Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

History of Indonesian names

Jakarta (DreamLandLiberary) - The name Indonesia comes from various historical series which culminated in the mid-19th century. Past records refer to the islands between Indochina and Australia by various names, while Chinese chronicles refer to this area as Nan-hai ("South Sea Islands").

Various ancient records of Indians named this island Dwipantara ("Tanah Seberang Islands"), a name derived from the Sanskrit word dwipa (island) and between (outside, across).

The story of Ramayana by the poet Walmiki tells of the search for Sinta, the wife of Rama who was abducted by Rahwana, to Suwarnadwipa ("Golden Island", presumably the present island of Sumatra) located on the Dwipantara Islands.

The first European nations came to assume that Asia consisted only of Arabs, Persians, Indians and Chinese. For them, the vast area between Persia and China was all Indian. They called the South Asian peninsula "the Face Indies" and the mainland of Southeast Asia was named "Rear Indies", while the islands gained the name of the Indian Islands (Indische Archipel, Indian Archipelago, l'Archipel Indien) or East Indies (Oost Indie, East Indies, Indes Orientales ). Another name that will also be used later is "Malay Islands" (Maleische Archipel, Malay Archipelago, l'Archipel Malais). The political unit under the Dutch colony had the official name Nederlandsch-Indie (Dutch East Indies). The Japanese occupation government of 1942-1945 used the term To-Indo (East Indies) to refer to its conquered territory in the islands.

Eduard Douwes Dekker (1820-1887), known by the pseudonym Multatuli, once used a specific name to refer to the Indonesian archipelago, "Insulinde", which also means "Indian Archipelago" (in Latin "insula" means island). The name "Insulinde" was subsequently less popular, though it had been the name of a newspaper and movement organization in the early 20th century.

Indonesian name
In 1847 in Singapore an annual scientific magazine, Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA, BI: "Journal of the Indian Islands and East Asia"), was managed by James Richardson Logan (1819-1869), a Scottish man who holds a law degree from the University of Edinburgh. Then in 1849 a British ethnologist, George Samuel Windsor Earl (1813-1865), joined himself as editor of JIAEA magazine.

In JIAEA volume IV in 1850, pages 66-74, Earl wrote the article On the Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations ("On Prominent Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations"). In his article, Earl stressed that the time had come for the inhabitants of the Indian Archipelago or the Malay Archipelago to have a distinctive name, because the Indian name was incorrect and often confused with other Indian names. Earl proposed two names: Indunesia or Malayunesia ("nesos" in Greek means "island"). On page 71 the article was written (translated into Indonesian from English):

    "... the inhabitants of the Indian Archipelago or the Malay Archipelago will each become" Indunesia People "or" Malayunesians "".

Earl himself claimed to choose the name Malayunesia (Malay Islands) over Indunesia (Indian Islands), because Malayunesia was very appropriate for the Malay race, while Indunesia could also be used for Ceylon (as Sri Lanka at that time) and Maldives (a foreign name for the Maldives). Earl also believes that Malay is spoken throughout the islands. In his writings Earl did use the term Malayunesia and did not use the term Indunesia.

In JIAEA Volume IV also, pages 252-347, James Richardson Logan wrote the article The Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago ("Ethnology of the Indian Islands"). At the beginning of his writing, Logan also stated the need for a unique name for the archipelago of our homeland, because the term Indian Archipelago ("Indian Islands") is too long and confusing. Logan then picked up the name Indunesia discarded by Earl, and replaced the letter u with the letter o so that his speech was better. Then was born the term Indonesia. [1] And that proves that some Europeans still believe that the inhabitants of this archipelago are Indians, a nickname that is retained because it is already very familiar in Europe.

For the first time the word Indonesia appears in the world printed on page 254 in Logan's writing (translated into Indonesian):

    "Mr. Earl suggested the ethnographic term" Indunesian ", but rejected it and supported" Malayunesian ". I prefer the pure geographical term" Indonesia ", which is only a shorter synonym for the Indian Islands or Indian Archipelago."

When proposing the name "Indonesia", it seems Logan did not realize that later on that name would become an official name. Since then Logan has consistently used the name "Indonesia" in his scientific writings, and gradually the use of this term has spread among scientists in ethnology and geography. [1]

In 1884 professor of ethnology at the University of Berlin named Adolf Bastian (1826-1905) published the book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipel ("Indonesia or the Islands in the Malay Islands") in five volumes, which contained the results of his research while wandering in the islands in 1864 to 1880. It is Bastian's book that popularized the term "Indonesia" among Dutch scholars, so that the term "Indonesia" was created by Bastian. The incorrect opinion was included in the Encyclopedie van Nederlandsch-Indie in 1918. In fact, Bastian took the term "Indonesia" from Logan's writings.

The native who first used the term "Indonesia" was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara). When exiled to the Netherlands in 1913 he founded a press bureau with the name Indonesische Persbureau. The name Indonesisch (Dutch pronunciation for "Indonesia") was also introduced as a replacement for Indisch ("Indies") by Prof. Cornelis van Vollenhoven (1917). Correspondingly, inlander ("native") was replaced by Indonesiƫr ("Indonesian").

In the 1920s, the name "Indonesia" which is a scientific term in ethnology and geography was taken over by figures of the Indonesian independence movement, so that the name "Indonesia" finally had a political meaning, namely the identity of a nation that fought for independence. As a result, the Dutch government began to be suspicious and wary of the use of the word Logan.

In 1922 at the initiative of Mohammad Hatta, a student of the Handels Hoogeschool (Higher School of Economics) in Rotterdam, an Indian student and student organization in the Netherlands (formed in 1908 under the name Indische Vereeniging) changed its name to Indonesische Vereeniging or the Indonesian Association. Their magazine, Indies Poetra, changed its name to Indonesia Merdeka.

Bung Hatta stressed in his writings,
    "The coming Free Indonesian State (de toekomstige vrije Indonesische staat) is impossible to be called" the Dutch East Indies ". Nor is it only" Indies ", because it can create errors with the original India. For us the name Indonesia states a political goal (een politiek doel) ), because it symbolizes and aspires to a homeland in the future, and to make it happen every Indonesian (IndonesiĆ«r) will try with all their energy and abilities. "

In Indonesia Dr. Sutomo founded the Indonesische Studie Club in 1924. That year the Indies Communist Union also changed its name to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI). In 1925 Jong Islamieten Bond formed the scouting of the Nationaal Indonesische Padvinderij (Natipij). Those are the three organizations in the country that first used the name "Indonesia". Finally, the name "Indonesia" was crowned as the name of the homeland, nation, and language of the Indonesian Pemoeda-Pemoeda Density on October 28, 1928, now known as the Youth Pledge.

In August 1939 three members of the Volksraad (People's Council; the Dutch East Indies parliament), Muhammad Husni Thamrin, Wiwoho Purbohadidjojo, and Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo, submitted a motion to the Dutch Government so that the name Indonesia was formalized in lieu of the name "Nederlandsch-Indie". This request was rejected. Meanwhile, the Poerwadarminta Dictionary published in the same year included the archipelago entry as the Kawi language for "kapuloan (Indonesiah)".

With the Japanese occupation on March 8, 1942, the name "Dutch East Indies" disappeared. On August 17, 1945, following the declaration of the Proclamation of Independence, the Republic of Indonesia was born.


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