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Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

Majapahit City - year 1350 AD


Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Majapahit City in Trowulan, Kakawin Nagarakretagama, poet VIII-XII, was an important written source for knowing the description of Majapahit City around 1350 AD. The city at that time was not a city in the modern sense, Pigeaud (1962) stated. , a Dutch national historian, in his study of Prapanca's Nagarakretagama.

He concluded, Majapahit was not a city surrounded by walls, but a large residential complex that included a number of smaller complexes, where each other was separated by an open field. Fields are used for public purposes, such as markets and meeting places.

A thick red stone wall is high around the palace. That is the castle of the Majapahit Palace. The large door to the west called "Purawuktra" overlooks a large field. In the middle of the field flows a moat surrounding the field. At the edge of the fortress "Brahmastana", lined lengthwise and various forms. This is where the waiting officers who were patrolling guard Paseban.

Map of the City of Majaapahit The sketch of the reconstruction of the City of Majapahit by Maclaine Pont (1924) based on Nagarakretagama and excavations.

That is one of the footage from Nagarakretagama which depicts one part of the capital city of Majapahit as described by Prapanca. Where are the ruins? Most archaeologists believe and place it in Trowulan. Why Trowulan? This stems from research conducted by Wardenaar on the orders of Raffles in 1815 to observe archeological remains in the Mojokerto area. In his report he always mentioned, "in het bosch van Majapahit" for the cultural heritage found in Mojokerto, especially Trowulan.

Raffles himself in his book History of Java mentions "remains of the gateway at Majapahit called Gapura Jati Pasar" when mentioning Waringin Lawang Temple, and mentions "one of the gateways of Majapahit" when referring to Brahu Temple. These assumptions were later reassured by Maclains Pont, a Dutch architect, who dug up almost all over Trowulan. The result is a large number of building foundations, closed and open waterways, and reservoirs.

Nagarakretagama's description of the City of Majapahit was located in the field by Maclains Pont from 1924-1926. He managed to sketch Majapahit's "city" on the Trowulan Site. Majapahit fortress is depicted in the form of a network of roads and perimeter walls that make up rectangular blocks. Macro, the shape of the City of Majapahit resembles the shape of a mandala temple with a rectangular shape and there are entrances on all four sides, while the palace is located in the middle. In addition there are the residences of the soldiers and courtiers, central government officials, ministers, religious leaders, knights, paseban, Bubat field, pool ponds, bathing places, and others.

The Trowulan site itself is located in the Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency, East Java, about 70 km to the southwest of Surabaya. Within an area of ​​9 x 11 km can be seen brick buildings in the form of temples, gates, ponds, and water channels in the face of the land or underground, which all indicate a city that has been quite advanced for that period.

Regarding how large the city of Majapahit is and where its boundaries are, according to the latest research based on Yoni's findings, it is in the southwest of Trowulan, in Labak Jabung, southeast of Trowulan, and Klinterejo in the northeast of Trowulan. Whereas the fourth point should be in Tugu and Bodas Hamlet in Sumobito District, Jombang Regency. With the discovery of archeological sites at the fourth point, it can be calculated the area of ​​the four points, so that the estimated area of ​​Majapahit City is about 11 x 9 km, which extends north-south.

In 1981 the existence of canals and reservoirs at the Trowulan Site was increasingly ascertained through aerial photo studies supported by field observations with geoelectric and geomagnetic predictions. From the results of the collaboration of the National Survey and Mapping Coordinating Board (Bakosurtanal) with Ditlinbinjarah, UGM, ITB, and Lapan, it is known that the Trowulan Site is at the tip of a very large volcanic alluvial fan, has a sloping land surface and is very good for land use (Karina Arifin, 1983). The Baureno, Kumitir, Domas, Kraton, Kedungwulan, Temon and artificial ponds such as Segaran, Balo Dowo and Balong Bunder, all of which are located on the Trowulan Site, are located close to the base of the Jatilujo alluvial fan.

Through observation of infrared aerial photography, it turns out that in the Trowulan Site and its surroundings visible paths intersect perpendicular to the north-south and east-west orientation. The lanes that run east-west consist of 8 lanes, while the lanes that run north-south consist of 6 lanes. In addition to the lines which are perpendicular, two paths are found which are slightly oblique. "Based on field tests on the paths from aerial photography, it turns out that the pathways are canals, some of which are still found reinforcing walls of the canal edge of a brick structure," said Karina Arifin.

The width of the canals ranges from 35-45 meters. The shortest canal is 146 meters in length, which is a north-south stretch that lies in the Pesantren area, while the longest canal is a canal that tides to the east in the Tikus Temple area and ends at Kali Scissors (in Pandean Hamlet) in its west. This canal is about 5 kilometers long. Interestingly, most of the sites in Trowulan are surrounded by intersecting canals, forming a large rectangular plan, subdivided by several smaller rectangular fields.

