimKitab Kejadian dalam fasal 4, 5, 11, 21, dan 25 memberi
silsilah  nenek  moyang  Ibrahim sampai Nabi Adam dalam garis lurus, secara sangat teliti.  Dengan  menyebutkan umur  masing-masing,  umur  bapak ketika anaknya lahir, daftar  itu  memudahkan  kita  untuk  menemukan   tahun kelahiran  dan  kematian  tiap-tiap  orang  tua, sampai kepada Adam, seperti tertera dalam daftar di bawah ini.


No. Nama     Tahun kelahiran   Lama   Tahun kematian
             sesudah tercipta  hidup      sesudah
                  Adam        (tahun) terciptanya Adam

 1. Adam               000          930         930
 2. Seth                 130          912        1042
 3. Enokh              235          905        1140
 4. Kenan              325          910        1235
 5. Mahaleel          395          895        1290
 6. Jered               460          962        1422
 7. Henoe              622          365         987
 8. Meluschelach   687          969        1656
 9. Lemek             876          777        1653
10. Noch            1056          950        2006
11. Sem             1556          600        2156
12. Arpasehad    1658          438        2096
13. Sehelach      1693          433        2126
14. Heber           1723          464        2187
15. Peleg           1757          239        1996
16. Rehu            1787          239        2026
17. Serug           1819          230        2049
18. Nakhar          1849          148        1997
19. Terah            1878          205        2083
20. Ibrahim         1948          175        2123
This list is arranged according to information from the Sakerdotal text from Genesis. The text is the only text that gives certainty. We can draw conclusions from the text that Prophet Ibrahim, according to the Bible, was born in 1948 after the Prophet Adam.

BIBEL, QUR-AN, and Modern Science
Dr. Maurice Bucaille


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Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture