Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Pakuan Pajajaran - 1433 AD

Parahyangan Agung Jagatkharta, Pura Terbesar di Asia Tenggara
Bogor (DreamLandLibrary) - Pakuan Pajajaran or Pakuan (Pakwan) or Pajajaran was the seat of government of the Sunda Kingdom, a kingdom which for several centuries (7th to 16th centuries) had stood in the western region of Java. Pakuan Pajajaran's location is in the Bogor area, West Java now. In the past, in Southeast Asia there was a custom of saying the name of the kingdom by the name of its capital so that the Sunda Kingdom was often referred to as the Pajajaraan Kingdom. The locations of Pajajaran in the 15th and 16th centuries can be seen on the map of the Portuguese Colonial Dominions in India and the Malay Archipelago - 1498-1580 which can be seen on the link:

The main sources of history containing information about daily life in Pajajaran from the 15th century to the beginning of the 16th century can be found in the ancient text of the Bujangga Manik. The names of places, cultures and customs of the time are detailed in the ancient manuscripts. 

Pakuan Pajajaran was destroyed, razed to the ground, in 1579 due to an attack by the Sundanese kingdom, the Sultanate of Banten. The end of the Sunda Kingdom era was marked by the bringing of Palangka Sriman Sriwacana (king's throne), from Pakuan Pajajaran to the Surosowan Palace in Banten by Maulana Yusuf's troops.

The 200x160x20 cm stone was brought to Banten because of political tradition so that in Pakuan Pajajaran the coronation of the new king was no longer possible, and indicated Maulana Yusuf was the legitimate successor of Sundanese power because his great-grandmother was the daughter of Sri Baduga Maharaja, king of the Sunda Kingdom. Palangka Sriman Sriwacana can now be found in front of the former Surosowan Palace in Banten. The people of Banten call it Watu Gilang, meaning shiny or radiant, the same meaning as the word Sriman.

At that time it was estimated that there were a number of courtiers who left the palace and then settled in the Lebak area. They applied strict mandala life procedures, and now they are known as Bedouins.

Toponimi Pakuan and Pajajaran
The origin and meaning of Pakuan are found in various sources. Below are the search results from these sources in chronological order :

    Carita Waruga Manuscript Manuscript (1750s). In this Old Sundanese text it is explained that the name Pakuan Pajajaran is based that at that location there are many Pakujajar trees.

    K.F. Holle (1869). In an article titled De Batoe Toelis te Buitenzorg (Batutulis in Bogor), Holle said that near the city of Bogor there was a village called Cipaku, along with a river that had the same name. There are many nail trees found. So according to Holle, the name Pakuan has something to do with the presence of Cipaku and the nail tree. Pakuan Pajajaran means a lined nail tree ("op rijen staande pakoe bomen").

    G.P. Rouffaer (1919) in the 1919 Stibbe edition of the Encyclopedie van Niederlandsch Indie. Pakuan contains the meaning of "nails", but must be interpreted as "spikes of the universe" (spijker der wereld) which symbolizes the king's persona as in the title Paku Buwono and Paku Alam. "Pakuan" according to Fouffaer is equivalent to "Maharaja". The word "Pajajaran" is interpreted as "standing parallel" or "balanced" (evenknie). What Rouffaer meant was to stand on equal footing with Majapahit. Even though Rouffaer did not summarize the meaning of Pakuan Pajajaran, but from his description it can be concluded that Pakuan Pajajaran in his opinion means "Maharaja who stands parallel or in balance with (Maharaja) Majapahit". He agreed with Hoesein Djajaningrat (1913) that Pakuan Pajajaran was founded in 1433.

    R. Ng. Poerbatjaraka (1921). In the writings of De Batoe-Toelis bij Buitenzorg (Batutulis near Bogor) he explained that the word "Pakuan" should have come from the ancient Javanese language "pakwwan" which was then spelled "pakwan" (one "w", this was written on the Batutulis Inscription). In Sundanese tongue the word will be pronounced "pakuan". The word "pakwan" means tent or palace. So, Pakuan Pajajaran, according to Poerbatjaraka, means "a lined palace" (aanrijen staande hoven).

