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Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

Candi Bahal - Year 1030 AD

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - FM Schinitger is a German archeologist who conducted research in the temple complex in 1935 based on the Tanjore Tablet which uses Tamil Language, and is said to have been built by King Coladewa of South India in 1030 AD

Bahal Temple is located in Bahal Village, Padang Bolak District, South Tapanuli Regency, North Sumatra, which is about 3 hours drive from Padangsidempuan.

This temple is the largest temple complex (in local terms called biaro) in the province of North Sumatra, because the area encompasses the Bahal I, Bahal II and Bahal III Temple complexes.

The Bahal Temple is only part of the Padanglawas temple which means the temples are located in a vast field that includes, among others: Pulo Temple, Barumun Temple, Singkilon Temple, Sipamutung Temple, Aloban Temple, Rondaman Dolok Temple, Bara Temple, Magaledang Temple , Sitopayan Temple and Nagasaribu Temple.

Possibly, the rice fields and villages around the temples were a vast field. Of the many Padanglawas temples, only Bahal Temple has been renovated, Sipamutung Temple and Pulo Temple are in the process of renovation, while other temples are still in ruins.

It is not known whether the Bahal Temple is a Hindu temple or a Buddhist Temple. Judging from the roof of the Bahal I Temple which is similar to the shape of the roof of the Mahligai Temple in Muara Takus (Riau) it is suspected that the Bahal Temple is a Buddhist Temple. However, seeing the stone statues found in the place, such as the makara head statue, the Ganesha statue, the giant, etc., it is estimated that this temple is a Hindu or Tantrayana Buddhist temple. The function of the Bahal temple in the past is also not known with certainty, although residents around it call it "biaro" which means monastery.

The Bahal Temple Complex consists of three temples, each of which is separated by a distance of about 500 meters. A few kilometers from this temple there are also other temple complexes, the Pulo or Barumun Temple complex which is being restored.

The Bahal Temple is often referred to as the Portibi Temple, in accordance with the designation for the area where the temple is located. In some ways, there are similarities between the Bahal I, II and III Temples. All buildings in the three temple complexes are made of red brick, except for the statues made of hard stone. Each temple complex is surrounded by a fence as high and about 1 m thick which is also made of red brick arrangement. On the east side there is a gate that protrudes out and on either side of it is flanked by a wall about 60 cm high. In each temple complex there is a main building located in the middle of the courtyard with the entrance directly facing the gate.

Bahal I
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The location of Bahal I Temple is easy to find because the temple building is directly visible from the road that can be passed by four-wheeled vehicles. In addition, at the entrance to the Bahal I temple area, a gate was built and a security post located not far from the gate.

Faced with the guard post there is a building that functions as a museum. In the museum are stored parts of the Bahal Temple which cannot be returned to its original place, including a whole statue and a piece of statue.
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Bahal 1 Temple was built in a court area of ​​around 3000 m2 surrounded by a fence made of 60 cm tall red stone. The fence wall is quite thick, which is about 1 m, so people can walk freely around the temple. In the middle of the east side, the courtyard wall widens, forming a floor that protrudes about 7 m to the outside of the temple courtyard. Walls about 70 cm high flank the right and left sides of the floor to the limit of the stairs located at the end of the left and right side of the gate.

The main building of Bahal I Temple is located in the middle of the courtyard, facing the gate. Between the main building and the gate there is a foundation or a square-shaped platform measuring about 7 x 7 m2. The stairs up to the stage made of red stone are on the east side, facing the stairs going up to the main building, and on the west side of the stage, facing the stairs to go down from the gate.

In the southern part of the yard, parallel to the foundation mentioned above, lined two foundations measuring 3 m2 and 2.5 m2. No information was obtained whether on the three foundations there was a building or not. Also unknown is the third function.

The main building of Bahal I Temple is the biggest compared to the main building of Bahal II and II Temples. The main building consists of the arrangement of placemat, legs, body and roof of the temple. The base of the temple base is around 7 m2 with a height of about 180 cm.
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At the base of the stand stands 75 cm tall temple, with a square floor plan of 6 m2. The wide difference of the mat's base and temple legs form a corridor around the temple's foot. In the middle of the east side, right in front of the stairs going up to the foot of the temple surface, the base of the temple protrudes outward for about 4 m and a width of about 2 m. At the end of the 'road' is a ladder flanked by a pair of makara heads at the base.

Makara is an animal that only exists in myth, in the form of half fish and half crocodile. The mouth of the stone makara head statue is wide open. In the open mouth there is a creature that is similar to kinara-kinari, which is a human-headed bird, as found in the Shiva temples on Java.

Although both are made of stone, the statue of the makara flanking stairs has a different decorative pattern than that found in temples in Java in general. The back of the animal's head is adorned with a lined circle carving, which is not found in makara temples on Java.
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Along the north and south sides of the 'road' wall to the mat there are carved figures in various positions. Although many parts of the sculpture have been damaged, there are still forms of people who look like they are dancing. Along the east side or the front of the mat there is a giant shaped sculpture that is sitting.

On the north and south walls of the temple there are no sculptures, while along the western wall (back) there are finer sculptures but the shape is no longer clear.

The body of the temple is in the form of a rectangular building with a square base of 5 m2. The difference in the area of ​​the temple's body with the surface of the temple's foot forms a width of about 1 m. To reach the entrance to the room inside the body of the temple there is a ladder as high as about 60 cm from the surface of the temple's foot. In the body of the temple there is an empty room measuring about 3 m2 surrounded by a wall about 1 m thick. The width of the entrance threshold is around 120 x 250 cm. There are no sculptures that adorn the door frame.

