Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

1800 AD and Beyond

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - In the search for the Dream Land Team, we still provide a timeline

We believe this year's poultices, have a lot of history of our Nation .....

Year 1800 AD - 1942 AD
The Dutch Occupation Against Our Nation

1,800 AD
! January the VOC is officially dissolved; VOC rights were transferred to the Dutch government.
The Netherlands lost the war to France. Dutch territories became French.
Sultan Kanoman from Cirebon Palace was exiled to Ambon by the Dutch government.
A rebellion happened under the leadership of Bagus Rangin.

In 1801 the British ruled the Minahasa region, until 1,889

1880 AD
Malacca and Maluku were returned from Britain to the Netherlands through the Amiens Agreement.

1880 AD
The Dutch government (the Republic of Batavia) issued a colonial decision, making the Dutch East Indies government accountable to the Dutch government (different from the VOC).

Mahmud Badaruddin II became the Sultan of Palembang-Darussalam replacing his father Sultan Muhamad Bahauddin.

1880 MP Pangeran Diponegoro

1880 AD
The British Navy fought with French and Dutch soldiers off the coast of Java.

England seized Bangka.
The Department of Colony Affairs was established in the Netherlands.

1880 AD
Tondano led a rebellion against the British in Minahasa.

The British regained control of Malacca.

The Dutch-controlled government of France appointed Daendels as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

1880 AD
On 1 January Daendels arrived, and he moved his official residence to Buitenzorg (now called Bogor).

Daendels governed by carrying out the principles of renewal with the methods of dictatorship to Java. Daendels tried to eradicate inefficiency, corruption (corruption which was originally taught by the Dutch to the Indonesian people, apparently also affected administrators in the Netherlands government environment), diversions in European administration. As a result of the dislike of the anti-feudal instincts, Daendels regarded the Javanese authorities as European administrative employees. So that began a very long period of conflict.

Daendels officially controlled Lampung for the Netherlands.

Pakubuwono IV had a peaceful relationship with Daendels; Hamengkubuwono II opposed it.

Mangkunegara II formed "Mangkunegaran Legion" with Dutch funding.

Daendels freed the sultan of Cirebon who had been exiled before, but the rebellion in the rural areas around Cirebon continued.

18 August Daendels reorganizes the territories under Dutch control in Central and East Java. The regents and local authorities were made employees of the Dutch government.

Daendels ordered a series of public works around Banten, including the construction of highways and a new port, which were carried out by local workers.

The workers rebelled because of the workload; Dutch resident in Banten killed. Daendels sent a military force to quell the rebellion and replace the Sultan, who was exiled to Ambon.

The British decided to release Malacca; Stamford Raffles, then a small employee at the time, wrote an important letter to India which urged the decision to be changed. The decision was changed, and Britain remained in Malacca.

In 1980 MDaendels built a mountain road from Batavia to Cirebon (Jalan Raya Pos / Groote Postweg), ordering the city of Bandung to be moved to its current location. Prince Kornel, the local government in Sumedang, refused to cooperate because of the poor treatment of the local people.

1,810 MB The establishment of the Gunung Tabur Sultanate of Sambaliung

Daendels relinquished Dutch rule in Banjarmasin in order to consolidate his authority on Java.

In May, the British attacked and recaptured Ambon, Ternate and Tidore.

Raden Rangga, Sultan's brother-in-law, started a failed uprising against the Dutch in Yogyakarta; Daendels and thousands of soldiers left for Yogyakarta, forcing Hamengkubuwono II to resign and surrender his authority to Hamengkubuwono III.

Napoleon annexed the Netherlands for France. Daendels raised the French flag in Batavia.

Raffles visited Lord Minto, Governor General of Britain in India, in Kolkata (Calcutta), urging him to expel France and the Netherlands from Java. Minto agrees.

1811 The establishment of the Pelalawan Sultanate of Pelalawan, Riau

In January, Daendels imposed new agreements on Yogyakarta and Surakarta, the contents of which included the termination of Dutch rent payments to the two Sultans for the north coast areas.

