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Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java
Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple located in Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The location of the temple is approximately 100 km to the southwest of Semarang, 86 km to the west of Surakarta, and 40 km to the northwest of Yogyakarta.

This stupa-shaped temple was founded by Mahayana Buddhists around the year 800 AD during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty.

This monument consists of six square-shaped terraces on which there are three circular courtyards, the walls are decorated with 2,672 relief panels and originally there are 504 Buddha statues.

The largest main stupa lies in the center and crowns this building, surrounded by three circular lines of 72 hollow stupas in which there is a Buddha statue sitting cross-legged in a perfect lotus position with a mudra (hand attitude) Dharmachakra mudra (turning the dharma wheel).

This monument is a model of the universe and was built as a sacred place to glorify the Buddha and also functions as a place of pilgrimage to guide humanity to move from the world of lust to enlightenment and wisdom according to Buddhist teachings. [2] Pilgrims enter through the east side to start the ritual at the base of the temple by walking around the sacred building in a clockwise direction, while continuing to ascend to the next steps through three levels of the realm in Buddhist cosmology. These three levels are Kāmadhātu (the realm of lust), Rupadhatu (the realm of the form), and Arupadhatu (the realm of the intangible). On this journey pilgrims walk through a series of aisles and stairs by watching no less than 1,460 beautiful relief panels carved into the walls and balustrades

According to historical evidence, Borobudur was abandoned in the 14th century as the weakening influence of the Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms on Java and the entry of Islamic influence. [3] The world began to realize the existence of this building since it was discovered in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, who at that time served as Governor General of England over Java. Since then Borobudur has experienced a series of rescue and restoration efforts. The largest restoration project was held in the period 1975 to 1982 under the efforts of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and UNESCO, then this historic site was included in the list of World Heritage Sites

Borobudur is still used as a place of religious pilgrimage; every year Buddhists who come from all over Indonesia and abroad gather in Borobudur to commemorate Vesak Trisuci. In the world of tourism, Borobudur is the single tourist attraction in Indonesia that is most visited by tourists.

The name Borobudur
In Indonesian, ancient religious buildings called temples; the term temple is also used more broadly to refer to all ancient buildings that originated from the Hindu-Buddhist period in the archipelago, for example gates, gates, and petirtaan (pools and bathing showers).

The origin of the name Borobudur is unclear, [8] although the original name of most temples in Indonesia is unknown. [8] The name Borobudur was first written in the book "History of Java" by Sir Thomas Raffles. [9] Raffles wrote about a monument called Borobudur, but there is no older document that mentions the exact same name.

The only ancient Javanese text that gives clues about the existence of a Buddhist sacred building that might refer to Borobudur is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365.

The name Bore-Budur, which was later written BoroBudur, was probably written by Raffles in English grammar to refer to the village closest to the temple, namely the village of Bore (Boro); most temples are often named after the village where they stand. Raffles also suspected that the term 'Budur' might be related to the term Buda in Javanese which means "ancient" - hence meaning, "ancient Boro". [8] However, other archaeologists assume that the name Budur comes from the term bhudhara which means mountain.

Many theories attempt to explain the name of this temple. One of them states that this name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means "mountain" (bhudara) where on the slopes are terraces. In addition there are several other folk etymologies. For example the word borobudur comes from the words "the Buddhas" who because of the shift of sound into borobudur. Another explanation is that this name comes from two words "coal" and "beduhur". The word bara is said to originate from the word monastery, while there are also other explanations where bara is derived from Sanskrit which means temple or monastery complex and beduhur means "high", or reminiscent of Balinese meaning "above". So the intention is a monastery or boarding house located on high ground.

Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation to get a doctorate in 1950 argues that Borobudur is a place of worship. Based on the inscriptions of Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan, Casparis estimates that the founder of Borobudur was the Mataram king of the Syailendra dynasty named Samaratungga, who carried out the construction around 824 AD. The giant building could only be completed during his daughter,

Ratu Pramudawardhani. Borobudur development is estimated to take half a century. The Karangtengah inscription also mentions the awarding of sima land (tax free land) by Çrī Kahulunan (Pramudawardhani) to maintain Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra.

The term Kamūlān itself is derived from the initial word which means the place of origin, the sacred building to glorify the ancestors, possibly the ancestors of the Sailendra dynasty. Casparis estimates that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra in Sanskrit which means "Hill of the ten levels of boddhisattwa set of virtues", is the original name of Borobudur.

Surrounding environment
Located about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northwest of the city of Yogyakarta, Borobudur is located on a hill on a plain surrounded by two pairs of twin mountains; Mount Sundoro-Sumbing in the northwest and Merbabu-Merapi in the northeast, to the north there is the Tidar hill, closer to the south there is the Menoreh hills, and this temple is located near the confluence of two rivers namely the Progo River and the Elo River to the north east. According to Javanese legend, the area known as the Kedu plain is a place that is considered sacred in Javanese beliefs and is hailed as the 'Garden of the Island of Java' because of its natural beauty and soil fertility.

Three temples
Besides Borobudur, there are several Buddhist and Hindu temples in this area. During the discovery and restoration of the early 20th century other Buddhist temples were found, namely Mendut and Pawon Temples which stretched in a straight line. [15] Initially it was thought to be just a coincidence, but based on local folklore, there used to be a stone-lined road fenced by balusters on both sides connecting these three temples.

There is no physical evidence of the existence of a stone-lined and fenced highway and maybe this is just a fairy tale, but experts suspect there is indeed a unity symbolizing the three temples. These three temples (Borobudur-Pawon-Mendut) have similar architectural styles and decorative styles and indeed come from the same period which strengthens the alleged existence of ritual interrelationships between these three temples. Sacred linkages must exist, but how the process of religious pilgrimage is carried out is not yet known.

