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Kediri - 1042 AD

Surabaya (Dreamland Library) - Kediri Kingdom or Panjalu Kingdom, is a kingdom that was found in East Java between 1042-1222. The kingdom is centered in the city of Daha, which is located in the vicinity of Kediri now.

Background on Kediri Kingdom
In fact, the city of Daha existed before the kingdom of Kadiri was established. Daha is an abbreviation of Dahanapura, which means city of fire. This name is contained in the Pamwatan inscription issued by Airlangga in 1042. This is in accordance with the news in the Calang Arang Fiber that, at the end of Airlangga's reign, the center of the kingdom was no longer in Kahuripan, but instead moved to Daha.

At the end of November 1042, Airlangga was forced to divide his kingdom because his two sons competed for the throne. The son named Sri Samarawijaya got a western kingdom named Panjalu centered in the new city, namely Daha. Whereas the son named Mapanji Garasakan received an eastern kingdom named Janggala centered on the old city, namely Kahuripan.

According to Nagarakretagama, before being split into two, the name of the kingdom led by Airlangga was named Panjalu, which was centered in Daha. So, the Kingdom of Janggala was born as a fraction of Panjalu. The Kahuripan is the name of the old city that Airlangga had left and later became the capital of Janggala.

At first, the name Panjalu or Pangjalu was indeed more often used than the name Kadiri. This can be found in the inscriptions published by the Kadiri kings. In fact, the name Panjalu is also known as Pu-chia-lung in Chinese chronicles titled Ling wai tai ta (1178).

The Development of Kediri
The early days of the Panjalu or Kadiri Kingdom are not well known. The Inscription of Turun Hyang II (1044) published by Janggala Kingdom only reported the existence of a civil war between the two kingdoms after the death of Airlangga.

The history of the Panjalu Kingdom began to be known with the Sirah Keting inscription in 1104 in the name of Sri Jayawarsa. The kings before Sri Jayawarsa were only Sri Samarawijaya who were known, while the order of the kings after Sri Jayawarsa was clearly known based on the inscriptions found.

The Panjalu Kingdom under the rule of Sri Jayabhaya succeeded in conquering the Janggala Kingdom with its famous slogan in the Ngantang inscription (1135), namely Panjalu Jayati, or Panjalu Menang.

During the reign of Sri Jayabhaya, the Kingdom of Panjalu experienced its heyday. This royal territory covered all of Java and several islands in the archipelago, even to the point of defeating the influence of the Srivijaya Kingdom in Sumatra.

This is reinforced by Chinese chronicles titled Ling wai tai ta by Chou Ku-fei in 1178, that at that time the richest countries besides China in succession were Arabia, Java, and Sumatra. At that time the ruling in Arabic was the Bani Abbasiyah, in Java there was the Panjalu Kingdom, while Sumatra was controlled by the Srivijaya Kingdom.

The discovery of the Tondowongso Site in early 2007, believed to be a legacy of the Kadiri Kingdom, is expected to help provide more information about the kingdom.

Kadiri Period Literary Works
Literary arts received a lot of attention during the Panjalu-Kadiri Kingdom. In 1157 Kakawin Bharatayuddha was written by MPU Sedah and was completed by MPU Panuluh. This book is sourced from the Mahabharata which contains the Pandavas victory over the Kauravas, as a figure of Sri Jayabhaya's victory over Janggala.

In addition, Mpu Panuluh also wrote Kakawin Hariwangsa and Ghatotkachasraya. There is also a poet from the reign of Sri Kameswara named Mpu Dharmaja who wrote Kakawin Smaradahana. Then in the reign of Kertajaya there was a poet named Mpu Monaguna who wrote Sumanasantaka and Mpu Triguna who wrote Kresnayana.

The collapse of Kadiri
The Panjalu-Kadiri Kingdom collapsed during the reign of Kertajaya, and is told in Pararaton and Nagarakretagama.

In 1222 Kertajaya was at loggerheads with the Brahmins who later sought the protection of Ken Arok akuwu Tumapel. Incidentally Ken Arok also aspired to free Tumapel which was a subordinate area of ​​Kadiri.

The war between Kadiri and Tumapel took place near the village of Ganter. Ken Arok's forces managed to destroy the Kertajaya army. Thus ended the kingdom of Kadiri, which from then on became subordinate to Tumapel or Singhasari.