Hamengkubuwono III handed Prince Natakusuma over to the Dutch, on suspicion of being involved in the 1810 revolt.

May, Daendels was replaced by Jan Willem Janssens. (Shortly afterwards Daendels worked under Napoleon in his failed battle in Moscow.)

August 3 British troops with dozens of ships anchored on Java.

The local princes in Banten, who were still affected by the rebellion because of the burden of public works ordered by Daendels, arrested and imprisoned the Sultan of Banten and cooperated with the British.

August 26 Anglo-Dutch Javanese War begins. England under Lord Minto captured Batavia. The Dutch, who suffered defeat, withdrew to Semarang. Jansen retreated to the Semarang area.

September 18 Dutch government under Jansen surrenders to the British in Salatiga.

Thomas Stamford Raffles as representative of the British empire, was appointed Lieutenant Governor General of Java. He tried to show his concern for the welfare of indigenous people as the responsibility of the government. Besides Raffles' famous policy of action in Indonesia is to include a landrente (land tax) system which further lays the foundation for economic development, Raffles also introduces a system of money and village emphasis as an administrative center.
Bagus Rangin was captured by the British; the rebellion around Cirebon subsided.

Dutch residents in Palembang and surrounding areas were killed, allegedly because of the orders of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II; The British ordered Badruddin to be overthrown and replaced by his brother, Husin Diauddin.

Hamengkubuwono II recaptured his title in Yogyakarta.

December Raffles visits Yogyakarta Palace, which in turn provokes hostility.

Pakubuwono IV sent secret letters to Yogyakarta offering assistance to the British, but also hoped that Yogyakarta would be able to expand its territory; The British began secret negotiations with Hamengkubuwono III; Natakusuma offers help to the British.

January 1212 Raffles issued an announcement to reorganize and modernize the court system.

In June, the British assisted by the Mangkunegara Legion soldiers opened fire on Yogyakarta with cannon, captured, and robbed the city. Pakubuwono IV from Surakarta did not help much. Hamengkubuwono II was removed by the British, exiled to Padang, and replaced by Hamengkubuwono III.

Natakusuma became Prince Pakualam I, founded the Pakualam Dynasty.
October England signs agreement with Sultan Banjar.

The British took Timor.
The British controlled Palembang, and appointed the Duke of Duke to be sultan with the title Ahmad Najamuddin II or Husin Diauddin
The British controlled Belitung as compensation for the "massacre" in Palembang the previous year.

1813 The establishment of the Pakualaman Duchy of Yogyakarta
The British made peace with Palembang, Mahmud Badaruddin II ascended the throne again to become the Sultan of Palembang

Raffles abolished the Sultanate of Banten; The Sultan will be given a pension by the British government.

1814 AD
In June, Lord Minto, British Governor of India and Raffles' patron and promoter died. Raffles was accused of corruption, but was later proven innocent.

On June 21, the Treaty between the nations who fought against Napoleon to establish a new "Kingdom of the Netherlands".

On August 13 the British agreed that all of his assets and powers in the Dutch East Indies were returned to the Dutch.

British war with the Balinese in Buleleng, and Karangasem because of the slave trade.

Bone attacked British rule.
The British were stationed in Banjarmasin and Pontianak.

Hamengkubuwono IV came to power in Yogyakarta.
The British expedition announced the discovery of Borobudur and Prambanan for the first time.

1815 AD
In May, Raffles visited Borobudur.
Raffles ruled directly over Cirebon, removing power from his sultans.

The Dutch government established rules regarding the administration of the Dutch East Indies. (These rules would later become a kind of constitution for the Dutch East Indies, in one form or another, until 1942.)

The Vienna Congress decided that Britain should return Java and other Dutch East Indies powers to the Netherlands as part of an agreement that ended the Napoleonic War.