In addition to Mendut and Pawon temples, around Borobudur also found several other ancient relics, including various findings of pottery such as pots and jugs that indicate that around Borobudur there used to be some residential areas. Archaeological discoveries around Borobudur are now kept in the Karmawibhangga Borobudur Museum, which is located north of the temple next to the Samudra Raksa Museum. Not far north of Pawon Temple, ruins of the former Hindu temple called Banon Temple are found. In this temple found several statues of the main Hindu gods in a fairly good condition namely Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, and Ganesha. However, the original stone of Banon Temple was found so little that reconstruction was not possible. At the time of its discovery the Banon statues were transported to Batavia (now Jakarta) and are now kept at the National Museum of Indonesia.

Ancient lake
Unlike other temples that were built on flat land, Borobudur was built on a hill at an altitude of 265 m (870 ft) above sea level and 15 m (49 ft) above the base of an ancient lake that had dried. [16] The existence of this ancient lake became a matter of heated debate among archeologists in the 20th century; and raises the suspicion that Borobudur was built on the edge or even in the middle of the lake. In 1931, an artist and expert on Hindu Buddhist architecture, W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp, ​​proposed the theory that the Kedu Plain was once a lake, and Borobudur was built symbolizing the lotus flower floating above the surface of the lake.

Lotus in the form of lotus (red lotus), utpala (blue lotus), or kumuda (white lotus) can be found in all iconography of Buddhist religious art; often held by Bodhisattvas as laksana (symbol of regalia), as a base for sitting on a Buddhist throne or as a pedestal stupa. The architectural form of Borobudur itself resembles a lotus flower, and the Buddhist posture in Borobudur symbolizes the Lotus Sutra which is mostly found in Buddhist religious texts Mahayana schools (Buddhist schools which later spread to East Asia). Three circular courtyards at the top of Borobudur are also thought to symbolize lotus petals. [16] However, Nieuwenkamp's theory that sounds extraordinary and fantastic has drawn much objections from archeologists; on the land around this monument archaeological evidence has been found that proves that the area around Borobudur during the construction of this temple was dry land, not the base of an ancient lake.

Meanwhile, geologists actually support Nieuwenkamp's view by showing evidence of mud sediment deposition near this site. [17] A stratigraphic study, sediments and analysis of pollen samples conducted in 2000 support the existence of ancient lakes in the environment around Borobudur, [16] which reinforces Nieuwenkamp's ideas. The surface height of this ancient lake fluctuated from time to time, and evidence shows that the bottom of the hill near Borobudur was once again submerged in water and became a lake shore around the 13th and 14th centuries.

River flow and volcanic activity are thought to have contributed to changing the landscape and topography of the environment around Borobudur including its lake. One of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia is Mount Merapi, which is located quite close to Borobudur and has been active since the Pleistocene.

History Development
There is no written evidence that explains who built Borobudur and what its uses are. [19] The time of its construction is estimated based on a comparison between the types of characters written on the closed leg of Karmawibhangga and the types of scripts commonly used in royal inscriptions of the 8th and 9th centuries.

It is estimated that Borobudur was built around 800 AD. This period corresponds to the period between 760 and 830 AD, the peak period of the glory of the Syailendra dynasty in Central Java, which at that time was influenced by the Sriwijaya Empire. The construction of Borobudur is estimated to have taken more than 75-100 years and was completely completed during the reign of King Samaratungga in 825.

There is confusion about whether the king who ruled in Java at that time was Hindu or Buddhist. The Sailendra dynasty is known as a devout Mahayana Buddhist, but through the findings of the Sojomerto inscription it is possible that they were originally Hindu Shiva.

It was during this time that various Hindu and Buddhist temples were built on the Kedu Plain. Based on the Canggal Inscription, in 732 AD, the religious king Siwa Sanjaya ordered the construction of the sacred Shiwalingga building which was built in the hills of Mount Wukir, located only 10 km (6.2 miles) east of Borobudur.

Borobudur Buddhist Temple was built around the same time as the temples in the Prambanan Plain, however Borobudur is estimated to have been completed around 825 AD, twenty-five years earlier before the start of the construction of the Shiva Prambanan temple around 850 AD

The construction of Buddhist temples - including Borobudur - was possible because Sanjaya's heir, Rakai Panangkaran gave permission to Buddhists to build the temple. Even to show his respect, Panangkaran bestowed the Kalasan village to the sangha (Buddhist community), for the maintenance and financing of the Kalasan Temple which was built to glorify the Bodhisattwadewi Tara, as mentioned in the Kalasan Inscription dated to 778 AD. This clue is understood by archaeologists, that in ancient Javanese society, religion was never a problem that could lead to conflict, with an example that the Hindu king could support and fund the construction of Buddhist temples, and vice versa. [25] However, it was alleged that there was competition between the two royal dynasties of that time - the Syailendra dynasty who were Buddhist and the Sanjaya who worshiped Shiva - who later won the battle in 856 in the hills of Ratu Boko. [26] Unclearness also arises regarding the Lara Jonggrang temple in Prambanan, a magnificent temple believed to have been built by the winner Rakai Pikatan as an answer to the Sanjaya dynasty to rival the splendor of Borobudur's Syailendra, [26] but many believe that there is an atmosphere of tolerance and peaceful togetherness between the Sanjaya people these two houses, namely Sailendra, were also involved in the construction of the Shiva Temple in Prambanan.

