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La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Jenggala - 1042 AD

Surabaya (Dreamland Library) - Janggala is one of two royal fractions led by Airlangga from the House of Isyana. This kingdom was founded in 1042, and ended around the 1130s. The central location of this kingdom is now estimated to be in the Sidoarjo Regency, East Java

The name Janggala is thought to originate from the word "Hujung Galuh", or "Jung-ya-lu" based on Chinese records. Hujung Galuh is located in the area of ​​the Brantas river estuary which is estimated to now be part of the city of Surabaya. This city has been an important port since the days of the Kahuripan, Janggala, Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit kingdoms. During the Singhasari and Majapahit kingdoms the port was again referred to as Hujung Galuh.

The division of the kingdom by Airlangga
The central government of Janggala is located in Kahuripan. According to the inscription of Terep, the city of Kahuripan was founded by Airlangga in 1032, because the old capital city, namely Watan Mas was captured by a female enemy.

Based on the inscription Pamwatan and the Arang Candidate Fiber, in 1042 the center of the Airlangga government had moved to Daha. It is not known exactly why Airlangga left Kahuripan.

In 1042, Airlangga abdicated. Her crown princess, Sanggramawijaya Tunggadewi, first chose life as a hermit, resulting in a power struggle between the other two sons of Airlangga, namely Sri Samarawijaya and Mapanji Garasa.

End of November 1042, Airlangga was forced to divide the two kingdoms. Sri Samarawijaya got the Kadiri Kingdom in the west centered in the new city, namely Daha. Whereas Mapanji Garasakan gets the kingdom of Janggala in the east centered in the old city, namely Kahuripan.

Raja of Janggala
The division of the kingdom after the death of Airlangga seemed futile, because between the two sons still involved in a civil war for mutual control.

At the beginning of its establishment, the Kingdom of Janggala left more historical evidence than the Kadiri Kingdom. Some of the kings who are known to rule Janggala include:

Mapanji Garasakan, based on the inscription Turun Hyang II (1044), the Kambang Putih inscription, and the Malenga inscription (1052).
    Alanjung Ahyes, based on the Banjaran inscription (1052).
    Samarotsaha, based on Sumengka inscriptions (1059).

End of the Kingdom of Janggala
Although the king of Janggala whose name is known only three people, but this kingdom is able to survive in competition until more or less 90 years. According to the inscription Ngantang (1035), the Kingdom of Janggala was finally conquered by Sri Jayabhaya king of Kadiri, with its famous motto, Panjalu Jayati, or Kadiri Menang.

Since then Janggala has been subordinate to Kadiri. According to Kakawin Smaradahana, the king of Kadiri named Sri Kameswara, who ruled around 1182-1194, had a consort of a Janggala princess named Kirana.

Janggala as Majapahit Subordinate
After Kadiri was conquered by Singhasari in 1222, and subsequently by Majapahit in 1293, Janggala was automatically controlled.

In the Majapahit era the name Kahuripan was more popular than Janggala, as the name Daha was more popular than the Kadiri. Nevertheless, in the Trailokyapuri inscription (1486), Girindrawardhana, the king of Majapahit, at that time called himself the ruler of Wilwatikta-Janggala-Kadiri.

Bhre Kahuripan
    Tribhuwana 1309-1328, 1350-1375 Pararaton.27: 18,19; 29:32 Nagarakretagama.2: 2
    Hayam Wuruk 1334-1350 Tribhuwana Inscription
    Wikramawardhana 1375-1389 Suma Oriental (?)
    Surawardhani 1389-1400 Pararaton.29: 23.26; 30:37
    Ratnapangkaja 1400-1446 Pararaton .30: 5,6; 31:35
    Rajasawardhana 1447-1451 Pararaton.32: 11; Waringin Pitu Inscription
    Samarawijaya 1451-1478 Pararaton .32: 23

Janggala in Literary Works The existence of Janggala Kingdom also appeared in Nagarakretagama written in 1365. Then it also appeared in literary texts that developed during the Islamic kingdoms in Java, such as the Babad Tanah Jawi and Pranitiradya Fibers.

In these texts, the first king of Janggala was named Lembu Amiluhur, son of Resi Gentayu alias Airlangga. Amiluhur Ox also holds the title Jayanegara. He was replaced by his son named Panji Asmarabangun, who had the title Prabu Suryawisesa.

Panji Asmarabangun is what is very famous in the Panji stories. His wife named Galuh Candrakirana from Kediri. In the performance of Ketoprak, the Panji figure after becoming king of Janggala is also often called Sri Kameswara. This clearly contradicts the news in Smaradahana which says Sri Kameswara is the king of Kadiri, and Kirana is the daughter of Janggala.

Furthermore, Panji Asmarabangun was replaced by his son named Kuda Laleyan, titled Prabu Surya Amiluhur. After only two years of power, the Kingdom of Janggala was drowned by the flood disaster. Surya Amiluhur was forced to move west to establish the Kingdom of Pajajaran.

This Surya Amiluhur figure later sent down Jaka Sesuruh, the founder of the fabled Majapahit version. That's a little story about the Kingdom of Janggala Chronicle and fiber version whose truth is difficult to prove with historical facts.

    Andjar Any. 1989. The Secret Prediction of Jayabaya, Ranggawarsita & Sabdopalon. Semarang: Various Sciences
    Babad Tanah Jawi. 2007. (trans.). Yogyakarta: Narrative
    Poesponegoro & Notosusanto (ed.). 1990. Indonesian National History Volume II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
    Slamet Muljana. 1979. Nagarakretagama and Historical Interpretation. Jakarta: Bhratara

Source: kingdom_Janggala
Photo: Special


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