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Candi Jawi - Year 1331 AD

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Jawi Temple is located at the foot of G. Welirang, precisely in Candi Wates Village, Prigen District, Pasuruan Regency, about 31 km from the town of Pasuruan.

The temple building can be said to be still intact because it has been repeatedly renovated. Jawi Temple was restored for the second time in 1938-1941 from its collapsed condition.

However, the renovation could not be completed because many stones were lost and only completed in 1975-1980.

In the State of Religious Affairs 56 it is mentioned that the Jawi Temple was established by order of the last king of the Singasari Kingdom, Kertanegara, for a place of worship for Shiva-Buddhist religious people.

Raja Kartanegara is an adherent of the teachings of Shiva Buddha. Aside from being a place of worship, Jawi Temple is also a storage place for Kertanegara's ashes. This is indeed rather surprising, because the location of Jawi Temple is quite far from the center of Singasari Kingdom. It was suspected that this was caused by the people in this area being very loyal to the king and many who followed the Shiva-Buddhist teachings.

This suspicion is based on the fact that when Raden Wijaya, King Kertanegara's son-in-law, escaped after Kertanegara was dropped by Raja Jayakatwang from the Bracelets (Kediri area), he briefly hid in this area, before finally fleeing to Madura.

Jawi Temple occupies a fairly large area, around 40 x 60 m2, which is surrounded by a 2 m high brick fence. The temple building is surrounded by a moat currently decorated by lotus flowers. The height of this temple is around 24.5 meters with a length of 14.2 m and a width of 9.5 m.

The shape is slender high like the Prambanan Temple in Central Java with a roof that is a blend of stupas and tiled cube at the top.

The position of Jawi Temple facing east, facing Mount Pananggungan, reinforces the assumption of some experts that this temple is not a place of worship, because temples for worship generally face towards the mountain, a place where God dwells. Some other experts still believe that the Jawi Temple serves as a place of worship. The position of the door that does not face the mountain is considered as a result of the influence of Buddhism.

One of the uniqueness of the Jawi Temple is the stone used as building material consists of two types. From the foot to the hall of the temple was built using dark stone, the body of the temple uses white stone, while the roof of the temple uses a mixture of dark and white stones.

It is suspected that this temple was built in two periods of construction. Negarakertagama says that in 1253 Saka (candrasengkala: Fire Archery Day) Candi Jawi was struck by lightning. In that incident the statue of Maha Aksobaya disappeared. The loss of the statue had made King Hayam Wuruk sad when the king visited Jawi Temple.

A year after being struck by lightning, Jawi Temple was rebuilt. At this time it is estimated that the use of white stones. The use of white stone also invites questions, because what is found in the G. Welirang area is mostly dark colored stones. It is possible that the stones were imported from the north coast of Java or Madura.

The foot of the temple stands on the batur (foot of the temple) as high as about 2 m with relief sculpture that contains the story of a female ascetic. The stairs that go up are not too wide right in front of the entrance to the garba grha (space in the body of the temple). Intricate sculptures fill the left and right cheeks of the stairs leading to the hallway. While the cheek stairs from the hall to the temple floor are decorated with a pair of long-eared animal statues.
Around the body of the temple there is a fairly wide hallway. The door frame is plain without sculptures, but above the doorway there is a kalamakara carving, complete with a pair of fangs, lower jaw, and ornaments in his hair, filling the space between the top of the door and the roof base. On the left and the door there is a small niche where the statue is placed. Above the threshold of each niche there is a sculptured and horned creature's head.

The room in the temple's body is currently empty. It seems that there was originally a statue in it. Negarakertagama states that in the temple's chamber there is a statue of Shiva with Aksobaya on its crown.

In addition, there are also mentioned a number of statues of gods in the beliefs of Shiva, such as the statues of Mahakala and Nandiswara, Durga, Ganesha, Nandi, and Brahma. None of these statues are still in place. It is said that the Durga statue is now kept in the Empu Tantular Museum, Surabaya.

The outer wall of the temple's body is decorated with reliefs which until now have not been able to read it. Maybe because the sculpture is too thin. It might also be due to lack of supporting information, such as from inscriptions or texts.

The Negarakertagama book which tells this temple in sufficient detail does not even mention the relief. According to the temple's caretaker, the relief must be read using prasawiya techniques (counterclockwise), as used in reading reliefs in the Kidal Temple. Still according to the temple caretaker, reliefs carved on the western edge of the north wall illustrate a map of the temple area and the surrounding area.

Between the backyard of the temple which is quite wide and neatly arranged with residents' villages limited by a small river. In the south corner of the court there are ruins of buildings made of red brick. It looks like the building was a gate, but no information can be obtained about its original form and function.


Photo: Special

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