Stages of Borobudur development
Archaeologists suspect that the initial design of Borobudur was a single large stupa which crowned its peak. Allegedly the mass of a giant stupa that is unusually large and heavy endangering the body and legs of the temple so that the architect of the Borobudur designer decided to dismantle this giant stupa and replaced it with three rows of small stupas and one main stupa as they are now. The following are the estimated stages of the Borobudur development:

    First stage: The construction period of Borobudur is not known with certainty (estimated to be 750 and 850 AD). Borobudur is built on a natural hill, the top of the hill is leveled and the flat court is expanded. Indeed Borobudur is not entirely made of andesite, the hill hill is compacted and covered with a rock structure so that it resembles a shell that encloses a dirt hill. The remainder of the hill is covered in stone structure layer by layer. Initially built-storey apartment layout. It looks like it was designed as a stepped pyramid, but was later changed. As proof there is a structure that was dismantled. Built the first three steps that cover the original structure of the pyramid terraces.

    Second stage: The addition of two square steps, a balustrade and a circular step above which a very large single stupa was immediately built.

    The third stage: There was a change in design, the steps of the circle with a single large main stupa were dismantled and replaced by three steps of the circle. Smaller stupas are built in a circle in the courtyard of the steps with a large main stupa in the middle. For some reason the foundation was widened, an additional leg was built which wrapped the original leg together with the Karmawibhangga relief. Archaeologists suspect that Borobudur was originally designed as a huge single stupa to crown a square terrace terrace. However, this large stupa is too heavy to push the structure of the building to lean outward. It is worth remembering that the core of Borobudur is only a dirt hill so that the pressure at the top will be spread to the outside of the bottom so that Borobudur is threatened by landslides and collapse. For this reason, it was decided to dismantle the large, single main stupa and replace it with circular terraces adorned with rows of small stupa and only one main stupa. To support the walls of the temple so that it does not collapse then added an additional leg structure that wraps the original leg. This structure is a reinforcement and functions like a belt that binds so that the body of the temple does not collapse and collapse out, while hiding the Karmawibhangga reliefs on the Kamadhatu

    The fourth stage: There are minor changes such as improvement of reliefs, the addition of the outer ledge fence, changes in stairs and arches over the goal gate, and widening of the toe.

Borobudur was abandoned
Borobudur was hidden and abandoned for centuries buried under layers of soil and volcanic dust which was then overgrown with trees and shrubs so that Borobudur at that time really resembled a hill. The real reason why Borobudur was abandoned is still unknown. It is not known exactly when this sacred building is no longer the center of Buddhist pilgrimage. Between 928 and 1006, Raja Mpu Sindok moved the royal capital of Medang to East Java after a series of volcanic eruptions; it cannot be ascertained whether this factor caused Borobudur to be abandoned, but some sources suspect that it is very likely that Borobudur began to be abandoned during this period. This sacred building was vaguely mentioned around 1365, by Mpu Prapanca in his script Nagarakretagama written during the Majapahit kingdom. He mentioned the existence of a "Temple in Budur". In addition, Soekmono (1976) also proposed the popular opinion that this temple began to be completely abandoned since residents around converted to Islam in the 15th century.

This monument is not completely forgotten, through the folklore of the Borobudur people, turning from being proof of past glory to a more superstitious story that is associated with bad luck, misfortune and suffering. Two Javanese Chronicles written in the 18th century mention the bad luck associated with this monument. According to the Babad Tanah Jawi (Javanese History), this monument was a fatal factor for Mas Dana, a dissident who rebelled against Pakubuwono I, king of the Sultanate of Mataram in 1709. [3] It is said that the hill "Redi Borobudur" was surrounded and the rebels were defeated and executed by the king. In the Babad Mataram (History of the Kingdom of Mataram), this monument is associated with the misfortune of Prince Monconagoro, the crown prince of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta who visited this monument in 1757. [28] Although there is a taboo that prohibits people from visiting this monument, "the Prince came and visited the warrior who was imprisoned in a cage (a Buddhist statue contained in a laying stupa)". After returning to the palace, the Prince fell ill and died a day later. In Javanese beliefs during the Islamic Mataram era, the ruins of the temple buildings were considered as a place where spirits were inhabited and considered wingit (haunted) so that it was associated with misfortune or misfortune that might befall anyone who visited and disturbed this site. Although it is scientifically suspected, maybe after this site was neglected and covered with shrubs, this place was once a hotbed of disease outbreaks such as dengue fever or malaria.

Rediscovery
After the Anglo-Dutch War in the fight over the island of Java, Java under British (British) rule from 1811 to 1816. Thomas Stamford Raffles was appointed Governor-General, and he had a special interest in Javanese history. He collected antique artifacts from ancient Javanese art and made notes about the history and culture of Java which he collected from his encounters with local people on his journey around Java. On his inspection visit in Semarang in 1814, he was informed of a large monument deep in the forest near the village of Bumisegoro. [28] Because of his absence and his duties as Governor General, he could not go alone to search for the building and sent H.C. Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate the existence of this large building. In two months, Cornelius and 200 of his subordinates cut down trees and shrubs that grow on the hill of Borobudur and clean the soil that buries this temple. Because of the threat of landslides, he was unable to dig and clean all the aisles. He reported his findings to Raffles, including submitting various sketches of the Borobudur temple. Although this discovery only mentions a few sentences, Raffles is credited with rediscovering this monument, as well as drawing world attention to the existence of this monument that has been lost.

Hartmann, an official of the Dutch East Indies government at the Kedu Residency continued Cornelius' work and in 1835 finally all parts of the building had been excavated and seen. His interest in Borobudur is more personal than his work duties. Hartmann did not write a report on his activities; in particular, it was rumored that he had found a large Buddha statue in the main stupa. [29] In 1842, Hartmann investigated the main stupa although what he discovered remained a mystery because the insides were empty.