Palace and King Chinese News written by Ma Huan while following Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) 's trip to Java provided an explanation of the state of the Majapahit people in the XV century. Among other things, that the city of Majapahit is located in the interior of Java. The king's palace is surrounded by a high wall of more than 3 zhang, on one side there is a "heavy gate" (probably made of metal). The height of the building's roof is between 4-5 zhang, the roof tiles are made of cracked wooden boards (shingles).

The Majapahit King lived in the palace, sometimes without a crown, but often wore a crown made of gold and decorated with golden flowers. The king wears a cloth and a barefoot scarf, and everywhere he goes always wears one or two kris blades. When the king exits the palace, usually ride an elephant or ox-drawn carriage. The population of Majapahit has a population of around 200-300 families. Residents wear cloth and clothes, men with long hair and loose, while women have a bun. Every boy always brings a kris made of gold, rhino horn, or ivory

Urban planning
The Majapahit Kingdom, besides having a capital as the seat of government and the seat of the king and royal officials, was also a magical center for the whole kingdom. Judging from the concept of cosmology, the form of the capital city of Majapahit is considered as an embodiment of the universe, while the king is identical with the highest god who resides on the summit of Mount Mahameru (Semeru).

The existence of Majapahit City according to the concept has three elements, namely:

1. a mountain element (a replica of a temple),
2. river elements (replicates formed canals),
3. marine elements (replicas formed reservoirs).

Nagarakretagama said that the structure of the building in the palace included the residence of the king and his family, the manguntur field, the priests' quarters, and the guard houses of the royal servants. The house inside the palace is beautiful, nice, and strong. The capital city of Majapahit is surrounded by regional kings and other cities. Around the palace where the king is located there are regional kings (paduka bhatara) and royal officials / dignitaries.

Pupuh VIII1.    Tersebut keajaiban kota: tembok batu merah, tebal tinggi, mengitari pura. Pintu barat
       bernama Pura Waktra, menghadap ke lapangan luas, bersabuk parit. Pohon
       brahmastana berkaki bodi, berjajar panjang, rapi berbentuk aneka ragam. Di situlah
       tempat tunggu para tanda, terus menerus meronda menjaga paseban.

2.    Di sebelah utara bertegak gapura permai dengan pintu besi penuh berukir. Di sebelah timur: panggung luhur, lantainya berlapis batu, putih-putih mengkilat. Di bagian utara, di selatan pecan, rumah berjejal jauh memanjang, sangat indah. Di Selatan jalan perempat: balai prajurit tempat pertemuan tiap Caitra.

3.    Balai agung Manguntur dengan balai Witana di tengah, menghadap padang
       watangan. Yang meluas ke empat arah; bagian utara paseban pujangga dan menteri.
       Bagian timur paseban pendeta Siwa-Buddha, yang bertugas membahas upacara.
       Pada masa gerhana bulan Palguna, demi keselamatan seluruh dunia.

4.    Di sebelah timur, pahoman berkelompok tiga-tiga mengitari kuil Siwa. Di selatan
       tempat tinggal wipra utama, tinggi bertingkat, menghadap panggung korban. Bertegak
       di halaman sebelah barat; di utara tempat Buddha bersusun tiga. Puncaknya penuh
       berukir; berhamburan bunga waktu raja turun berkorban.

5.    Di dalam, sebelah selatan Manguntur tersekat dengan pintu, itulah paseban. Rumah
       bagus berjajar mengapit jalan ke barat, disela tanjung berbunga lebat. Agak jauh di
       sebelah barat daya: panggung tempat berkeliaran para perwira. Tepat di tengah-
       tengah halaman bertegak mandapa penuh burung ramai berkicau.

6.    Di dalam, di selatan, ada lagi paseban memanjang ke pintu keluar pura yang kedua.
       Dibuat bertingkat-tangga, tersekat-sekat, masing-masing berpintu sendiri. Semua
       balai bertulang kuat bertiang kokoh, papan rusuknya tiada tercela. Para prajurit silih
       berganti, bergilir menjaga pintu, sambil bertukar tutur.

Pupuh XII
1.    Teratur rapi semua perumahan sepanjang tepi benteng. Timur tempat tinggal
       pemuka pendeta Siwa Hyang Brahmaraja. Selatan Buddha-sangga dengan
       Rangkanadi sebagai pemuka. Barat tempat para arya, menteri, dan sanak-kadang
       adiraja.

2.    Di timur tersekat lapangan, menjulang istana ajaib. Raja Wengker dan rani Daha
       penaka Indra dan Dewi Saci. Berdekatan dengan istana raja Matahun dan rani
       Lasem. Tak jauh di sebelah selatan raja Wilwatikta.

3.    Di sebelah utara pasar: rumah besar bagus lagi tinggi. Di situ menetap patih Daha,
       adinda Sri Paduka di Wengker. Batara Narpati, termashur sebagai tulang punggung
       praja. Cinta-taat kepada raja, perwira, sangat tangkas dan bijak.

4.    Di timur laut, rumah patih Wilwatikta, bernama Gajah Mada. Menteri wira, bijaksana,
       setia bakti kepada negara. Fasih bicara, teguh tangkas, tenang, tegas, cerdik, lagi
       jujur. Tangan kanan maharaja sebagai penggerak roda negara.

5.    Sebelah selatan puri, gedung kejaksaan tinggi bagus. Sebelah timur perumahan
       Siwa, sebelah barat Buddha. Terlangkahi rumah para menteri, para arya, dan satria.
       Perbedaan ragam pelbagai rumah menambah indahnya pura.

6.    Semua rumah memancarkan sinar warnanya gilang-cemerlang. Menandingi bulan
       dan matahari, indah tanpa upama. Negara-negara di Nusantara dengan Daha bagai
       pemuka. Tunduk menengadah, berlindung di bawah kuasa Wilwatikta.

Majapahit Future Waters System
The water structures found in the Majapahit period were reservoirs, canals, ponds, and waterways, which are still found in the remains. Based on research, it is known that the Majapahit government built the water structure for the purpose of agricultural irrigation and the means of channeling river water to reservoirs: water storage and storage, as well as flood control.

The research proves that there are about 20 ancient reservoirs spread in the northern plains of Anjasmoro, Welirang, and Arjuno. Baureno Reservoir, Kumitir, Domas, Temon, Kraton, and Kedung Wulan are reservoirs that are connected with Majapahit City which is located between the Scissors River in the west and the Brangkal River in the east. Only the Kedung Wulan reservoir is no longer found in the remains of the building, both from aerial photographs and in the field.

The Baureo Reservoir is the largest reservoir located 0.5 km from the meeting between Kali Boro and Kali Landean. The dam is known as Candi Lima. Not far from Candi Lima, the combined river is united with Kali Pikatan, forming Kali Brangkal. This former reservoir is now a natural basin that is large in size and flowed by several rivers. Like the Baureno Reservoir, other reservoirs have now been damaged and are seen as only natural basins, for example the Domas Reservoir located north of the Baureno Reservoir; Kumitir Reservoir (Rawa Kumitir) located west of the Baureno Reservoir; Kraton Reservoir located north of Bajangratu Gate; and Temon Reservoir located south of the Kraton Reservoir and southwest of the Kumitir Reservoir.

In addition to these reservoirs, in Trowulan there are three artificial ponds located close together, namely Segaran, Balong Bunder, and Balong Dowo. Segaran Pond obtains water from channels originating from the Kraton Reservoir. Balong Bunder is now a swamp located 250 meters south of Segaran Pool. Balong Dowo is also a swamp located 125 meters southwest of Segaran Pond. Only the Segaran Pond is reinforced with thick walls on all four sides, making it the most monumental water structure in the City of Majapahit.

The Segaran Pool was first discovered by Maclaine Pont in 1926. The pond is 375 meters long and 175 meters wide and about 3 meters deep, stretching northeast-southwest. The walls are made of brick glued together without any adhesive. Wall thickness of 1.60 meters. On the southeast side there is an inlet, while on the northwest side there is an outlet leading to Balong Dowo and Balong Bunder.

Aerial photographs made in the 1970s in the Trowulan and surrounding areas clearly show the existence of canals in the form of crossing lines perpendicular to the north-south and west-east orientation. There are also slightly oblique paths with varying widths, between 35-45 m or only 12 m, and even 94 m which may be caused by present-day population activities.

Canals in residential areas, based on drilling that has been done, showed a sedimentation layer as deep as 4 m; and ever found a 2.5 meter high brick arrangement that gives the impression that in the past the canals were given a dike, such as on the edge of the canal located in the Kedaton area which is 26 meters wide given a dike. The canals have ends, ending at Temon Reservoir and Kali Scissors; and at least three canals end at Kali Crab, south of Majapahit City. Canals that are wide enough lead to speculation that their function is not just to irrigate the fields (irrigation), but maybe also for means of transportation that can be passed by small boats.