The shape of the roof of the Bahal I Temple is very unique, it does not resemble the pyramid like the temples in East Java, but it also does not resemble a stupa like the roof of the Muara Takus Temple. The shape of the roof of the Bahal I Temple is cylindrical with a height of about 2.5 m, like a cake placed on a rectangular placemat. Carved strands of flowers encircle the edges of the roof.
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Still in the courtyard of the Bahal I Temple, in the north corner of the backyard of the main building there is a foundation measuring about 2.5 m2 with ruins on it. No information was obtained about the original form and original function of the ruins.

Bahal II
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The Bahal II Temple is located about 100 m from the road and about 300 m from the Bahal I Temple. The grounds of the Bahal II Temple are as extensive as the Bahal I Temple yard and are also surrounded by a brick fence, but the main building size is smaller than the main building of the Bahal I Temple.

 As found in Bahal 1 Temple, in the middle of the east side, the courtyard wall widens, forming a floor that protrudes about 4 m to the outside of the temple courtyard. A wall about 70 cm tall flanks the right and left sides of the floor to the boundary of the stairs which are on the east (outer) side.

The main building of Bahal II Temple consists of the structure of the placemat, legs, body and roof of the temple. The base of the temple base is around 6 m2 and about 1 m high. At the base of the stand stands 75 cm tall, with a 5 square square floor plan. The wide difference of the mat's base and temple legs form a corridor around the temple's foot.
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The body of the temple that stands on the base of the temple's feet is square, covering an area of ​​4 m2, so that on the surface of the temple's foot there is also a corridor as wide as about 1 m.

In the body of Bahal II Temple there is also an empty room measuring about 3 m2, surrounded by a wall about 1 m thick. The entrance is about 120 x 250 cm wide facing east without any decorative carvings on the frame.

Placemat walls, temple legs and body are also plain without sculptured decorations. The roof of the Bahal II Temple is in the shape of a pyramid with a square top. Around the top array there are rows of holes whose function is unknown.

In front of the base of the main building stairs there is a pair of makara heads with open mouths. In the mouth there is a creature whose form is unclear. Although both are made of stone, the head of the makara is different in shape from the one in front of the main building of Bahal I Temple.

Between the main building and the gate there is a foundation or a square-shaped platform about 5 m2 in size. The stairs up to the stage made of red stone are found in the north and south.

In the north corner of the backyard of the main building there is a kind of foundation that has collapsed. On the east side of the foundation there is another kind of foundation that has stairs to climb on two sides, namely the north and south sides. In front of each ladder there is a statue of a makara chief whose position is facing the stairs. Near the foundation littered with pieces of stone statues.

Bahal III

Candi Bahal II is located about 100 m from the road, but to reach the location of Bahal III Temple one has to go through footpaths, rice fields and residents housing. There are many similarities between the Bahal III Temple and the other two Bahal Temples. The temple grounds which are relatively similar in size are also surrounded by brick fences of the same thickness and height. The gate to enter the yard is also located on the east side. Similar to the main building of Bahal III Temple which is located in the middle of the court. The Bahal III Temple Gate is more similar to the Bahal I Temple gate, because the stairs going up to the gate are located on the north and south sides. The stairs at the gate of the Bahal II Temple are located to the east.
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Between the main building and the gate there is also a foundation or a square-shaped platform about 5 m2 in size. The stairs up to the stage made of red stone are found in the north and south.

The size and shape of the main building of Bahal III Temple is very similar to the main building of Bahal II Temple. The entrance to the room in the body of the temple is also located in the east.

There are no carvings on the door frame, but along the placemat wall decorated with carvings with motifs that resemble flowers. There are no sculptures on all four sides of the temple's body walls. There are no sculptures on all four sides of the temple's body walls.

The roof of the Bahal II Temple is in the shape of a pyramid with a square top. Similar to the roof of the Bahal II Temple, but there is no row of holes on the roof of this temple.

There is no makara headdress in front of the stairs going up to the hallway on the surface of the placemat, but there is a sculpture that is less clear in shape on the cheek of the stairs at the foot of the temple.

In the north of the main building there is a piece of stone statue. The one shaped like a placemat with ornamental lotus petals around it, similar to those found in Jago Temple and Singasari Temple in East Java. While the other pieces look like the legs of a statue made in a standing position, because at the bottom there is the shape of the foot, complete with fingers.

Bahal Museum

The Bahal Temple Museum is located opposite the Bahal I Temple guard post. The building of this museum is similar to an ordinary house building. In the museum are stored various forms and types of parts of the Bahal temples which are still unknown, or which, for some reason, cannot be returned to their original place.
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In the museum also carried out reconstruction of pieces and arrangement of stone and brick to rediscover the shape, arrangement and its original location. Pieces of stone found at the three sites of the Bahal Temple are generally part of a statue or decoration and are not ruins of buildings that are generally made of bricks.

Among the objects stored and undergoing a process of reconstruction in the museum are giant statues in a standing position while carrying a club. In addition there is also a collection of bricks that have holes, said to be animal footprints. This collection of bricks was found in 2000 in the courtyard of Bahal I Temple.

Much can be seen in this museum. Unfortunately this museum is not routinely opened to the public. There are not always officers who can be found. from the officers who were also met with not much information that could be obtained.

Source:

  • https://daerah.sindonews.com/read/1332905/29/candi-bahal-portibi-peningg-sriwijaya-di-sumatera-utara-1535120651
  • http://candi.pnri.go.id/sumatra/index.htm



Photo: Special

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