The Dutch East Indies Government assigned F.C. Wilsen, a Dutch engineering engineer, studied the monument and drew hundreds of relief sketches. J.F.G. Brumund was also appointed to carry out a more detailed study of this monument, which he completed in 1859. The government planned to publish articles based on Brumund's research completed with Wilsen's sketches, but Brumund refused to cooperate. The Dutch East Indies government then commissioned another scientist, C. Leemans, who compiled monographs based on sources from Brumund and Wilsen. In 1873, the first monograph and more detailed research on Borobudur was published, followed by an edition translated in French a year later. [29] The first photo of this monument was taken in 1873 by Dutch engrafier, Isidore van Kinsbergen. [30]



Appreciation for this site is growing slowly. For a long time Borobudur has been a source of souvenirs and income for thieves, temple looters, and collectors of "artifact hunters". The head of the Buddha statue is the most stolen part. Because stealing all buddha statues is too heavy and large, the statue was intentionally overturned and dropped by a thief so that his head beheaded. That's why now in Borobudur there are many statues of Buddha without heads. Borobudur Buddha's head has long been the target of antique collectors and museums around the world. In 1882, the chief inspector of cultural artifacts suggested that Borobudur be completely dismantled and its reliefs moved to the museum due to unstable conditions, uncertainty and rampant theft at the monument. [30] As a result, the government appointed Groenveldt, an archeologist, to hold a thorough investigation of the site and take into account the actual conditions of this complex; the report stated that these concerns were excessive and suggested that the building be left intact and not be demolished for removal.

Parts of Borobudur temple were stolen as souvenirs, statues and carvings were hunted by antique collectors. The pillaging of this historic site was even approved by the Colonial Government. In 1896, the King of Thailand, Chulalongkorn when visiting Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) expressed his interest in owning several parts of Borobudur. The Dutch East Indies government allowed and presented eight carts full of statues and parts of the Borobudur building. Artifacts brought to Thailand include; five statues of Buddha along with 30 stones with reliefs, two statues of lions, some kala-shaped stones, stairs and gates, and the statue of guardian dwarapala that once stood on Dagi Hill - a few hundred meters northwest of Borobudur. Some of these artifacts, the lion statue and Dwarapala, are now on display at the National Museum in Bangkok.

Restoration
Borobudur again attracted attention in 1885, when Yzerman, Chair of the Archaeological Society in Yogyakarta, discovered hidden legs. [32] Photographs showing relief on hidden legs were made in the period 1890–1891. This discovery encouraged the Netherlands Indies government to take steps to preserve this monument. In 1900, the government formed a commission consisting of three officials to examine this monument: Brandes, an art historian, Theodoor van Erp, an engineer who was also a member of the Dutch army, and Van de Kamer, a building construction engineer from the Department of Public Works.

In 1902, the commission submitted the proposal of a three-step Borobudur preservation plan to the government. First, the urgent danger must be overcome immediately by rearranging the corners of the building, removing stones that endanger other stones next to it, strengthening the first ledge fence, and restoring several niches, gates, stupas and main stupas. Second, fence off the temple grounds, maintaining and improving the drainage system by improving the floor and shower. Third, all loose and loose rocks must be removed, the monument is cleaned up to the first ledge fence, damaged stones are removed and the main stupa restored. The total cost needed at that time was estimated at around 48,800 Gulden.

Restoration was carried out in 1907 and 1911, using the principle of anastilosis and led by Theodor van Erp. The first seven months were spent digging the ground around the monument to find the missing Buddha head and stone panels. Van Erp dismantled and rebuilt three circular terraces and stupas at the top. In the process Van Erp discovered many things that could be improved; he submitted another proposal which was approved with an additional budget of 34,600 guilders. Van Erp carried out further reconstruction, and he even meticulously reconstructed the chattra (umbrella stacking stone three) which crowned the peak of Borobudur. At first glance, Borobudur has recovered as in its heyday. However, the reconstruction of the Chattra uses only a few original stones and is only fabricated. Because it was deemed unaccountable for authenticity, Van Erp dismantled the chattra itself. Now the mastaka or summit of the three-storey Chattra Borobudur is stored in the Karmawibhangga Borobudur Museum.

Due to a limited budget, this restoration only focused on cleaning up statues and stones, Van Erp did not solve the problem of drainage and water management. Within 15 years, the sloping gallery walls and reliefs showed cracks and damage. [34] Van Erp used concrete which caused the formation of alkaline salt crystals and calcium hydroxide which spread throughout the building and damaged the temple stones. This caused a problem so that further renovations were needed.

Small renovations have been carried out since then, but not enough to provide complete protection. In the late 1960s, the Government of Indonesia had submitted a request to the international community for a major restoration to protect this monument. In 1973, a master plan to restore Borobudur was made. [35] The Government of Indonesia and UNESCO took steps to thoroughly repair this monument in a large project between 1975 and 1982. [34] The foundation was strengthened and all 1,460 relief panels were cleaned. This restoration was carried out by dismantling all five square terraces and improving the drainage system by implanting water channels into the monument. A filter and waterproof coating was added. This colossal project involved 600 people to restore the monument and cost a total of US $ 6,901,243. [36] After renovations, UNESCO added Borobudur to the list of World Heritage Sites in 1991. [4] Borobudur is included in the Culture criteria (i) "represents a masterpiece of genius human creativity", (ii) "displays important exchanges in human values ​​within a certain time span in a cultural area of ​​the world, in the development of architecture and technology, monumental art. , urban planning and landscape design ", and (vi)" are directly and clearly connected to a living event or tradition, with ideas or with beliefs, with artistic works and literary works that have extraordinary universal significance ".