These canals, reservoirs, and ponds are supported by smaller waterways, which are part of the water network system in Majapahit. In the Trowulan region, culverts built of bricks are often found to be quite large in size, which allows adults to enter them. Rat Temple, which is a bath (petirtaan) for example, has a large culvert to channel water into and out of the temple. In addition to culverts or underground channels, there are also many open channels to irrigate rice fields, as well as the discovery of terracotta pipes which are likely to be used to channel water to houses, as well as gutters from brick structures among the remnants ancient houses. This shows how the Majapahit people have a high awareness of sanitation and water control.

Seeing the large and large number of water structures, it can be estimated that their construction and maintenance require an organized organizational system. This is evident from the knowledge of the technology funds they have, which enable them to be able to control flooding and make the city center protected and safely inhabited.

Until now, both from the inscriptions and ancient manuscripts, no information was obtained about when the reservoirs and canals were built and how long they function. The damage to these water structures may have been initiated by the eruption of Mount Anjasmoro in 1451, which carried a thick layer of lava that broke into the Baureno Reservoir and damaged the existing water network system. Tikus Temple, which is located between the Kumitir Reservoir and the Palace Reservoir, has even been completely covered by lava.

The chaotic state of the kingdom due to the struggle for power coupled with the emergence of new power in the coastal areas, resulting in damage to water structures can not be repaired as before. Erosion and continuous flooding resulted in this area being uninhabitable and slowly abandoned by its inhabitants.

The Great Cities of the Kingdom
City and house shape


Villages and Villages
It is not known exactly how the traditional form of the inheritance of the real Majapahit Kingdom. From a number of artifacts found related to the occupation of the kingdom, it is difficult to provide a standard example of a prototype of the Majapahit era. However, there was a spade of artifacts from baked clay in the form of miniature houses and the findings of the structure of the building which were thought to be typical of Majapahit houses.

The excavation in Trowulan in 1995 showed a building structure in the form of feet from the ground reinforced with a stone structure with a thickness of 1 cm of soil, forming a batur house. The rectangular plan is rectangular, measuring 5.20 x 2.15 meters and a height of about 60 cm. On the north side there is a brick ladder structure consisting of 3 steps. From the existence and layout of the stairs, it can be concluded that this house faces north with a deviation of around 90 55 degrees to the east, as is the orientation of almost all directions of the building structures on the Trowulan Site.

On both sides of the foot of the building there are open ditches 8 cm wide and 10 cm deep. Front of the gutter building follows the shape of the stairs of the building. The gutters are built from brick units so that the gutter structure is stronger, and the water can flow faster. Around the foot of the building were found more than 200 pieces of roof tiles and 70 ridges and peaks, and ukel (decoration of terracotta placed under the roof of the building).

The structure of the building yard is very interesting and unique. The ground yard is covered with a boxy structure, and each box is lined with bricks which are laid down on all four sides, and in the box with a brick frame, round stones are installed to fill the entire area. This kind of cover serves to avoid if the yard becomes muddy when it rains. No such page cover has yet been found, except something rather similar to the south of the Segaran II site.

From these findings it can be assumed that the body of the building was erected on a shelf as high as 60 cm. It is possible that the building is made of wood (plank) and not brick because around the building area is not found a brick in large numbers in accordance with the volume of the building. Maybe the body of the building is made of wood (planks) or plaited bamboo or booth type. The wooden pillars supporting the roof must have been destroyed, presumably not based on stone piles which are actually found on the Trowulan Site, because no one was found around the building.

Poles may be placed directly on the floor that lines the surface of the batur. The roof of the building is estimated to have a slope angle of between 35-60 degrees, covered with rectangular tile arrangement with a size of 24 x 13 x 0.9 cm with a total of about 800-1,000 pieces of tile covering it. The top of the roof is equipped with ridges and tops, and at the ends of the jurries are fitted with ukel ornaments.

Reconstruction of a house building based on evidence found at the site, can be completed through comparison with the forms of the house and its elements that we can see in: (1) contemporary artifacts such as temple reliefs, building models made from terracotta, types of roof coverings in the form of tiles, shingles, bamboo, fibers; (2) simple houses owned by the current population in Trowulan; and (3) houses in Bali.

Apart from the social status of the inhabitants of this house, there is another interesting thing, namely the residents of Majapahit in Trowulan, or at least the residents of this house, have combined aspects of function with aesthetics. The yard is laid out in such a way as to avoid standing water by hardening it with round krakal in a brick frame. Around the building there is an open ditch with a brick base to drain water from the yard. It is also equipped with a water pot from a large terracotta and ornate jugs, which gives the impression of a neatly arranged house yard. To the east there are several brick structures that have not been identified. Maybe this relatively small house is only one of the complexes. The building which is in one yard of 200 square meters is surrounded by a fence like what we can see in Bali now.

Source: http://nusol.gameseru.co.id/index.php/p guide/ensklopedi/arsitektur-k kingdom-majapahit.html

Photo: Special

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