Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Singasri Temple - Year 1300 AD

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Singasari Temple is located in Desa Renggo Village, Singosari District, Malang Regency, approximately 9 Km from Malang city to Surabaya.

This temple is also known as Candi Cungkup or Menara Temple, a name that indicates that Singasari Temple was the highest temple of its time, at least compared to other temples around it. However, currently in the Singasari area only the Singasari temple remains, while the other temples have disappeared without a trace.

Exactly when Singasari Temple was established is still unknown, but archaeologists estimate the temple was built around 1300 AD, as an offering to honor King Kertanegara of Singasari.

There are at least two temples in East Java that were built to honor King Kertanegara, namely Jawi Temple and Singasari Temple. Like Jawi Temple, Singasari Temple is also a Syiwa temple. This can be seen from the presence of several Syiwa statues in the temple courtyard.

Singasari Temple building is located in the middle of the yard. The body of the temple stands on a foot plate height of about 1.5 m, without any decoration or relief at the foot of the temple. The stairs going up to the hall at the foot of the temple are not flanked by the cheek stairs with makara decorations like those found in other temples.

The entrance to the room in the center of the temple's body faces south, located on the front side of the viewer booth (a small chamber that jutted forward). This entrance looks simple without a frame decorated with sculptures.

Above the doorway there is a Kala head carving which is also very simple sculpture. The existence of some very simple sculptures and reliefs raises the suspicion that the construction of Singasari Temple has not yet been completely completed.

To the left and right of the door of the cubicle, slightly to the back, there is a niche where the statue is. The threshold of the niche is also without frame and Kala's headdress. Similar niches are also found on the other three sides of the body of Singasari Temple. The recesses are larger in size, equipped with a viewer booth and above the threshold there is a simple Kala headdress. In the middle of the main room there is a broken Yoni at the top. Yoni's legs also don't have any sculpture.

At a glance the building of Singasari Temple looks as if it is two-tiered, because the lower part of the temple's roof is square, resembling a small room with niches on each side. It seems that these niches originally contained statues, but now the four of them are empty. On top of each niche 'doorway' there is a Kala headdress with sculptures that are more complicated than those above the entryway and niches on the temple's body. The top of the roof itself is in the form of a stacking structure, getting smaller and smaller. Most of the roof top looks collapsed.

Singasari Temple was restored by the Dutch government in the 1930s, seen from sculptured notes at the foot of the temple. However, it seems that the restoration work has not been comprehensive, because around the courtyard the temple is still lined with piles of stones that have not been successfully returned to their original place.

In the Singasari Temple courtyard there are also a number of statues, most of which are damaged or incomplete, including Syiwa statues in various positions and sizes, Durga, and Lembu Nandini.

About 300 m to the west of Singasari Temple, after going through a fairly dense settlement, there are two statues of Dwarapala, a giant gatekeeper, in a very large size. It is said that the weight of each statue reaches a weight of 40 tons, the height reaches 3.7 m, while the largest body circumference reaches 3.8 m. The location of the two statues is about 20 m apart (now separated by a highway).
According to Dwi Cahyono, an archeologist from the State University of Malang (UM), the two Dwarapala statues originally faced east, namely in the direction of Singasari Temple, but currently the statue on the south side has changed its direction facing slightly northeast. The change in direction occurs when the removal from the ground. Until the late 1980s the statue on the south side was still buried in the ground to the extent of the breast. Behind the statue in the south there is the ruins of stone buildings that look like walls. It is suspected that these two statues are the gatekeepers of the entrance to the palace of King Kertanegara (1268-1292) which are located to the west (behind) the two statues.

Legend around the Singasari Dynasty

Some temples in East Java, especially those located around the city of Malang, have close historical links with the Singasari Kingdom. The Singasari Dynasty is a descendant of Ken Dedes with her two husbands, Tunggul Ametung akuwu (head of the sub-district level government) Tumapel and Ken Arok, the common people who killed, took power, and at the same time captured the wife of Tunggul Ametung.

The history of the Singasari Kingdom gave birth to a legend about the kris made by Mpu Gandring, which was very well-known among the people of East Java. According to legend, Ken Arok was the son of a mistress of a Panawijen Village woman, named Ken Endog, with Batara Brahma. Shortly after birth, the baby Ken Arok was dumped by his mother in a cemetery, then found and brought home by an accomplished thief. From this adoptive father, Ken Arok learned about all the tactics and tactics of gambling, theft and robbery. As an adult he was known as a very feared robber in the Tumapel region. One time Ken Arok became acquainted with a brahman named Lohgawe who advised him to leave his black world. At Lohgawe's encouragement, Ken Arok stopped being a robber and then served as a Tumapel soldier.

At that time, what became the aqueduct in Tumapel, Kediri Kingdom, was Tunggul Ametung. Sang Akuwu married Ken Dedes, daughter of Mpu Purwa who lived in Panawijen. From the marriage was born a son named Anusapati. One day, Ken Dedes returned to Panawijen to visit his father. When Ken Dedes got off the royal carriage, a strong wind blew to reveal the bottom of his long cloth. At that time, Ken Arok who was in charge of escorting the Ken Dedes train had a glimpse of the calf of the wife of the Tunggul Ametung. In Ken Arok's eyes, Ken Dedes's calf radiated a dazzling light. The view did not want to disappear from the mind of Ken Arok. He then asked that to MPU Purwa. The Mpu explained that the light that Ken Arok saw was a sign that Ken Dedes was destined as a woman who would bring down kings in Java.

Ken Arok then ordered a keris to a Mpu in Tumapel named Mpu Gandring. To make a keris that can be relied on for its efficacy, it takes quite a long time to forge, shape and perform the necessary rituals. Because the ordered keris was never finished, Ken Arok became very angry. He seized the unfinished keris and then stabbed it in the body of the maker. Towards his end, Mpu Gandring cursed that Ken Arok would die at the end of the same kris and that the kris would claim seven lives.

The kris made by Mpu Gandring was lent by Ken Arok to his friend who had a showing off character, namely Kebo Ijo. Kebo Ijo showed the kris to his fellow soldiers and said that the kris was his. After many people knew that the kris belonged to Kebo Ijo, ken Arok then stole it and used it to stab Tunggul Ametung. Automatically the accusation fell on Kebo Ijo, while Ken Arok succeeded in replacing Tunggul Ametung's position as Akuwu and married Ken Dedes.

After succeeding in becoming Akuwu, Ken Arok then conquered the Kingdom of Kediri, which was then ruled by the King who was then ruled by King Kertajaya (1191-1222), and founded the Kingdom of Singasari. He named himself the first king of Singasari with the title Rajasa Bathara the Amurwabhumi. From Ken Dedes, Ken Arok was a son, named Mahisa Wongateleng, while from Ken Umang he also got a son named Tohjaya. Mpu Gandring's curse came into force. Ken Arok was killed and replaced by Anusapati. Anusapati was killed and replaced by Tohjaya. Tohjaya was killed and replaced by Ranggawuni, Anusapati's son. Ranggawuni was then crowned king with the title Jayawisnuwardhana and ruled Singasari from 1227 to 1268. Jayawisnuwardhana was succeeded by his son, Joko Dolog who had the title Kertanegara (1268-1292).

Kertanegara is the last King of Singasari. His government was overthrown by Raja Kediri, Jayakatwang. But Jayakatwang was defeated by Kertanegara's son-in-law named Raden Wijaya. Raden Wijaya who is a descendant of Mahisa Wongateleng and Raja Udayana in Bali then established the Majapahit kingdom with a central government in Tarik (Trowulan).


Photo: Special

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture