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Singhasari - 1222 AD

Jakarta (Dreamjand Library) - Singhasari Kingdom or often written Singasari or Singosari, is a kingdom in East Java that was founded by Ken Arok in 1222. The location of this kingdom is now estimated to be in the Singosari area, Malang.

Capital name
Based on the Kudadu inscription, the official name of the Singhasari Kingdom is actually the Kingdom of Tumapel. According to Nagarakretagama, when it was first established in 1222, the capital of the Kingdom of Tumapel was named Kutaraja.

In 1253, Raja Wisnuwardhana adopted his son Kertanagara as yuwaraja and changed the capital's name to Singhasari. The name Singhasari which is the name of the capital city is even more famous than the name Tumapel. Thus, the Kingdom of Tumapel was also well-known by the name of the Kingdom of Singhasari.

The name Tumapel also appears in Chinese chronicles from the Yuan Dynasty with the spelling Tu-ma-pan.

Early stand up
According to Pararaton, Tumapel was originally only a subordinate area of ​​the Kadiri Kingdom. The one who served as akuwu (equivalent to the camat) of Tumapel at that time was Tunggul Ametung. He was killed by a ruse by his own bodyguard named Ken Arok, who later became the new Akuwu. Ken Arok also married Tunggul Ametung's wife named Ken Dedes. Ken Arok then intends to release Tumapel from Kadiri's power.

In 1254 there was a feud between the Kertajaya king and the Kadiri against the Brahmins. The Brahmins then merged with Ken Arok who made himself the first king of Tumapel with the title Sri Rajasa the Amurwabhumi. The war against Kadiri erupted in the village of Ganter which was won by the Tumapel.

Nagarakretagama also mentioned the same year for the establishment of the Kingdom of Tumapel, but did not mention the name Ken Arok. In the text, the founder of the kingdom of Tumapel named Ranggah Rajasa Sang Girinathaputra who succeeded in defeating Kertajaya king Kadiri.

Mula Malurung inscription on behalf of Kertanagara in 1255, said that the founder of the Kingdom of Tumapel was Bhatara Siwa. Perhaps this name is a posthumous title from Ranggah Rajasa, because in Nagarakretagama the spirit of the founder of the Tumapel kingdom was worshiped as Shiva. In addition, Pararaton also mentioned that, before advancing the war against Kadiri, Ken Arok first used the nickname Bhatara Shiva.

Rajasa Dynasty Lineage
House of Rajasa founded by Ken Arok. This royal family became the ruler of Singhasari, and continued in the Majapahit kingdom. There is a difference between Pararaton and Nagarakretagama in mentioning the order of Singhasari's kings.

The Pararaton version is:
    Ken Arok aka Rajasa the Amurwabhumi (1222 - 1247)
    Anusapati (1247 - 1249)
    Tohjaya (1249 - 1250)
    Ranggawuni alias Wisnuwardhana (1250 - 1272)
    Kertanagara (1272 - 1292)

The Nagarakretagama version is:
    Rangga Rajasa the Girinathaputra (1222 - 1227)
    Anusapati (1227 - 1248)
    Wisnuwardhana (1248 - 1254)
    Kertanagara (1254 - 1292)

The story of the succession of the Pararaton version of Tumapel kings was colored by bloodshed which was backed by revenge. Ken Arok was killed by Anusapati (his stepson). Anusapati was killed by Tohjaya (son of Ken Arok from concubine). Tohjaya died due to the Ranggawuni rebellion (Anusapati's son). Only Ranggawuni was replaced by Kertanagara (his son) peacefully. Meanwhile, the Nagarakretagama version does not mention the murder of the successor king to the previous king. This is understandable because Nagarakretagama is a book of praise for the king of Majapahit Hayam Wuruk. The bloody events that befell the ancestors of Hayam Wuruk are considered a disgrace.

Among the kings above only Vishnuwardhana and Kertanagara were found to publish inscriptions as proof of their history. In the Mula Malurung Inscription (issued by Kertanagara on Wisnuwardhana's order) it turns out that Tohjaya was the king of Kadiri, not the king of Tumapel. This reinforces the truth of the news in Nagarakretagama. The inscription was issued by Kertanagara in 1255 as a subordinate king in Kadiri. Thus, the news that Kertanagara ascended to the throne in 1254 can be debated. The possibility is that Kertanagara became the viceroy of Kadiri first, then in 1268 he was enthroned at Singhasari. The genealogical diagram beside this is the order of the rulers of the Rajasa Dynasty, which originated from Pararaton.