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java
Contemporary events
After a major restoration in 1973 supported by UNESCO, [35] Borobudur again became the center of religious and Buddhist pilgrimage. Once a year during the full moon around May or June, Buddhists in Indonesia commemorate the Vesak holy day, the day that commemorates birth, death, and especially the enlightenment event of Siddhartha Gautama who attained the highest level of wisdom becoming Shakyamuni Buddha. Vesak is a national holiday in Indonesia [37] and memorial services are centered in three main Buddhist temples with a ritual walk from Mendut Temple to Pawon Temple and the procession ends at Borobudur Temple.

On January 21, 1985, nine stupas were badly damaged by nine bombs. [39] In 1991 a visually impaired Muslim preacher, Husein Ali Al Habsyie, was sentenced to life imprisonment for serving as the mastermind of a series of bomb attacks in the mid-1980s, including the attack on Borobudur Temple. [40] Two members of extreme right-wing groups were sentenced to 20 years in prison in 1986 and another received a sentence of 13 years in prison.

This monument is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia. In 1974, 260,000 tourists, 36,000 of whom were foreign tourists, visited the monument. [6] This figure increased to 2.5 million visitors each year (80% were domestic tourists) in the mid-1990s, before the 1997 Asian financial crisis. However, tourism development has been criticized for not involving the local community so that some local conflicts often occur. In 2003, residents and small-scale entrepreneurs around Borobudur held a meeting and protest with poetry reading, rejecting the provincial government's plan to build a three-story mall complex called 'Java World'.  Efforts by local people to earn a living from the tourism sector of Borobudur have increased the number of small businesses around Borobudur. However, their efforts to make a living often even disrupt the comfort of visitors. For example, street hawker merchants who interfere by insisting on selling their wares; the expansion of souvenir market stalls so that when they were about to leave the temple complex, visitors were even herded to walk a long way around to enter the labyrinth of souvenir markets. If not organized then all this makes the Borobudur temple complex more chaotic.

On May 27, 2006, a magnitude 6.2 earthquake shook the southern coast of Central Java. This natural disaster destroyed the area with the most victims in Yogyakarta, but Borobudur remained intact.

On August 28, 2006 the symposium titled Trail of Civilizations was held in Borobudur on the initiative of the Governor of Central Java and the Ministry of Tourism and Culture, also attended by UNESCO representatives and Buddhist-majority countries in Southeast Asia, such as Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The highlight of this event is the colossal dance performance "Borobudur Masterpiece" in front of Borobudur Temple. This dance was created based on traditional Javanese dance styles, gamelan music, and clothing, telling about the history of Borobudur development. After this symposium, the Borobudur Masterpiece ballet was staged again several times, especially before the Vesak warning which was usually attended by the President of the Republic of Indonesia.

UNESCO identified three important issues in Borobudur conservation efforts: (i) vandalism or destruction by visitors; (ii) soil erosion in the southeastern part of the site; (iii) analysis and return of missing parts. [43] Loose soil, several earthquakes, and heavy rain can shake this building structure. Earthquakes are the most severe factor, because not only can rocks fall and arches collapse, the ground itself moves in waves that can damage building structures. [43] The increasing popularity of stupas attracts many visitors, most of whom are Indonesian citizens. Although there are many warning boards not to touch anything, a warning announcement through loudspeakers and the presence of guards, vandalism in the form of vandalism and graffiti reliefs and statues often occur, this is clearly damaging this site. In 2009, there was no system to limit the number of tourists who could visit per day, or to implement each visit must be accompanied by a guide so that visitors are always under supervision.

Rehabilitation
Borobudur was severely affected by the eruption of Mount Merapi in October and November 2010. Volcanic dust from Merapi covered the temple complex which is 28 kilometers (17 miles) southwest-southwest of the Merapi crater. A layer of volcanic dust reaching a thickness of 2.5 centimeters (1 in) covered the temple building during the eruption of 3–5 November 2010, dust also killed nearby plants, and experts were concerned that chemically acidic volcanic dust could damage these historic building rocks. The temple complex was closed from 5 to 9 November 2010 to clean up all dust.

Observing the Borobudur rehabilitation efforts after the 2010 Merapi eruption, UNESCO has donated US $ 3 million to fund rehabilitation efforts. Cleaning the temple of volcanic ash deposits will take at least 6 months, followed by reforestation and planting trees in the surrounding environment to stabilize the temperature, and finally revive the social and economic life of the local community. More than 55,000 stone blocks of the temple must be dismantled to improve the water and drainage system which is clogged with volcanic dust mixture mixed with rain water. Restoration ended November 2011, earlier than originally thought.

Architecture
The design concept
Basically Borobudur is a stupa which when viewed from above forms a large Mandala pattern. Mandalas are intricate patterns composed of rectangles and concentric circles symbolizing the cosmos or universe commonly found in Wajrayana-Mahayana Buddhas. The ten courts owned by Borobudur clearly illustrate the philosophy of the Mahayana school which simultaneously portrays cosmology, the concept of the universe, as well as the level of the mind in Buddhist teachings. [49] Like a book, Borobudur describes the ten levels of Bodhisattva that must be passed to reach the perfection of becoming a Buddha. The base of the square plan is 123 m (400 feet) on each side. This building has nine terraces, the bottom six terraces are square and the top three are circular.

In 1885 an accidental structure was discovered at the foot of Borobudur. [32] These hidden feet have reliefs of which 160 of them are about Karmawibhangga. On this relief panel, there is a script carving which is a clue for the engraver to make a scene in the relief picture. The original leg is covered by the addition of a stone structure that forms a fairly wide courtyard, the actual function is still a mystery. Initially it was thought that the addition of this leg was to prevent the monument from sliding. [50] Another theory proposes that the addition of this leg is due to an original leg design error, and is incompatible with Wastu Sastra, the Indian book of architecture and urban planning. [32] Whatever the reason for adding this leg, the addition and manufacture of this extra leg is done carefully by considering religious, aesthetic, and technical reasons.

