Window of Archipelago

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Periodization of Indonesian History

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - To better understand, love, and finally realize the history of the archipelago. #AconsciouslyHistory of the Archipelago
  1. Prehistoric
  2. Pre-colonial Period. Establishment of Local, Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic Kingdoms.
  3. Colonial period
A. Portuguese occupation - 1509 AD - 1595 AD
Just a few years before Columbus's expedition, in 1486 a Portuguese sailor named Bartolomeo Diaz tried to explore to find a way to countries in the Asian region, which were producing spices. Despite failing to get spices, but Bartolomeo Diaz managed to find a new road to East Asia, namely through the coast of South Africa.

Subsequently, in 1512 another Portuguese sailor named Francisco Serrao managed to sail towards the Maluku islands. The king of Ternate welcomed his arrival to Maluku, even at first it was permitted to erect a fortress on Ternate. But because of the deteriorating trade relations between Ternate-Portuguese, it was decided. This is because the Portuguese eventually monopolized the spice trade in Maluku.

B. Spanish occupation - 1521 AD - 1692 AD
Initially, Spain entered into a coalition with the Kingdom of Tidore against the Kingdom of Ternate (which had Portuguese support). But to prevent greater losses on the part of Spain and the Portuguese, the Saragosa agreement was declared in 1538. The contents, among others: That the Portuguese obtained the Maluku Islands, and Spain obtained the Philippine territory.

C. Dutch colonialism - 1602M - 1811M ... 1816M - 1942M
The Dutch began trading activities in Indonesia, since 1602, marked by the establishment of the trade union "VOC" (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), which is a trading institution, based in the City of Batavia, and was granted trade monopoly rights by the Dutch government.

The VOC as a Dutch representative in the Indies (Indonesia) had various special rights, including: Printing Own Money, Building Army Strength, Owning and Appointing Employees, Forming Courts, Occupying Foreign Areas, and Entering into Agreements with Indigenous Kings.

Finally, the VOC began to interfere in the government of the kingdoms in the archipelago. This had an impact on VOC policies that suppressed the indigenous people, as well as the power tends to corrupt, so that internal corruption of VOC employees themselves was rampant. As a result, people in various regions resisted the VOC.

In the 18th century the VOC suffered a setback, which was mainly due to the many weapons resistance by the indigenous people. Finally on December 31, 1799, the VOC was officially dissolved by the Dutch government, and Indonesia was immediately under the authority of the Dutch government, represented by several Governor Generals such as Daendels and Janssens.

D. French occupation - 1806 AD - 1811 AD
France indirectly controlled Java, because the Dutch kingdom was subject to French power. It ended in 1811, when the British defeated the Dutch-French forces on Java. A debt agreement is applied.

E. British occupation - 1811 AD - 1816 AD
Since 1811 the British government has ruled Java, since the signing of the Tungtang Capitulation, one of which contains a clause; the surrender of the island of Java from the Netherlands to England.

On 17 September 1811 the British government appointed Thomas Stamford Raffles as governor general in Indonesia. Notes from the Raffles government in Indonesia, among others: Dividing Java Island into 16 residencies.

In 1814 the London Convention was held, which contained that the Dutch government regained control of the British colony in Indonesia. In 1816, the British government in Indonesia officially ended. From this moment on, the Dutch returned to power in Indonesia until 1942.

F. Japanese occupation - 1942 AD - 1945 AD
In 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, where from then on Japan and the United States began to engage in World War II. To finance the war industry to keep going, the Japanese invaded several areas rich in raw materials including Indonesia.

In 1942 the Dutch surrendered unconditionally to Japan, through an agreement in the Kalijati area. Since then, the Dutch colonial period ended with Indonesia, and was replaced by Japan.

Japan itself colonized Indonesia in only 3.5 years and ended on August 17, 1945, which was right at the time of the proclamation of Indonesian independence.
  1. Independence Period, After the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945, until the fall of Sukarno in 1966
  2. The New Order period, 32 years of Soeharto's rule from 1966 to 1998
  3. The Reformation until now.
Photo: Special

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