1816 AD
Bone again attacked the British.
On August 19, the Dutch returned to power in Batavia. Cornelis Elout continues Raffles' renewal policies. The transfer of power from England (lieutenant Governor John Fendall) to the Netherlands (Commissioner General consisting of three people, namely Elout, Buijskes, Van der Capellen). Java and other posts in Indonesia were returned to the Dutch as part of a comprehensive rearrangement of European affairs after the Napoleonic wars. Thomas Stamford Raffles left Java back to England.
The Dutch failed in their efforts to persuade the Balinese kings to accept Dutch rule.

1817 AD
Madura region is united into one regency / residency.
Pattimura led a rebellion against the Dutch who is now back in Ambon; hanged in December.
On May 8, Kebon Raya was established in Bogor.
Mount Ijen erupts in East Java.

1818 AD
In March, Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles was sent to lead the British fort at Bengkulu. From there he tried to establish British rule in the Indies.

Raffles sent a small army to Lampung to establish British rule there; the employees of the British East Indies Company in Kolkata called him back.

Raffles sent troops to Palembang to interfere in negotiations between the Sultan and the Dutch. They were arrested and sent to England. British officials once again ordered Raffles to resign.

Under Cornelis Elout, the Dutch ended the slave trade in Java.

The Dutch returned to Melaka.
The Dutch returned to Pontianak.

1819 AD
On January 19, Raffles founded Singapore, after buying the island from Sultan Johore.

The Dutch returned to Padang. Raffles tried to arouse anti-Dutch actions in rural Minangkabau.
The Menteng War broke out in Palembang.
Pangeran Ratu became the Sultan of Palembang with the title Ahmad Najamuddin III replacing his father Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II.

1820 AD
Pakubuwono V became Susuhunan Solo.
The establishment of the Gunung Tabur Sultanate of Gunung Tabur

On May 27, ISDV changed its name to the Communist Union in the Indies (later PKI).

PKH published the writings of Lenin.
Technische Hoogeschool was founded in Bandung (now ITB: Bandung Institute of Technology).
Sarekat Ambon was founded.

Conflict between the Communists and the Sarekat Islam developed.

December 25 PKH joins the Communist International.

The Netherlands sent an expedition to the Aru Islands.
An umbrella commission was formed to oversee the Protestant churches in the Dutch East Indies.

1821 AD
The remaining Minangkabau nobles signed an agreement that handed over the Minangkabau to the Dutch as payment for protection of the Paderi.

"Padri War" erupted, until 1837.
Cholera first appeared in Java; rice harvest failed.

The British controlled Palembang. Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II and his family were arrested and exiled to Ternate.

Prabu Anom became the Sultan of Palembang with the title Ahmad Najamuddin IV.

1822 AD
Hamengkubuwono IV died, while rumors spread that he had been poisoned. Hamengkubuwono V is the new Sultan. Diponegoro was disappointed because the handling of the situation by Dutch officials.
Mount Merapi erupts near Yogyakarta.

1823 AD
Dutch troops were defeated by the Padri in Lintau.

Governor General van der Capellen abolished land leases in Central Java. He ordered the land leases to be abolished and returned the down payment that Chinese and European tenants had paid to the landowners to be returned. This makes the bastards lose their source of income while the down payment received has been used up.

Pakubuwono VI took the throne in Solo.
Kramo Jayo became the Sultan of Palembang.
Raffles, in poor health, returned to England.

1824 AD
The establishment of the Riau Lingga Lingga Sultanate, Riau
On March 17, Britain and the Netherlands signed the London Agreement and divided the Indies among themselves. The Dutch claim Sumatra, Java, Maluku, Irian Jaya and others. The British claim Malaya and Singapore, and defend their interests in North Borneo. Aceh is expected to remain independent.
Bone seized Dutch territories in southern Sulawesi.

Dutch East Indies facing financial crisis - Governor General van der Capellen offered the colony to a private British company, Palmer and Co., in exchange for loans to redeem colonial rule. (The Dutch government, which felt humiliated by these events, gave large loans to the Dutch East Indies in 1826 and 1828.)