 H. ten Dam (1957). As an agricultural expert, Ten Dam wants to examine the socio-economic life of West Java farmers with an initial approach in terms of historical development. In his writings, Verkenningen Rondom Padjadjaran (Introduction to Pajajaran), the notion of "Pakuan" has something to do with the "phallus" (stone pillar) which was planted next to the Batutulis inscription as a sign of power. He reminded that in Carita Parahyangan it was mentioned that the figures of the Haluwesi and the Susuktunggal which he considered still had the meaning of "nails".

He argues that "pakuan" is not a name, but a common noun meaning capital (hoffstad) which must be distinguished from the palace. The word "Pajajaran" is reviewed based on the topography. He referred to the Wikler Captain's report (1690) which reported that he crossed the Pakuan palace in Pajajaran which was located between the "Great River" and "Sungai Tanggerang" (now known as Ci Liwung and Ci Sadane). Ten Dam draws the conclusion that the name "Pajajaran" appears because for several kilometers Ci Liwung and Ci Sadane flow parallel. So, Pakuan Pajajaran in the sense of Ten Dam is Pakuan Pajajaran or "Dayeuh Pajajaran".

The terms "Pakuan", "Pajajaran" and "Pakuan Pajajaran" can be found in the Batutulis Inscription (numbers 1 & 2) while number 3 can be found in the Kebantenan Inscription in Bekasi.

In the Carita Parahiyangan manuscript there is a sentence that reads "The Susuktunggal, inyana nu nyieunna palangka Sriman Sriwacana Sri Baduga Maharajadiraja Ratu Haji in Pakwan Pajajaran nad mikadatwan Sri Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati, inyana pakwan Sanghiyang Sri Ratu Dewata" Sriwacana (for) Sri Baduga Maharaja Ratu Ruler in Pakuan Pajajaran who resides in the palace of Sri Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati, that is, the Sanghiyang Sri Ratu Dewata).

Sanghiyang Sri Ratu Dewata is another title for Sri Baduga. So the so-called "pakuan" is the "cadaton" named Sri Bima and his rivals. "Pakuan" is a place for a king to live, usually called a palace, a palace or a palace. So Poerbatjaraka's interpretation is in line with the meaning referred to in Carita Parahiyangan, which is "palace lined up". This interpretation is even closer when the name of the palace is long enough but consists of independent names. It is estimated that there are five (5) palace buildings, each named: Bima, Punta, Narayana, Madura and Suradipati. This is perhaps what is commonly referred to in the classic term "panca persada" (five kratons). Suradipati is the name of the main palace. This can be compared with other palace names, namely Surawisesa in Kawali, Surasowan in Banten and Surakarta in Jayakarta in the past.

Because of the long name, maybe people prefer to summarize it, Pakuan Pajajaran or Pakuan or Pajajaran. The name of the palace can be expanded to become the name of the capital and eventually the name of the country. For example: The names of the Surakarta Hadiningrat Palace and Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Palace, which expanded to become the capital and regional names. Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat in everyday language is simply called Yogya.

The opinion of Ten Dam (Pakuan = capital) is correct in its use, but it is wrong in terms of semantics. In the Tome Pires report (1513) it was stated that the capital of the Sundanese kingdom was named "Dayo" (dayeuh) and was located in a mountainous area, two days' journey from the port of Kalapa at the Ciliwung estuary. He heard the name "Dayo" from residents or enlargers of the Port of Kalapa. So clearly, the Port of Kalapa uses the word "dayeuh" (not "pakuan") if it intends to refer to the capital. In everyday conversation, the word "dayeuh" is used, while in literature "pakuan" is used to refer to the royal capital.

