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A Little History of Pancasila

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - On July 22, 1945, the Jakarta Charter was adopted which later became the Manuscript of the Opening of the 1945 Constitution. The draft text of the Indonesian constitution was prepared during the Second Session of the BPUPKI on July 10-17, 1945.

Before the ratification on August 18, 1945, there were many historical values ​​that were erased from history itself, namely:

The representatives of regions outside Java, especially because they represent religious groups outside of Islam (Christianity, Balinese Hinduism, etc.), have objections if in Preambul there is still a sentence that reads: "Godhead with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents . " Because it can be interpreted that the basis of the Indonesian state is Islam.

Also read: Hoax: Brawijaya V converted to Islam

They want it to be changed to: "The Almighty God alone". The envoys also wanted that several articles in the draft constitution, among others, state that the President must be a Muslim, so that it was changed so that article 6 paragraph 1 reads "The President is a native Indonesian."

According to them the purpose of the change is so that we do not become fragmented as a nation, because it needs eliminating sentences that can disrupt the feelings of Christians or adherents of other religions.

The change proposal received serious attention from the students, and they immediately got a corresponding opinion, because each of them shared the same opinion and really wanted a unity and national unity. The issue was immediately notified by Bung Hatta by telephone. Bung Hatta agreed to discuss the matter that afternoon on the 17th August 1945 at 17.00. To explain this problem three people were sent before Bung Hatta that afternoon, conveying the reasons for the changes put forward by representatives of Eastern Indonesia.

The three Student Envoys were Moeljo Hastrodipuro, Piet Mamahit, and Imam Slamet who were dressed in Navy uniforms, so people thought they were Japanese.

The changes proposed by the envoys were accepted by Bung Hatta and would be submitted to the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee on 18 August 1945 the following day.

On 18 August 1945, PPKI ratified the 1945 Constitution as the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.

Period 1945-1949
In the period 1945-1949, the 1945 Constitution could not be fully implemented because Indonesia was preoccupied with the struggle for independence. The Vice President's Declaration Number X on October 16, 1945 decided that KNIP was entrusted with legislative power, because the MPR and the DPR had not yet been formed. On November 14, 1945 the first Parliamentary Cabinet was formed, so that this event was a deviation from the 1945 Constitution.

Also read: Hoax: Brawijaya V converted to Islam

Period 1959-1966
Due to the political situation at the 1959 Constituent Assembly in which many parties exchanged interests so that they failed to produce a new constitution, then on July 5, 1959, President Soekarno issued a Presidential Decree which reposts the 1945 Constitution as a constitution, replacing the Law Provisional Constitution of 1950 at that time.

During this period, there were various deviations from the 1945 Constitution, including:

The President appoints the Chair and Deputy Chair of the MPR / DPR and the Supreme Court and the Deputy Chairperson of the DPA becomes the Minister of State
MPRS appointed Sukarno as president for life
G 30S Rebellion
Period 1966-1998

During the New Order period (1966-1998), the Government stated again that it carried out the 1945 Constitution and Pancasila in a pure and consistent manner. But in its implementation there was also a misappropriation of the 1945 Constitution which resulted in too much power on the President.
During the New Order era, the 1945 Constitution also became a very "sacred" constitution, including through a number of regulations: MPR Decree Number I / MPR / 1983 stating that the MPR was determined to defend the 1945 Constitution, not intending to make changes to it
MPR Decree Number IV / MPR / 1983 concerning the referendum which among others states that if the MPR wishes to change the 1945 Constitution, it must first ask the people's opinion through a referendum.

Law Number 5 of 1985 concerning Referendum, which is the implementation of TAP MPR Number IV / MPR / 1983.
V. Amendments to the 1945 Constitution

One of the demands of the 1998 Reformation was a change (amendment) to the 1945 Constitution. The background to the demands for the amendment to the 1945 Constitution was partly because during the New Order era, the highest power was in the hands of the MPR (and in fact it was not in the hands of the people), a very large power in the President , the existence of articles that are too "flexible" (so that it can cause interpretations), as well as the reality of the formulation of the 1945 Constitution concerning the spirit of state administrators that have not been adequately supported by constitutional provisions.

The purpose of the amendment to the 1945 Constitution at that time was to refine basic rules such as the state order, people's sovereignty, human rights, the distribution of power, the existence of a democratic state and the rule of law, as well as other matters in accordance with the development of the aspirations and needs of the nation. Amendments to the 1945 Constitution with an agreement include not changing the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution, maintaining the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, and emphasizing the presidential system.

Also read: Hoax: Brawijaya V converted to Islam

In the period 1999-2002, the 1945 Constitution underwent 4 changes as determined in the General Session and the Annual Session of the MPR:

MPR General Session 1999, 14-21 October 1999
2000 MPR Annual Session, 7-18 August 2000
2001 MPR Annual Session, November 1-9 2001
2002 MPR Annual Session, August 1-11 1999
Source: The Birth of One Nation and State (University of Indonesia Publisher - UI Press - 1997), and from various sources

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