The Netherlands forms a direct government in Riau.

1825 AD
On March 29, the Nederlandsche Handel Maatschappij (Dutch Trading Company) was formed. Export commodities such as coffee, sugar, indigo produced by the public are shipped to Europe by this company.

The Dutch defeated Bone before the Diponegoro War; sporadic battles continued for years.

Padri fighters seized the southern Tapanuli region. King Sisingamangaraja X of the Batak was killed in battle against the Padri.

The Netherlands demands the prospective pilgrims who want to go on pilgrimage to obtain a passport and study tax worth 110 guilders.

In May, Diponegoro and the court rulers clashed over a dispute over a new road to be built near Tegalreja that passed through the graves and ancestral lands.

In July, the Dutch sent troops to capture Diponegoro, who announced a rebellion. Tegalreja was captured and burned, Diponegoro managed to escape. This was the beginning of the "Diponegoro War", which lasted until 1830. Diponegoro's struggle was assisted by Kyai Maja who was also the spiritual leader of the rebellion.
Adam al-Wasi 'Billah became Sultan of Banjar.

The line of succession in Palembang ends. The Netherlands forms a direct government.

The Dutch issued an order to arrest Raden Intan in Lampung. Raden Intan died and was replaced by Raden Imba Kusuma.

1826 AD
Guerilla war broke out throughout Central and East Java.

The Dutch began to organize special forces to fight in the Dutch East Indies.
Van der Capellen was replaced by Du Bus as Governor General.

August the Dutch liberate Hamengkubuwono II from captivity in Ambon, and re-appoint him as Sultan of Yogyakarta.

In October, Diponegoro was defeated at Gowok, near Surakarta. His troops were repelled.

1827 AD
The Dutch restructured their forces in the Diponegoro War, replaced them with more flexible tactics, carrying out attacks on guerrilla forces.

1828 AD
In April, the Javanese succeeded in confronting the Dutch.
Madura became a residency with Surabaya.
Smallpox outbreak in Bali.
Fort Du Bus was founded by the Dutch in Papua.

1829 AD
In September, Pangeran Mangkubumi (uncle of Diponegoro) surrendered. He was allowed to return to his palace.
In October, Commander Sentot Alibasyah surrendered. The Dutch appointed him Lieutenant Colonel.

1830 AD
Mataram after the Diponegoro War in 1830.

In March, Diponegoro agreed to hold a Magelang negotiation, be arrested and exiled to Manado, then to Makassar (until he died in 1855).
Pakubuwono VI, suspected by the Dutch, was exiled to Ambon (until 1849). Pakubuwono VII became Susuhunan Solo.

Johannes van den Bosch arrived as the new Governor-General, began to apply the cultuur stelsel or "forced cultivation". Each village must set aside part of its land to be planted with export commodities, especially coffee, sugar cane, indigo. The yields of these plants would be sold to the colonial government at a fixed price (20%) and the harvest would be handed over to the colonial government.

Forced cultivation of indigo plants (tilapia) was introduced at Priangan.
The first steamship arrived in the Dutch East Indies.

Nederlands Zendelinggenootschap (NZG - Dutch Zending Association) began offering education to indigenous children.

On 4 December Van den Bosch officially organized Dutch troops from the Java War to become the Oost-Indische Leger, or "East Indian Army" (later known as KNIL).

1831 AD
The establishment of the Trumon Sultanate of North Sumatra
The Dutch East Indies government succeeded in making a balanced budget.

Dutch troops fought the Padri in Sumatra and reached Bonjol.

1832 AD
The establishment of the Kingdom of Amanatum NTT
The Dutch overthrew Sultan Jailolo and conquered Halmahera.
US ships fired on coastal villages in Aceh in an effort to overcome piracy.