Because the location of Pakuan is between two parallel rivers, Pakuan is also called Pajajaraan.

Research on the Location of the Former Pakaja Pajajaran
In the kropak (writing on palm leaves or palm leaves) which is given number 406 in Central Mueseum there are instructions that point to the location of Pakuan. Kropak 406 has been partially issued specifically under the name Carita Parahiyangan. In the unpublished section (commonly called fragment K 406) there is a description of the story of the establishment of the Sri Bima palace, Punta, Narayana Madura Suradipati:

"In this place, according to Kadatwan, I am a Bujangga Sedamanah who calls Sri Kadatwan Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati. Anggeus ta tuluy diprebolta my Maharaja Tarusbawa deung Bujangga Sedamanah. On the upstream side Ci Pakancilan. Katimu Bagawat Sunda Mayajati. Ku Bujangga Sedamanah in the haraupeun Maharaja Tarusbawa.

Meaning: That's where the former palace that by Bujangga Sedamanah was named Sri Kadatuan Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati. After it was finished [built] it was blessed by Maharaja Tarusbawa and Bujangga Sedamanah. Wanted upstream Ci Pakancilan. Bagawat Sunda Majayati was discovered. By Bujangga Sedamanah brought before Maharaja Tarusbawa.
From ancient sources it can be seen that the location of the palace will not be too far from the "upstream of Ci Pakancilan". The headwaters of the river are located near the current location of the village of Lawanggintung, because the headwaters of the river are called Ciawi. From that script we also know that since the Pajajaran era the river has been named Ci Pakancilan. Only the pantun interpreter then translates it into Ci Peucang. In Old Sundanese and Old Javanese the word "deer" does indeed mean "peucang".

VOC News
The first written report on the location of Pakuan was obtained from the record of the VOC troop expedition ("Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie" / Association of East Indian Councils) which our nation commonly called Kumpeni. Because Britain also had a union similar to the name EIC ("East India Company"), the VOC was often called the Dutch Kumpeni and the EIC was called the British Kumpeni.

After reaching an agreement with Cirebon (1681), the Dutch Kumpeni signed an agreement with Banten (1684). In the agreement it was determined that Ci Sadane be the boundary of both parties.

Scipio Report

Two important notes from the Scipio expedition are:

    Travel notes between Parung Angsana (Tanah Baru) to Cipaku via Tajur, about the location of the "Unitex" Factory now. Here is one part of his notes: "The road and the land between Parung Angsana and Cipaku are clean land and there are a lot of fruit trees, apparently once inhabited".

    Painting the road after he crossed Ci Liwung. He noted "Passing two paths with fruit trees that lined up straight and three ruins of a ditch". From the members of his army, Scipio received information that all were relics from King Pajajaran.

From his journey it was concluded that the footsteps of Pajajaran that could still give a "facial impression" of the kingdom were "the Batutulis Site".

Scipio's discovery was immediately reported by Governor General Joanes Camphuijs to his superiors in the Netherlands. In a report written on December 23, 1687, he reported that according to population belief, dat hetselve paleijs en specialijck de verheven zitplaets van den getal tijgers bewaakt ent bewaart wort (that the palace was primarily a seat that was raised to the king of "Java" Pajajaran now still foggy and guarded and cared for by a large number of tigers).

Apparently the report from Parung Angsana residents had something to do with an expedition member who was pounced on by a tiger near the Ci Sadane stream on the night of August 28, 1687. It is estimated that the Batutulis site was once a tiger's den and this has fostered the myth of a link between Pajajaran that vanished with the presence of a tiger.

Adolf Winkler's Report (1690)
The Scipio report moved the leaders of the Dutch Kumpeni. Three years later the expedition team was re-formed led by Captain Adolf Winkler. Winkler's army consisted of 16 white men and 26 Makasarese as well as a measuring expert.