The three levels of the spiritual realm in Buddhist cosmology are:

Kamadhatu
The Borobudur leg symbolizes Kamadhatu, the world which is still controlled by kama or "low appetite". This section is largely covered by a pile of stones thought to be made to strengthen the construction of the temple. In the original leg section which is covered by this additional structure there are 160 panels of Karmawibhangga's story that are now hidden. A small portion of the additional structure in the southeast corner is set aside so that people can still see some relief in this section. The additional foot andesite stone structure that covers the original foot has a volume of 13,000 cubic meters.

Rupadhatu
The four porch steps that form a circular hallway on the wall are decorated with relief galleries by experts called Rupadhatu. The floor is square. Rupadhatu consists of four aisles with 1,300 relief images. The total length of relief is 2.5 km with 1,212 decorative ornate panels. Rupadhatu is a world that can free itself from lust, but is still bound by form and form. This level symbolizes nature, that is, between the lower realm and the upper realm. In this part of the Rupadhatu Buddha statues are found in niches or recesses of the wall above the balustrades or hallways. Originally there were 432 Buddha statues in open niches along the outside of the ledge fence. [2] On the ledge fence there is a slight difference in design that symbolizes the transition from the Kamadhatu realm to the Rupadhatu realm; The lowest ledge fence is crowned Ratna, while the four levels of the ledge fence above it are crowned stupika (small stupa). The rectangular terraces are rich in decoration and relief carvings.

Arupadhatu
In contrast to the hallways of Rupadhatu, which is rich in relief, from the fifth floor to the seventh wall, there is no relief. This level is called Arupadhatu (which means not tangible or intangible). Circular floor plan. This level symbolizes the upper realm, where humans are free from all desires and bonds of form and form, but have not yet reached nirvana. On the circular court there are 72 two small interlocked stupas arranged in three rows that surround a large stupa as the main stupa. These small bell-shaped stupas are arranged in 3 circular terraces, each totaling 32, 24 and 16 (a total of 72 stupas). The two lower terraces of the stupas are larger with rhombic holes, the top one of the terrace is slightly smaller and the hole is a square. Buddha statues are placed in stupas that are covered with holes like in a cage. From the outside the statues are still vaguely visible. This design cleverly explains the concept of transition to a state of being, that is, the statue of Buddha exists but is invisible.

The highest level depicts the absence of a perfect being symbolized as the largest and highest stupa. Stupa depicted plain without holes. In this largest stupa, an imperfect Buddha statue or an incomplete Buddha is also found, which is mistaken for the 'Adibuddha' statue, whereas through further research there has never been a statue in the main stupa, the incomplete statue is the sculptor's fault. in ancient times. According to the belief that the statue was wrong in the manufacturing process it should not be damaged. Archaeological excavations carried out in the courtyard of this temple found many statues like this. The main stupa which is left blank is thought to mean the highest wisdom, that is kasunyatan, silence and complete absence where the human soul is not bound by desire, desire, and form and is free from the circle of samsara.

Building structure
About 55,000 cubic meters of andesite stone were transported from the quarry and the carving area to build this monument. This stone is cut to a certain size, transported to the site and put together without using cement. The Borobudur structure does not use cement at all, but rather an interlock system, which is like lego blocks that can stick without glue. These stones are held together with the right ridges and holes and fit into each other, as well as the shape of a "dove tail" which locks two stone blocks. Relief is made at the location after the structure of the building and walls are finished.

This monument is equipped with a pretty good drainage system for areas with high rainfall. To prevent inundation and flooding, 100 showers are installed in each corner, each with a unique design in the form of a giant head of time or makara.

Borobudur is very different from other temple designs, this temple was not built on a flat surface, but on a natural hill. However, the construction technique is similar to other temples in Java. Borobudur does not have worship spaces like other temples. There are long passageways that are narrow streets. The corridors are lined with walls surrounding the temple level by level. In general, the design of Borobudur is similar to a pyramid of terraces. In these halls, Buddhists are expected to perform a walking ceremony around the temple to the right. Borobudur may initially function more as a stupa, rather than temples or temples. [51] Stupa is indeed intended as a sacred building to glorify the Buddha. Sometimes the stupa is built as a symbol of respect and glory to the Buddha. While temples or temples function more as houses of worship. The intricate design of this monument shows that this building was indeed a place of worship. The shape of the building without rooms and terraced terraces is thought to be a development of the terraced punden, which is an original architectural form from prehistoric Indonesia.

According to local legend Borobudur architect named Gunadharma, little is known about this mysterious architect. [52] His name is based more on Javanese folklore and legends and not on historical inscriptions. The legend of Gunadharma is related to folklore about the hills of Menoreh which resembles the body of a lying person. This local fairy tale tells that Gunadharma's body lying down turned into the Menoreh hills, of course this legend is only fiction and fairy tales.

Borobudur design uses a tuning measuring unit, which is the length of the human face between the tip of the hairline on the forehead to the tip of the chin, or the distance between the tip of the thumb and the tip of the pinky finger when the palm is fully developed. [53] Of course this unit is relative and varies slightly between individuals, but this unit remains in this monument. Research in 1977 revealed a 4: 6: 9 ratio found in this monument. Architects used this formula to determine the exact dimensions of a self-similar repeating geometry fractal in the Borobudur design. This mathematical ratio is also found in the design of Mendut and Pawon temples nearby. Archaeologists believe that the 4: 6: 9 ratio and tuning units have the function and meaning of dating, astronomy, and cosmology. The same thing applies at the Angkor Wat temple in Cambodia.