1833 AD
In January, the Minangkabau villages around Bonjol arose in a popular uprising; Dutch troops in the area were slaughtered. The Padri War heats up; The Netherlands seals the coast. Sentot fought on the Dutch side, but he probably did not favor the Dutch in his heart. The Netherlands placed Sentot under supervision in Bengkulu (until 1855).

Sultan of Jambi asked Dutch help to fight Palembang.

In 1,834 the Dutch forced Sultan Muhammad Fahruddin from Jambi to recognize Dutch rule.

The Portuguese government expelled Dominicans from East Timor.

1836 AD
Dutch ignore Fort Du Bus in Papua.

1837 AD
Bonjol in Minangkabau finally fell into Dutch hands in the Padri War. Tuanku Imam Bonjol surrendered and was sent into captivity.

1838 AD
Dutch victory in Daludalu ended the Padri War in Minangkabau. Dutch direct rule over Minangkabau was applied (customary law and the nobles seemed to be pro-Dutch).

Dutch expedition against Flores.
Bone renewed the Bungaya Agreement; the war against the Dutch subsided.

The Netherlands formalizes its presence on Nias.
Sulaiman inherited the throne of Aceh, but Tuanku Ibrahim ruled as regent, and ruled in Aceh until 1870.

The kingdom of Mataram in Lombok controlled the entire island, plus Karangasem in Bali.

1839 AD
The Danish trader, Mads Lange, opened a trading post in Kuta, Bali.

1840 AD
Cultuur Stelsel has faced various problems. Signs of suffering among Javanese and Sundanese natives began to appear. Especially in sugar cane planting area. Sugar mills compete with rice farming for water rations. Tibul famine and the price of rice is very expensive.

1841-1860 (Bali War, Max Havelaar)

1841 AD
Badung, Klungkung, Karangasem and Buleleng kings in Bali signed an agreement recognizing Dutch authority; the kings were given the right to remain in power.
James Brooke began to build a private kingdom for himself in Sarawak.

1842 AD
The Dutch withdraw from the east coast of Sumatra to the north of Palembang because of British worries.
Nobles in Surakarta were arrested on suspicion of inciting a rebellion.

1843 AD
Raja Lombok received Dutch rule.
Hunger in Cirebon.

1844 AD
The kings of Buleleng and Karangasem were not satisfied with the Dutch, and refused to ratify the agreement.

1845 AD

The vanilla industry began in Java.

1846 AD
In June, Dutch East Indies forces attacked Buleleng; other kings secretly supported anti-Dutch forces. The palace in Singaraja was destroyed. Raja Buleleng signs the surrender agreement. Dutch East Indies stationed an army post in Singaraja.

Dutch East Indies expedition against Flores.
Typhoid outbreaks spread in Java.
The Dutch East Indies controlled Samarinda.
The first commercial coal mine was opened in Martapura, South Kalimantan.
Rebellion in Banten.

1847 AD
Dutch military expedition to Nias.

1848 AD
In June, the Dutch East Indies sent military forces to Bali to deal with conflicts arising from the imposition of treaties with local kings. This force was defeated by a Balinese army under the leadership of Gusti Ketut Jilantik in Jagaraga, and withdrew from the island.

New constitution in the Netherlands: The Dutch State Council (parliament) has power over colonial affairs. Some lawmakers have demanded changes in the colony and called for liberal reform. Reducing the role of government in the colonial economy, freeing restrictions on private companies, and ending forced cultivation.

Updated civil, criminal and criminal laws for the Dutch East Indies were introduced, and applied only to European ancestry.

The demonstration in Batavia, led by Baron van Hoevell (a Dutch Hervormd priest), appealed to the King of the Netherlands to impose press freedom, a secondary school for the people, and representation for the Dutch East Indies in the State Council.

Residency schools for the education and training of children of local government and aristocracy, began to open.

1849 AD
In April, a large number of Dutch East Indies military forces were sent to Bali. Gusti Ketut Jilantik died in battle. The Dutch East Indies controlled Buleleng and the north coast of Bali.