A brief tour of the Winkler expedition is as follows:
Like Scipio, Winkler departed from Kedunghalang via Parung Angsana (Tanah Baru) then south. He passed a large road which Scipio called twee lanen ("a two-lane road"). This is not against Scipio. Winkler said the road was parallel to the Ci Liwung flow and then formed a right angle. Therefore he only recorded one road. Scipio considers the road that turns sharply as the two roads that meet.

After passing the Jambuluwuk river (Cibalok) and crossing the "Pakuan moat deep and upright walled (" de diepe dwarsgragt van Pakowang ") whose edge stretches towards Ciliwung and reaches the road to the southeast 20 minutes after the statue. Ten minutes later (10.54 o'clock) ) arrived at the location of the village of Tajur Agung (at that time there was no.) One minute later, he arrived at the base of the durian road which was only 2 minutes away on a relaxing horse riding.

If you go back to Scipio's note which says that the road and land between Parung Angsana and Cipaku are clean and everywhere is full of fruit trees, it can be concluded that the "Unitex" complex was in the Pajajaran era the "Royal Garden". "Tajur" is an Old Sundanese word meaning "planting, plant or garden". Tajuragung is the same meaning as "Kebon Besar" or Kebun Raya. As a royal garden, Tajuragung becomes a place for the royal family to hang out, and because of this, part of the road is planted with durian trees on both sides.

From Tajuragung Winkler to the Batutulis area, take the road that later (1709) passed by Van Riebeeck from the opposite direction. This road leads to the city gate (the location is near the nail factory "Tulus Rejo" now). Therein lies the first Lawanggintung Village before moving to "Sekip" and then the current location (permanent name Lawanggintung). So the Pakuan gate on this side is on the section of the road in Bantarpeuteuy (in front of the LIPI housing complex). There used to be a gintung tree.

    In Batutulis Winkler found a neat rocky floor or path. According to the introduction of his introduction, therein lies the royal palace (het conincklijke huijs soude daerontrent gestaen hebben). After measuring, the floor stretched toward the old paseban. There were found seven banyan trees.

    Near the road Winkler found a large, beautifully shaped stone. The rocky road was located before Winkler arrived at the Bautulis site, and because of the inscribed stone the journey continues to the "Purwagalih" statue site, so the location of the road must be located in the northern part of the inscribed stone. Between a rocky road with a beautiful boulder connected by "Gang Amil". The land in the northern part of Gang Amil is joined by Balekambang ("floating house"). Balekambang is for chatting with the king. Examples of bale kambang that are still intact are those found in the former Kingdom Center of Klungkung in Bali.

With these indications, the location of the Pajajaran palace must be located on the land bounded by Jalan Batutulis (west side), Gang Amil (south side), the former trench which is now used as housing (east side) and the "stone fortress" found by Scipio before reaching the inscription site (north side). Balekambang is located to the north (outside) of the fort. The banyan tree should be near the Pakuan gate at the current Bondongan bridge location.

From the Amil Gang, Winkler entered the place where the stone was inscribed. He reported that the "Pakuan Palace" was surrounded by a wall and inside there was a stone containing the writing as much as 8 1/2 lines (He mentioned that because the 9th line only contained 6 letters and a pair of closing marks).

What's important is that for both stones Winkler uses the word "stond" (standing). So after being displaced for about 110 years (since the Pajajaran was buried, broken up or destroyed, by the Banten forces in 1579), the stones were still standing, still in their original position.

    From the inscription, Winkler headed to the place of the statue (commonly called Purwakalih, 1911 Pleyte still records the name Purwa Galih). There are three statues which according to Pleyte's informants are Purwa Galih, Dark Nyawang and Kidang Pananjung. The name of the trio is found in the Babad Pajajaran written in Sumedang (1816) during the regency of Prince Kornel, then adapted in the form of a poem 1862. Chronographers adapted several characteristics of the former royal center as well as the residents of Parung Angsana in 1687 knowing the relationship between "Kabuyutan" Batutulis with the kingdoms of Pajajaran and Prabu Siliwangi. According to this chronicle, "the color measles tree" (now only stumps) is located not far from the square.