Building structures can be divided into three parts: the base (feet), the body, and the apex. [52] The base measures 123 × 123 m (403.5 × 403.5 ft) with a height of 4 m (13 ft). [51] The body of the temple consists of five smaller terrace squares that are getting smaller on it. The first terrace retreats 7 m (23 ft) from the bottom end of the terrace. Each subsequent terrace retreated 2 m (6.6 ft), leaving a narrow passage at each level. The upper part consists of three circular terraces, each level supporting a row of interlocked stupas arranged concentrically. There is the largest main stupa in the middle; with shoots reaching 35 m (110 ft) from the ground. Borobudur's original height, including the chattra (three-tiered umbrella) that is now released, is 42 m (140 ft). The stairs are located in the middle of the four sides of the compass that take visitors to the top of the monument through a series of arched gates guarded by 32 lion statues. The gate's gate is decorated with Kala carvings on the top of the middle of the door and makara carvings protruding on both sides. The Kala-Makara motif is commonly found in the architecture of temple doors in Java. The main door is located on the east side, as well as a starting point to read the story of relief. These straight stairs continue to be connected with a ladder on the hillside that connects the temple to the surrounding plains.

Relief
On the walls of the temple at every level - except for the Arupadhatu terraces - bas-relief panels are carved with a very meticulous and delicate. [55] Relief and decorative patterns of Borobudur in a naturalist style with ideal proportions and subtle aesthetic tastes. These reliefs are very beautiful, even considered as the most elegant and elegant in the world of Buddhist art. [56] Borobudur Relief also applies the discipline of Indian art, such as various postures that have a certain meaning or aesthetic value. Reliefs in the form of noble human beings such as ascetics, kings and aristocratic women, angels or creatures who attain the degree of purity like gods, such as tara and boddhisatwa, are often depicted with the position of the tribhanga body. This body position is called the "triple curve", which is a curve or a slight incline in the neck, hips and ankles with the body weight only resting on one leg, while the rest of the foot is bent resting. This flexible body position implies elegance, for example the figure of Surasundari nymph who stands in a tribhanga gesture while holding a long-stemmed lotus. 

Borobudur Relief displays many images; such as human figures both aristocrats, commoners, or ascetics, various plants and animals, as well as displaying traditional vernacular building forms of the archipelago. Borobudur is like a book that records various aspects of the life of ancient Javanese society. Many archaeologists have examined past life in ancient Java and the 8th and 9th centuries of the archipelago by examining and referring to the relief carvings of Borobudur. The shape of houses on stilts, barns, palaces and temples, forms of jewelry, clothing and weapons, various plants and wildlife, and means of transportation, were examined by researchers. One of them is the famous relief depicting Borobudur Ship. [58] The archipelago's unique wooden ship shows archaeological marine culture. An ark replica based on the Borobudur reliefs is stored at the Samudra Raksa Museum located north of Borobudur.

These reliefs are read in a clockwise direction or called mapradaksina in Old Javanese derived from Sanskrit daksina which means east. These reliefs vary the contents of the story, including the reliefs of the jataka story. The reading of these relief stories always begins, and ends at the east side gate at each level, starting at the left and ending at the right of the gate. So it is obvious that the east is the actual ascending (main) ladder and leading to the top of the temple, meaning that the temple faces east even though the other sides are identical.

The composition and distribution of story reliefs on the walls and railings of the temple ledge are as follows.

Relief Chart
Level of Position Relief Number of Frames
The foot of the original temple ----- Karmawibhangga 160
Level I walls a. Lalitawistara 120
b. jataka / awadana 120
ledge a. jataka / awadana 372
b. jataka / awadana 128
Level II Gandawyuha wall 128
jataka ledge / awadana 100
Level III Gandawyuha 88 wall
Gandawyuha ledge 88
Level IV Gandawyuha 84 wall
Gandawyuha 72 ledge

Total 1460
In sequence, the story in the temple relief is briefly meaningful as follows:

Karmawibhangga
In accordance with the symbolic meaning at the foot of the temple, the reliefs that adorn the veiled walls of the veil illustrate the law of karma. Karmawibhangga is a text describing the teachings on karma, the cause and effect of good and evil deeds. The relief row is not a serial story, but in each frame depicts a story that has a causal relationship. The relief not only gives a description of human despicable acts accompanied by the punishment to be obtained, but also the good deeds of humans and rewards. Overall it is a depiction of human life in a never-ending cycle of life-life-death (samsara), and it is by Buddhism that the chain will be terminated to perfection. Now only the southeast is open and can be seen by visitors. Complete photos of Karmawibhangga reliefs can be witnessed at the Karmawibhangga Museum on the north side of Borobudur temple.

Lalitawistara
It is a depiction of the Buddha's history in a row of reliefs (but not a complete history) that starts from the descent of the Buddha from the Tushita heaven, and ends with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras. These reliefs are lined up from the stairs on the south side, after exceeding the reliefs of 27 frames starting from the east side stairs. The 27 frames represent a flurry of activity, both in heaven and in the world, as preparation for welcoming the final incarnation of the Bodhisattva as a future Buddha. The reliefs describe the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha, son of King Suddhodana and Empress Maya of the Land of Kapilawastu. The reliefs numbered 120 frames, which ended with the first lecture, symbolically stated as the Spinning Wheel of the Dharma, the teaching of the Buddha called dharma which also means "law", while the dharma is symbolized as a wheel.

Jataka and Awadana
The Jatakas are various stories about the Buddha before being born Prince Siddharta. Its contents are the main features of good deeds, such as self-sacrificing and helpful attitudes that distinguish the Bodhisattva from any other creature. Some Jataka stories feature fable stories, which are stories that involve animal characters who behave and think like humans. In fact, the collection of merit or good deeds is a stage of preparation in an effort to reach the level of Buddhahood.