In May Dutch Indies forces entered southern Bali for the first time, moving through Karangasem and Klungkung to quell resistance.

The king of Lombok attacked and captured Karangasem.
The Dutch fully control Palembang.

1850 AD

Dutch begin missionary work among Batak tribes in northern Sumatra. The Dutch East Indies government forbade Catholic missionaries from entering the Batak tribe in Sumatra or Toraja in Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were permitted to enter there.

Starvation in Central Java.
The Dutch buy the remnants of a Portuguese fort on Flores.

Year 1851 "Javanese doctor" school was established in Gambir (Weltevreden), Batavia.

Billiton Maatschappij started tin mining in Belitung. Many Chinese laborers were brought there.

1885 AD
The kola tree was introduced in Java.

1885 AD
The Dutch began to organize the administration of northern Bali.
Mangkunegara IV took his title in Surakarta.

1884 AD
The Dutch government issued a constitutional reform for the Dutch East Indies ("Regeeringsreglement"). Local rulers in the Dutch East Indies would retain traditional power over their citizens, and rule in the name of the Dutch.

The strict separation between Europeans and the Inlanders is recognized in the law.

The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies obtained the power to alienate anyone; the convict has no right to appeal or review his decision.

The cinchona plant (quinine) was introduced at Priangan, in Cibodas, West Java.

1885 AD
Hamengkubuwono VI became the Sultan of Yogyakarta.

The Dutch military carried out an expedition to Nias.
The Dutch expand their control over West Kalimantan.
Prince Diponegoro died at Fort Rotterdam, Makassar.

Year 1856 AD
The Issuance Rules give the power to the Governor General to pre-issue censorship of the press without the opportunity for appeal or reconsideration.

In March, Eduard Douwes Dekker was fired from his position in the government in West Java after accusing the local regents of corruption. (Later, under the pen name "Multatuli", he wrote the novel "Max Havelaar", which revealed the conditions and oppression on Java by the colonial government to readers in the Netherlands.)
Dutch military expedition to Flores.

1885 AD
The Dutch intervened in the succession of the Sultan of Banjarmasin, by supporting Tamjidillah rather than the more popular Hidayatullah.

The first telegraph cable was laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg (Bogor).

1885 AD
Dutch expedition against southern Sulawesi.

Ratu Taha Saifuddin from Jambi refused a treaty with the Dutch, fled to the forests carrying an heirloom (a symbol of his family's power), and fought until 1904.

The Dutch took Siak in northern Sumatra through an agreement and moved his troops to prevent British adventurers from getting a foothold there. The Siak border is set to include Langkat and Deli, which borders the Aceh region.

The Dutch East Indies government experienced a deficit due to military costs.

Pakubuwono VIII became Susuhunan Solo.

1885 AD
The Banjarmasin War was led by Prince Antasari; The Netherlands withdrew its support for Tamjidillah, sending it to Buitenzorg (now Bogor).

The Portuguese signed an agreement with the Dutch: the Portuguese relinquished their outposts and their claims to Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retained their rights to Portuguese Timor. The division between West and East Timor was decided.

The Dutch government banned slavery in the Dutch East Indies.

Dutch military expedition to Bone to overthrow Ratu Basse Kajuara.

A telegraph cable was installed between Batavia and Singapore.

1860 AD
"Max Havelaar" was published.
The Netherlands opened Savu Island.
The Dutch abolished the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and forced direct colonial rule.
The Netherlands expanded its protectorate to include the Wajo Sultanate in Sulawesi.

1861 AD -1880 AD (Aceh War, Batak War, Agrarian Law)

1861 AD
Pakubuwono IX became Susuhunan Solo.
German Protestant missionaries began working around Lake Toba in North Sumatra.

1862 AD
Prince Hidayatullah surrendered in Banjarmasin, and was exiled to Java. Antasari died of smallpox, guerrilla warfare continued.
Pepper must be stopped.