Mula Malurung Inscription
The discovery of the Mula Malurung inscription provides another perspective that is different from the Pararaton version that has been known for the history of Tumapel.

Tumapel Kingdom is said to have been founded by Rajasa, nicknamed "Bhatara Shiva", after conquering Kadiri. After his death, the kingdom was split into two, Tumapel led by Anusapati while Kadiri was led by Bhatara Parameswara (aka Mahisa Wonga Teleng). Parameswara was replaced by Guningbhaya, then Tohjaya. Meanwhile, Anusapati was replaced by Seminingrat who was entitled Wisnuwardhana. Mula Malurung Inscription also mentions that after the death of Tohjaya, the Kingdom of Tumapel and Kadiri were reunited by Seminingrat. Kadiri later became a subordinate kingdom led by his son, namely Kertanagara.

Joint government
Pararaton and Nagarakretagama mentioned the existence of a joint government between Wisnuwardhana and Narasingamurti. In Pararaton, Narasingamurti's real name is Mahisa Campaka.

If the bloody coup story in Pararaton really happened, then it can be understood that the purpose of this joint government is an attempt at reconciliation between the two competing groups. Wisnuwardhana is the grandson of Tunggul Ametung while Narasingamurti is the grandson of Ken Arok.

Kertanagara was the last king and greatest king in the history of Singhasari (1268 - 1292). He was the first king to shift his insight outside of Java. In 1275 he sent Pamalayu Expeditionary troops to make Sumatra a stronghold in the face of the expansion of the Mongols. At that time the ruler of Sumatra was the Kingdom of Dharmasraya (continuation of the Kingdom of Malayu). The kingdom was finally considered to have been subdued, by sending proof of the Amoghapasa statue from Kertanagara, as a sign of friendship between the two countries.

In 1284, Kertanagara also held an expedition to conquer Bali. In 1289 Emperor Kubilai Khan sent an envoy to Singhasari asking Java to recognize Mongol sovereignty. But the request was refused firmly by Kertanagara. Nagarakretagama mentions Singhasari's subordinate areas outside Java during the Kertanagara period, among others, Malay, Balinese, Pahang, Desert, and Bakulapura.

The Singhasari Kingdom, which was busy sending its army outside of Java, finally experienced a loss on the inside. In 1292 there was an uprising of Jayakatwang, the Regent of Gelang-Gelang, which was a cousin, as well as brother-in-law, as well as a father-in-law from Kertanagara himself. In the attack Kertanagara was killed.

After the collapse of Singhasari, Jayakatwang became king and built a new capital in Kadiri. The history of the Tumapel-Singhasari Kingdom ends.

Relationship with Majapahit
Pararaton, Nagarakretagama, and Kudadu inscriptions tell the story of Raden Wijaya, grandson of Narasingamurti who became Kertanagara's son-in-law escaped death. With the help of Aria Wiraraja (political opponent of Kertanagara), he was later forgiven by Jayakatwang and given the right to establish the village of Majapahit.

In 1293 came the Mongol army led by Ike Mese to conquer Java. They were used by Raden Wijaya to defeat Jayakatwang in Kadiri. After Kadiri collapsed, Raden Wijaya with an ingenious strategy to expel the Mongol army out of the land of Java.

Raden Wijaya then founded the Majapahit Kingdom as a continuation of Singhasari, and declared himself a member of the Rajasa Dynasty, a dynasty founded by Ken Arok.

    Poesponegoro & Notosusanto (ed.). 1990. Sejarah Nasional Indonesia Jilid II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka
    Purwadi. 2007. Sejarah Raja-Raja Jawa. Yogyakarta: Media Ilmu
    R.M. Mangkudimedja. 1979. Serat Pararaton Jilid 2. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Proyek Penerbitan Buku Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah
    Slamet Muljana. 2005. Menuju Puncak Kemegahan (terbitan ulang 1965). Yogyakarta: LKIS
    Slamet Muljana. 1979. Nagarakretagama dan Tafsir Sejarahnya. Jakarta: Bhratara

^ Bullough, Nigel (22 Oktober 1995). Historic East Java: Remains in Stone. Jakarta: ADLine Communications. hlm. 116–117.

Source: kingdom_Singhasari

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