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Kutai Martadipura (301 AD - 1,605 AD)

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Kutai Martadipura is a Hindu-style kingdom in the archipelago that has the oldest historical evidence. Standing around the 4th century. This kingdom is located in Muara Kaman, East Kalimantan, precisely in the upper reaches of the Mahakam river. 

The name Kutai was given by experts to take from the name of the place where the inscription was found to show the existence of the kingdom. There is no inscription that clearly mentions the name of this kingdom and indeed very little information can be obtained.

Yupa inscription
Royal Kutai inscription
Existing information was obtained from Yupa / inscriptions in sacrificial ceremonies dating from the 4th century. There are seven yupa pieces which are the main source for experts in interpreting the history of the Kutai Kingdom. Yupa is a stone monument that serves as a memorial made by the Brahman for the generosity of King Mulawarman. In Hinduism cows are not slaughtered like sacrifices made by Muslims. From one of these yupa it is known that the king who ruled the Kutai kingdom at that time was Mulawarman. His name is recorded in Yupa because of his generosity of donating 20,000 head of cattle to the Brahmins. It can be seen that according to the Indonesian National History Book II: Ancient Times written by Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro and Nugroho Notosusanto published by Balai Pustaka page 36, the transliteration of the inscription above is as follows:

īrīmatah śrī-narendrasya; kuṇḍuṅgasya mahātmanaḥ; putro śvavarmmo vikhyātah; vaṅśakarttā yathāṅśumān; tasya sonā mahātmānaḥ; trayas traya ivāgnayaḥ; teṣān trayāṇām pravaraḥ; tapo-bala-damānvitaḥ; śrī mūlavarmmā rājendro; yaṣṭvā bahusuvarṇnakam; tasya yajñasya yūpo ‘yam; dvijendrais samprakalpitaḥ.

"The Mahārāja Kundungga, who is very noble, has a well-known son, the Aśwawarmman whose name, which, like Ang dewauman (Sun god), grows a very noble family. The Aśwawarmman has three sons, like fire (which is sacred). Prominent of the three sons was the Mūlawarmman, a good, strong and powerful civilized king. The Mūlawarmman had held a very large amount of gold (so-called salvation). To commemorate the feast (salvation) that the stone monument was erected by the Brahmins. "

Mulawarman is a child of Aswawarman and grandson of Kundungga. The names Mulawarman and Aswawarman are very thick with the influence of Sanskrit when viewed from the way of writing. Kundungga is an official from the Kingdom of Campa (Cambodia) who came to Indonesia. Kundungga himself is suspected of not adopting Buddhism.

Aswawarman was the son of King Kudungga. He was also known as the founder of the Kutai Kingdom dynasty so he was given the title Wangsakerta, which means forming a family. Aswawarman has 3 sons, and one of them is Mulawarman.

Aswawarman's son is Mulawarman. From Yupa it is known that during the reign of Mulawarman, the Kingdom of Kutai experienced a golden period. Its territory covers almost the entire territory of East Kalimantan. The people of Kutai live in prosperity and prosperity.

As if the kingdom of Kutai was no longer visible to the outside world due to lack of communication with foreigners, so very few heard of its name.

End up
The kingdom of Kutai ended when the Kutai King named Maharaja Dharma Setia was killed in battle at the hands of the 13th King Kutai Kartanegara, Aji Pangeran Anum Panji Mendapa. Keep in mind that this Kutai (Kutai Martadipura) is different from the Kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara which was the capital of Kutai Lama (Tanjung Kute) at that time.

It was this Kutai Kartanegara, in 1365, mentioned in Javanese Negarakertagama literature. Kutai Kartanegara subsequently became the Islamic kingdom.

Since 1735 the kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara, which was originally the prince of the Prince, turned into a Sultan (Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris) and is now called the Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara.

Names of King Kutai Maharaja Kudungga, posthumous title Dewawarman (founder)

  • Maharaja Aswawarman (Kundungga's son)
  • Maharaja Mulawarman (Aswawarman's son)
  • Maharaja Marawijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Gajayana Warman
  • Maharaja Tungga Warman
  • Maharaja Jayanaga Warman
  • Maharaja Nalasinga Warman
  • Maharaja Nala Parana Tungga
  • Maharaja Gadingga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Indra Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Sangga Warman Dewa
  • Maharaja Candrawarman
  • Maharaja Sri Rare God
  • Maharaja Guna Parana Dewa
  • Maharaja Wijaya Warman
  • Maharaja Sri Aji Dewa
  • Maharaja Mulia Putera
  • Maharaja Nala Pandita
  • Maharaja Indra Paruta Dewa
  • Maharaja Dharma Setia
Miscellaneous :
The name Maharaja Kundungga is interpreted by historians as the original name of Indonesian people who have not been influenced by the name of Indian culture.

While his son named Asmawarman is believed to have been influenced by Hindu culture.

This is based on the fact that the word Warman comes from Sanskrit. The word is usually used to describe the names of people or residents of southern India.

Source: kingdom_Kutai_Martadipura
Photo: Special

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