Report of Abraham van Riebeeck (1703, 1704, 1709)
Abraham is the son of Jan van Riebeeck the founder of Cape Town in South Africa. His exploration in the Bogor and surrounding areas was carried out as a high ranking VOC employee. Twice as Inspector General and once as Governor General. A visit to Pakuan in 1703 was accompanied by his wife who was carried on a stretcher.

Travel route 1703: Benteng - Cililitan - Tanjung - Serengseng - Pondokcina - Depok - Pondokpucung (Citayam) - Bojongmanggis (near Bojonggede) - Kedunghalang - Parungangsana (Tanah Baru).

1704 travel route: Benteng - Tanahabang - Karet - Ragunan - Serengseng - Pondokcina and so on are the same as route 1703.

1709 travel routes: Benteng - Tanahabang - Karet - Serengseng - Pondokpucung - Bojongmanggis - Pagerwesi - Kedungbadak - Panaragan.

Unlike Scipio and Winkler, van Riebeeck always came from the direction of Empang. Therefore he can know that Pakuan is located on a plateau. This will not be seen by those who enter Batutulis from the Tajur direction. What is special about Van Riebeeck's report is that he always writes about de toegang (the entrance) or de opgang (the way up) to Pakuan.

Some things that can be revealed from Van Riebeeck's three trips are:

    Empang Square turned out to be the former outer square in the Pakuan era separated from the fortress of Pakuan with a deep moat (now the trench stretches from Kampung Lolongok to Ci Pakancilan).

The present Bondongan climb, in Pakuan's era, is a narrow and climbing entrance that can only be passed by a horse rider or two people on foot.

    The low land on both sides of the Bondongan hill used to be a steep trench and the bottom continued to the foot of the Pakuan fortress. The Bondongan Bridge, which was once the city gate.

    Behind the fortress of Pakuan in this section there is an upper trench that surrounds the edge of the city of Pakuan on the Ci Sadane side.

On his 1704 visit, across the "road" to the west of the statue of "Purwa Galih" he had built a resting hut ("somerhuijsje") named "Batutulis". This name is then attached to a place name in the area around the inscription.

Research result
Batutulis inscription has been studied since 1806 by making "handprints" for the University of Leiden (The Netherlands). The first reading attempt was made by Friederich in 1853. Until 1921 there were four experts who examined its contents. However, only Cornelis Marinus Pleyte devoted to the location of Pakuan, the others only explored the contents of the inscription.

Pleyte's research results were published in 1911 (his own research took place in 1903). In his writings, Het Jaartal op en Batoe-Toelis nabij Buitenzorg or "Year number on Batutulis near Bogor", Pleyte explained,

    "Waar alle legenden, zoowel als de meer geloofwaardige historche berichten, het huidige dorpje Batoe-Toelis, als plaats waar eenmal Padjadjaran's koningsburcht stond, aanwijzen, kwam het er aleen nog op aan. Naar eenige trending.

    (In the case of legends and more reliable historical news, the Batutulis village which is now directed as a place for the Pajajaran kingdom's castle; the problem that arises is to trace its exact location).

A little contradiction from Pleyte: although at first he appointed the village of Batutulis as the location of the palace, but then he expanded the circle of its location to cover the entire territory of the present Batutulis Village. Pleyte identified the castle with the royal city and the Sri Bima Narayana Madura Suradipati union with Pakuan as the city.

Babad Pajajaran depicts that Pakuan is divided into "Dalem Kitha" (Jero kuta) and "Jawi Kitha" (Outside kuta). The right understanding is "inner city" and "outer city". Pleyte still found a land fort in the Jero Kuta area which stretches towards Sukasari at the meeting of Jalan Siliwangi with Jalan Batutulis.