1863 AD
Dutch military expedition to Nias.
The British sent warships to Langkat and "other pepper ports" on Sumatra.

On July 1, Slavery officially ended in the Dutch East Indies.
Tobacco plants were introduced in North Sumatra.

Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner in Java and an opponent of the forced cultivation system, became Minister of Dutch Colony Affairs.

Mandatory planting of cloves and nutmeg is ended.

1864 AD
On April 1, the first Dutch East Indies stamp was issued.

The Netherlands experimented with rubber plants in Java and Sumatra.
The Netherlands claims the Mentawai Islands.
Sultan Siak was last abdicated.

1865 AD
Forced planting of tea, cinnamon and indigo ended.
The Netherlands introduces tobacco in Deli and North Sumatra.

The Netherlands instituted direct rule in the Asahan Sultanate in North Sumatra and drove the Sultan to Riau.

New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.

1866 AD
The mandatory planting of tobacco is ended.
The Dutch East Indies instituted direct rule on Sumba.

1867 AD
Mount Merapi erupts near Yogyakarta; 1,000 people died.

"Responsibility Act" requires that the Netherlands Indies finances be separated from the Dutch finances.
The Dutch East Indies Ministry of Education was formed.

1868 AD
The Dutch tightened their authority over Bengkulu.

1869 AD
One third of the inhabitants of Savu died of smallpox.

Aceh requested protection from the Ottoman Empire.

Deli Maatschappij was founded by private investors.

1870 AD
The Minahasa region was placed under direct Dutch government.

The Sugar Law began a period of agricultural renewal.

The disease struck coffee plants in Java.
Regular steamship service to the Netherlands via the Suez Canal was opened.

1871 AD
The Agrarian Law, Agrarische Wet, promotes the privatization of agriculture, and begins to cancel various forced cultivation practices. This law was issued by the Dutch East Indies colonial government as a follow-up to the victory of the Liberal party in the Netherlands, as well as replacing the politics of forced cultivation (Cultuur Stelsel) with Dutch businessmen investment. In its implementation Agrarische Wet supported the establishment of large Dutch plantations in the Dutch East Indies, so that it could be called an effort to attract private capital to the Dutch East Indies.

The smallpox epidemic killed 18,000 people in Bali.
Telegraph cables are installed from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.

November, Sumatra Treaty between Britain and the Netherlands: the Netherlands gives the Golden Coast to the British; The Netherlands can send contract workers from India to Dutch Guiana (now: Suriname); The Netherlands are free to act in Sumatra, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands have trade rights in Aceh. As a result of this agreement: there were no more objections to Dutch efforts to conquer Aceh.

1872 AD
The Batak War began in northern Sumatra, lasting until 1895.

Map of the Dutch East Indies war

1873 AD
On January 25, the envoy from Aceh held talks with the American consul in Singapore, but Washington refused to provide US assistance. The Netherlands answered with war.
On March 26, the Aceh War broke out. The Netherlands bombed Banda Aceh.

On April 8, the Dutch landed their forces in Banda Aceh.

Sultan Kutai signed an agreement recognizing the Dutch.

Assam tea plants from India were introduced to replace tea plants from China, the results of which are disappointing.

The first railroad was built in Java.

1874 AD
On January 24, Aceh Fighters left Banda Aceh and withdrew to the hills. The Netherlands announces that the Sultanate of Aceh has ended.

Sultan Mahmud Syah from Aceh died in the forest; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah led the empire in the hills until 1907. Teuku Umar, an Aceh aristocrat, led the Acehnese forces.

Dutch expedition to Flores.
The Netherlands sends a messenger to the Aru Islands.

1875 AD
The Dutch East Indies, Australia and Germany established a border between their claims in New Guinea.

1876 ​​AD
MT rubber plantations were introduced in Java.
Baba Hassan led a rebellion in Halmahera.

1877 AD
The establishment of the North Sumatra Langkat Sultanate

1899 AD - 1942 AD
National Awakening

Source: and various sources

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture