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Kahuripan - 1009 AD

Surabaya (Dreamland Library) - Kahuripan is a name commonly used for a kingdom in East Java which was founded by Airlangga in 1009. This kingdom was built as a continuation of the Medang Kingdom which collapsed in 1006.

The collapse of the Medang Kingdom
The last King of Medang was named Dharmawangsa Teguh, the arch-rival of the Srivijaya Kingdom. In 1006 Raja Wurawari of Lwaram (an ally of Srivijaya) attacked Watan, the capital of the Medang Kingdom, which was holding a wedding party. Dharmawangsa Teguh was killed, while his nephew named Airlangga escaped the attack.

Airlangga is the son of the couple Mahendradatta (sister of Dharmawangsa Teguh) and Udayana king of Bali. He escaped accompanied by his assistant named Narotama. Since then Airlangga has lived as an ascetic in the mountain forests (wanagiri).

Airlangga Founding the Kingdom
In 1009, the people's envoys came to ask for Airlangga to rebuild the Medang Kingdom. Because the city of Watan was destroyed, then, Airlangga also built a new capital city named Watan Mas near Mount Penanggungan.

In the beginning the royal territory governed by Airlangga only covered the Mount Penanggungan and surrounding areas, because many subordinate areas of the Medang Kingdom were free. Only after the Srivijaya Kingdom was defeated by Rajendra Coladewa, the king of Colamandala from India in 1023. Airlangga felt free to rebuild the glory of the Isyana Dynasty.

War for battle waged by Airlangga. One by one the kingdoms in East Java could be conquered. But in 1032 Airlangga lost the city of Watan Mas to being attacked by a powerful female king like a giant. Airlangga then built a new capital city called Kahuripan in the present Sidoarjo area. Female enemies can be defeated, even then King Wurawari can be destroyed too. At that time the kingdom covered almost all of East Java.

The name Kahuripan is then commonly used as the name of the kingdom led by Airlangga, just like the name Singhasari which is actually just the name of the capital, commonly used as the name of the kingdom led by Kertanagara.

The center of the Airlangga kingdom was then moved again to Daha, based on the inscription Pamwatan, 1042 and Serat Calang Arang.

Kahuripan as the capital of Janggala
At the end of his reign, Airlangga was confronted with the problem of competing for the throne between his two sons. The actual king's nominee, Sanggramawijaya Tunggadewi, chose to become a hermit instead of ascending the throne.

At the end of November 1042, Airlangga was forced to divide his kingdom into two parts, namely the western part of Kadiri with thousands of cities in Daha, handed over to Sri Samarawijaya, and the eastern part named Janggala with thousands of cities in Kahuripan, submitted to Mapanji Garasa.

After abdication, Airlangga lived as an ascetic until he died around 1049.

Kahuripan in the history of Majapahit
The name Kahuripan reappears in the historical record of the Majapahit Kingdom which was founded in 1293. Raden Wijaya, the founder of the kingdom, seems to have noticed that there were two kingdoms that were created by Airlangga.

The two kingdoms are Kadiri alias Daha, and Janggala alias Kahuripan or Jiwana. Both by Raden Wijaya made as the most important subordinate area. Daha in the west, Kahuripan in the east, while Majapahit as the center.

Pararaton recorded several names that had served as Bhatara i Kahuripan, or abbreviated as Bhre Kahuripan. The first is the daughter of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Raden Wijaya. After 1319, his government was assisted by Gajah Mada who was appointed as the Kahuripan governor, because he was credited with fighting the Ra Kuti rebellion.

Hayam Wuruk while serving as yuwaraja was also the king of Kahuripan with the title Jiwanarajyapratistha. After ascending to the throne of Majapahit, the title of Bhre Kahuripan was held again by his mother, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi.

After the death of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi who served Bhre Kahuripan was his grandson, named Surawardhani. Then his son, Ratnapangkaja, was replaced.

After Ratnapangkaja's death, the title of Bhre Kahuripan was carried by his wife's nephew (Suhita) named Rajasawardhana. When Rajasawardhana became king of Majapahit, the title of Bhre Kahuripan was inherited by his eldest son, named Samarawijaya.

    Poesponegoro & Notosusanto (ed.). 1990. Indonesian National History Volume II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
    Slamet Muljana. 1979. Nagarakretagama and Historical Interpretation. Jakarta: Bhratara
    Slamet Muljana. 2005. The Collapse of the Jindu-Javanese Kingdom and the Emergence of Islamic States in the Archipelago (republished 1968). Yogyakarta: LKIS

Source: kingdom_Kahuripan

Photo: Special


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