While Awadana, basically almost the same as the Jataka but the culprit is not the Bodhisattva, but other people and the story is compiled in the Diwyawadana which means noble deeds of deity, and the Awadanasataka book or a hundred Awadana stories. In the reliefs of the Borobudur Jataka and Awadana temples, they are treated equally, meaning that they are in the same row without distinction. The most famous set of the Bodhisattva's life is the Jatakamala or Jataka story chain, the work of poet Aryasura who lived in the 4th century AD.

Gandawyuha
A series of reliefs adorning the walls of the second hallway, is the story of Sudhana who travels tirelessly in his quest for the Ultimate Knowledge of True Truth by Sudhana. The description in 460 frames is based on the Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha, and for the closing part is based on the story of another book, Bhadracari.

Buddha statue
In addition to the Buddhist forms in Buddhist cosmology engraved on the walls, in Borobudur there are many Buddha statues sitting cross-legged in lotus positions and displaying mudras or certain symbolic hand gestures. This 1.5 meter high Buddha statue was carved from andesite stone.

Buddha statues in the recesses at Rupadhatu level, arranged according to rows on the outside of the ledge fence. The amount is decreasing on the upper side. The first line of balustrades consists of 104 niches, the second row is 104 niches, the third row is 88 niches, the fourth row is 72 niches, and the fifth row is 64 niches. There are a total of 432 Buddhist statues at the Rupadhatu level. [1] In the Arupadhatu (three circular courtyards), Buddha statues are placed inside perawang (hollow) stupas. On the first circular court there are 32 stupas, the second court has 24 stupas, and the third court has 16 stupas, all totaling 72 stupas. Of the original 504 statues of Buddha, more than 300 have been damaged (mostly without heads) and 43 have been lost (since the discovery of this monument, the head of the Buddha is often stolen as collections, mostly by foreign museums).

At first glance all these Buddha statues look similar, but there are subtle differences between them, namely in the mudra or hand posture position. There are five groups of mudras: North, East, South, West and Central, all of which are based on the five main directions of the compass according to Mahayana teachings. The four balustrades have four mudras: North, East, South, and West, where each Buddha statue facing that direction displays a typical mudra. The Buddha statue on the fifth ledge fence and the Buddha statue in 72 stupa lay on the upper court displaying the mudra: Middle or Central. Each mudra symbolizes the five Dhyani Buddhas; each with its own symbolic meaning.

Following the Pradakshina sequence, which is the movement around the clockwise direction starting from the east side, the mudra of Buddha statues in Borobudur are:

The Arca Mudra Symbolizes Dhyani Buddha Direction of the Wind Direction Location of the Statue

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Boeddhabeeld van de Borobudur TMnr 10016277.jpg Bhumisparsa mudra Calling the earth as witness Aksobhya Timur Niche on railing ledge 4 lines first row Rupadhatu east side

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Boeddhabeeld van de Borobudur TMnr 60013976.jpg Wara mudra Generosity of Ratnasambhawa Selatan The niches on the railings of the first 4 rows ledge Rupadhatu south side

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Boeddhabeeld van de Borobudur voorstellende Dhyani Boeddha Amitabha TMnr 10016276.jpg Dhyana mudra Semadi or Western Amitabha meditation The niches on the railing of the first 4 rows of the Rupadhatu west side

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Boeddhabeeld van de Borobudur voorstellende Dhyani Boeddha Amogasiddha TMnr 10016274.jpg Abhaya mudra Indecency of North Amoghasiddhi The niches on the railing of the first 4 rows ledge Rupadhatu north side

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Boeddhabeeld van de Borobudur voorstellende Dhyani Boeddha Vairocana TMnr 10015947.jpg Witarka mudra The mind of the Middle Wairocana The niches on the railings of the fifth (top) ledge of Rupadhatu all sides

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Boeddhabeeld van de Borobudur TMnr 60019836.jpg Dharmachakra mudra Spinning dharma wheel Middle Wairocana Inside 72 stupas in 3 circular terraces Arupadhatu

Overview of the process of restoration of the Borobudur Temple

    1814 - Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom on Java, hears of the discovery of ancient objects in the village of Borobudur. Raffles ordered H.C. Cornelius to investigate the location of the discovery, in the form of a hill filled with shrubs.

    1873 - first monograph on the temple is published.

    1900 - Dutch East Indies government establishes a committee to restore and maintain Borobudur temple.

    1907 - Theodoor van Erp led the restoration until 1911.

    1926 - Borobudur is restored, but stopped in 1940 due to the malaise crisis and World War II.

    1956 - The Indonesian government requests the assistance of UNESCO. Prof. Dr. C. Coremans came to Indonesia from Belgium to investigate the causes of Borobudur damage.

    1963 - The Indonesian government issues a decree to restore Borobudur, but falls apart after the movement of the movement.

    1968 - At the 15th conference in France, UNESCO agrees to provide assistance to save Borobudur.

    1971 - The Indonesian government forms the Borobudur restoration body chaired by Prof.Ir.Roosseno.

    1972 - International Consultative Committee is formed by involving various countries and Roosseno as its chairman. The UNESCO-sponsored committee provided US $ 5 million from the restoration fee of US $ 7,750 million. The rest is borne by Indonesia.

August 10, 1973 - President Soeharto inaugurated the restoration of Borobudur; restoration was completed in 1984

    January 21, 1985 - a bomb attack that destroyed several stupas at Borobudur Temple which was then immediately repaired again. The attack was carried out by an extremist Islamic group led by Husein Ali Al Habsyi.

    1991 - Borobudur is declared a World Heritage by UNESCO.

Sumber : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borobudur

Foto : Istimewa

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