After Ken Arok defeated Kertajaya, Kadiri became an area under Singhasari's authority. Ken Arok appointed Jayasabha, Kertajaya's son as Kadiri regent. In 1258 Jayasabha was succeeded by his son, Sastrajaya. In 1271 Sastrajaya was replaced by his son, Jayakatwang. Jayakatwang rebelled against Singhasari, led by Kertanegara, because of a vengeful past where his ancestor Kertajaya was defeated by Ken Arok. After successfully killing Kertanegara, Jayakatwang rebuilt the Kadiri Kingdom, but only lasted one year due to a joint attack launched by the Mongol forces and Kertanegara's son-in-law's forces, Raden Wijaya.

Kings Who Had Governed Kediri
Here are the names of the kings who once ruled in Daha, the capital of Kadiri:
1. At the time when Daha became the capital of the kingdom which was still intact
Airlangga, is the founder of the city of Daha as a relocation of the city of Kahuripan. When he abdicated in 1042, the royal estate was split into two. Daha later became the capital of the western kingdom, Panjalu.

According to Nagarakretagama, the kingdom that was led by Airlangga before it was split was already named Panjalu.

2. When Daha became the capital of Panjalu
    Sri Samarawijaya, was the son of Airlangga whose name was found in the Pamwatan inscription (1042).
    Sri Jayawarsa, based on the inscription Sirah Keting (1104). It is not known for certain whether he was a direct replacement for Sri Samarawijaya or not.
    Sri Bameswara, based on the Padelegan I inscription (1117), Panumbangan inscription (1120), and Tangkilan inscription (1130).
    Sri Jayabhaya, was the largest king of Panjalu, based on the Ngantang inscription (1135), the Talan inscription (1136), and Kakawin Bharatayuddha (1157).
    Sri Sarweswara, based on the Padelegan II inscription (1159) and the Kahyunan inscription (1161).
    Sri Aryeswara, based on the Wind inscription (1171).
    Sri Gandra, based on the Jaring inscription (1181).
    Sri Kameswara, based on the inscriptions of Ceker (1182) and Kakawin Smaradahana.
    Sri Kertajaya, based on Galunggung inscription (1194), Kamulan Inscription (1194), Palah inscription (1197), Wates Kulon inscription (1205), Nagarakretagama, and Pararaton.

3. When Daha was Singhasari's subordinate
Panjalu Kingdom collapsed in 1222 and became subordinate to Singhasari. Based on the inscription of Mula Malurung, it is known that the Daha kings of the Singhasari era, namely:
    Mahisa Wunga Teleng, son of Ken Arok
    Guningbhaya's younger sister Mahisa Wunga Teleng
    Tohjaya, Guningbhaya's brother
    Kertanagara grandson of Mahisa Wunga Teleng (from the mother's side), who later became king of Singhasari

4. When Daha became the capital of Kadiri
Jayakatwang, is a descendant of Kertajaya who became the Regent of the Bracelets. In 1292 he rebelled, causing the collapse of the Singhasari Kingdom. Jayakatwang then rebuilt the Kadiri Kingdom. But in 1293 he was defeated by Raden Wijaya, founder of Majapahit.

5. When Daha was subordinate to Majapahit
Since 1293, Daha has been the most important Majapahit subordinate country. The king who led the title Bhre Daha but only symbolic, because the daily administration carried out by the governor of Daha. Bhre Daha who had served was:
    Jayanagara 1295-1309 Nagarakretagama.47: 2; Sukamerta inscription - accompanied by Patih Lembu Sora.
    Rajadewi 1309-1375 Pararaton.27: 15; 29:31; Nag.4: 1 - accompanied by Patih Arya Tilam, then Gajah Mada.
    Indudewi 1375-1415 Pararaton.29: 19; 31: 10,21
    Suhita 1415-1429?
    Jayeswari 1429-1464 Pararaton.30: 8; 31:34; 32:18; Waringin Pitu
    Manggalawardhani 1464-1474 Trailokyapuri Inscription

6. When Daha became the capital of Majapahit
According to Suma Oriental by Tome Pires, in 1513 Daha became the capital of Majapahit, led by Bhatara Wijaya. The name of this king is identical with Dyah Ranawijaya who was defeated by Sultan Trenggana, king of Demak in 1527.

Since then the name Kediri is more famous than Daha. Graaf and T.H. Bibliography Pigeaud 2001. First Islamic Kingdom in Java. Terj. Jakarta: Graffiti Main Library
    Slamet Muljana. 1979. Nagarakretagama and Historical Interpretation. Jakarta: Bhratara
    Poesponegoro & Notosusanto (ed.). 1990. Indonesian National History Volume II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Source: court_Kadiri
Photo: Special

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