Other researchers such as Ten Dam suspect the location of the palace near the Lawang Gintung village (former) of the Army Engineer Dormitory. Suhamir and Salmun even pointed to the current location of the Bogor Palace. But Suhamir and Salmun's opinion was not supported by archaeological data and historical sources. His guess is based only on the assumption that the famous "Leuwi Sipatahunan" in the old plays lies in the Ci Liwung channel in the Bogor Botanical Gardens. According to the classic story, leuwi (lubuk) was used to bathe in the daughters of the palace. Then the logic is drawn that the location of the palace is certainly not far from the "Leuwi Sipatahunan".

Bogor Pantun leads to the location of the former "Cakrabirawa" Regiment Dormitory (Kesatrian) near the city border. The area is said to be a former Tamansari kingdom named "Mila Kencana". But this is also not supported by older historical sources. In addition, the location is too close to Kuta, where the topography is the weakest point for the defense of Pakuan City. The city of Pakuan is surrounded by natural fortresses in the form of steep river cliffs on three sides. Only the southeastern part of the city limits is flat. In this section also found the rest of the largest city fort. Lawanggintung residents interviewed by Pleyte called the rest of the fort "Kuta Maneuh".

In fact, almost all researchers were guided by the report of Captain Winkler (visit to Batutulis June 14, 1690). The key to Winkler's report is not the hoff (palace) used for the inscription site, but the word "paseban" with seven banyan bars at the location of Gang Amil. Before it was repaired, this Amil Gang was indeed an old-fashioned nuance and on its edges many old "balay" stones were found.

Further research proved that the fortress of Pakuan City covered the area of ​​Lawangsaketeng that Pleyte once questioned. According to Coolsma, "Lawang Saketeng" means "porte brisee, bewaakte in-en uitgang" (folding gates that are guarded inside and outside). Kampung Lawangsaketeng is not located exactly at the former location of the gate.

The fort at this place is located on the edge of Kampung Cincaw which descends steeply to the end of the Ci Pakancilan valley, then continued with the cliffs of the Concrete Alley next to Rangga Gading Cinema. After crossing Suryakencana Street, turn southeast along the road. The row of shops between Jalan Suryakencana and Jalan Roda in this section up to Gardu Tinggi is actually erected on the former foundation of the fort.

Furthermore, the fort follows the peak of the Ci Liwung valley. Rows of stalls near Siliwangi Street - Batutulis Street were also erected on the former foundations of the fort. In this part the fort meets the Inner City fortress which stretches to Jero Kuta Wetan and Dereded. The outer fort continues along the peak of the Ci Liwung slope past the PAM office complex, then crosses Jalan Pajajaran, at the city border, turning straight southwest through Jalan Siliwangi (here used to be a gate), continuing extending to Kampung Lawang Gintung.

In Kampung Lawanggintung the fort is continued with "natural fort" which is the steep peak of Ci Paku cliff until the location of Batutulis Train Station. From here, the Pakuan City boundary runs along the railroad track to the Ci Pakancilan cliff after passing the location of the Bondongan Bridge. Ci Pakancilan cliff separates the "edge of the fort" from the "fort" on the cliffs of Kampung Cincaw.


    "Maharadja Cri Djajabhoepathi, Soenda’s Oudst Bekende Vorst", TBG, 57. Batavia: BGKW, pages 201-219, 1915)

    Original sources of Jakarta's history, Volume I: Jakarta's historical documents up to the end of the 16th century

    Sundanese Age of Pajajaran Culture, Volume 2, Edi S. Ekajati, Pustaka Jaya, 2005

    The Sundanese Kingdom of West Java From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal Center of Bogor, Herwig Zahorka, Cipta Loka Caraka Foundation, Jakarta, 2007-05-20

    ^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. hlm. 437.
    ^ Danasasmita, Saleh (1983). Sejarah Bogor (Bagian I). PEMDA BOGOR.

Source :

Photo: Special

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture