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Prambanan Temple - Year 850 AD

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Prambanan Temple or Rara Jonggrang Temple is the largest Hindu temple complex in Indonesia that was built in the 9th century AD. This temple is dedicated to Trimurti, the three main Hindu deities namely Brahma as the creator god, Wishnu as the guardian god, and Shiva as the god of destruction.

Based on the Siwagrha inscription the original name of this temple complex is Siwagrha (meaning Sanskrit language: 'Shiva's House'), and indeed in the garbagriha (main room) this temple is housed in a three meter tall Shiva Mahadewa statue which shows that in this temple the Shiva god is preferred.

This temple is located in the village of Prambanan, on the island of Java, approximately 20 kilometers east of Yogyakarta, 40 kilometers west of Surakarta and 120 kilometers south of Semarang, right on the border between the province of Central Java and the Special Region of Yogyakarta. [1] Rara Jonggrang Temple is located in the village of Prambanan whose territory is divided between Sleman and Klaten districts.

This temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia, as well as one of the most beautiful temples in Southeast Asia. The architecture of this building is tall and slender in accordance with Hindu architecture in general with the Shiva temple as the main temple having a height reaching 47 meters rising in the middle of a complex cluster of smaller temples. As one of the grandest temples in Southeast Asia, Prambanan temple is an attraction for tourists from all over the world.

According to the Siwagrha inscription, this temple began to be built around 850 AD by Rakai Pikatan, and continues to be developed and expanded by Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Medang kingdom of Mataram.

Prambanan is the biggest and grandest Hindu temple ever built in ancient Java, the construction of the royal Hindu temple was started by Rakai Pikatan as a counterpoint to the Borobudur Buddhist temple and also Sewu temple which is located not far from Prambanan. Some old historians suspect that the construction of this great Hindu temple is to mark the reign of the Sanjaya family over Java, this is related to the theory of twin dynasties of different competing beliefs; the Hindu Sanjaya dynasty and the Buddhist Sailendra dynasty.

Certainly, the construction of this temple marks that Saiwa's Hinduism has received back the support of the royal family, after the Sailendra dynasty tended to favor the Mahayana Buddhism. This marks that the kingdom of Medang shifted the focus of religious support, from Mahayana Buddhism to worship of Shiva.

This building was first built around 850 AD by Rakai Pikatan and was continuously being refined and expanded by Raja Lokapala and Raja Balitung Maha Sambu. Based on the Siwagrha inscription dating to 856 AD, this sacred building was built to glorify Lord Shiva, and the original name of this building in Sanskrit is Siwagrha (Sanskrit: Shiva-grha which means: 'Shiva House') or Siwalaya (Sanskrit: Shiva-laya which is Shiva-laya) means: 'Shiva domain' or 'Shiva realm').

In this inscription it is stated that when the construction of the Siwagrha temple was underway, public works on water system changes were also carried out to move the river flow near this temple. The river in question is the Opak river which flows from north to south along the west side of the Prambanan temple complex.

Historians suspect that the original river flow curved eastward, and was considered too close to the temple so that river erosion could jeopardize temple construction. The water management project was carried out by making a new river sodetan that cut the river's curvature with a north-south axis along the west wall outside the temple complex. Former streams of the original river were then stockpiled to provide more land for the construction of rows of perwara temples (guard temples or escort temples).

Some archeologists argue that the statue of Shiva in the garbhagriha (main room) in the Shiva temple as the main temple is a statue of the embodiment of the king of Balitung, as a statue of his posthumous pedharmaan. [5] The name Prambanan, derived from the name of the village where the temple stood, is thought to be a change in the name of the Javanese dialect of "The Brahmins", which may refer to the glorious days of this temple which was once filled with brahmins.

The building complex is continually being refined by the subsequent Medang kings of Mataram, such as the Daksa and Tulodong kings, and expanded by building hundreds of additional temples around the main temple.

Because of the splendor of this temple, the Prambanan temple functions as the grand temple of the Kingdom of Mataram, where various important royal ceremonies are held. At the height of its heyday, historians suspect that hundreds of Brahmin priests and their students gathered and inhabited the outer court of this temple to study the Vedas and carry out various Hindu rituals and ceremonies. While the center of the kingdom or the royal palace of Mataram is allegedly located somewhere near Prambanan on the Kewu Plain.

Around the 930s, the royal capital was moved to East Java by Mpu Sindok, who founded the Isyana House. The cause of the transfer of power center is not known for certain. However, it is very likely caused by a massive eruption of Mount Merapi which rises about 20 kilometers north of the Prambanan temple. Other possible causes are war and power struggles. After moving the capital city, Prambanan temple began to be abandoned and neglected, so that this temple slowly began to break down and collapse.

The building of this temple is thought to have really collapsed due to a great earthquake in the 16th century. Although it is no longer a religious and religious center of Hinduism, this temple is still recognized and known by its Javanese inhabitants who inhabit the surrounding villages. The temples and Durga statues in the main building of this temple inspired the Javanese fable, the legend of Rara Jonggrang. After the splitting of the Sultanate of Mataram in 1755, the ruins of the temple and the nearby Opak river became a sign of the boundary between the territory of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and the Surakarta Sunanate (Solo).

Local Javanese residents around the temple already know the existence of this temple. But they do not know the actual historical background, who is the king and kingdom of what has built this monument. As a result of imagination, local people created local tales to explain the origin of the existence of these temples; colored with fantastic stories about giant kings, thousands of temples built by spirits of jinn and dedemites in just one night, as well as beautiful princesses who are condemned to be statues. The legend of the Prambanan temple is known as the story of Rara Jonggrang.

In 1733, this temple was discovered by CA. Lons is a Dutch national. This temple attracted the attention of the world when during the British occupation of Java. At that time Colin Mackenzie, a surveyor under Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, discovered this temple.
Although Sir Thomas later ordered further investigation, the ruins of this temple remained displaced for decades. No serious excavations were carried out throughout the 1880s which unfortunately instead enriched the practice of pillaging stone carvings and temples. Then in 1855 Jan Willem IJzerman began cleaning and removing some stones and soil from the temple booth. A few moments later Isaäc Groneman undertook a massive demolition and the stones of the temple were piled carelessly along the Opak River. Statues and temple reliefs were taken by Dutch citizens and made into garden decoration, while native residents used temple stones for building materials and house foundations.

Restoration began in 1918, but real serious efforts began in the 1930s. In 1902-1903, Theodoor van Erp maintained a vulnerable part to collapse. In 1918-1926, it was continued by the Archaeological Office (Oudheidkundige Dienst) under P.J. Perquin in a more systematic way according to archeological rules. As it is known, his predecessors carried out the removal and demolition of thousands of stones carelessly without thinking of any restoration efforts. In 1926 De Haan continued until the end of his life in 1930. In 1931 he was replaced by Ir. V.R. van Romondt until in 1942 and then handed over the leadership of the renovation to the sons of Indonesia and it continued until 1993.

Renovation efforts are continuing even now. The restoration of the Shiva temple, the main temple of the complex, was completed in 1953 and inaugurated by the first President of the Republic of Indonesia, Sukarno. Many parts of the temple were renovated, using new stones, because many original stones were stolen or reused elsewhere. A temple will only be renovated if at least 75% of the original stone is still present. Therefore, many small temples are not rebuilt and only the foundation is visible.

Now, this temple is included in a World Heritage Site protected by UNESCO, this status was granted UNESCO in 1991. Now, some parts of the Prambanan temple are being renovated to repair the damage caused by the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. This earthquake has damaged a number of buildings and statues.

Contemporary events
In the early 1990s the government moved markets and villages that spread wildly around the temple, displaced the village and rice fields around the temple, and turned it into an ancient park. This ancient park covers a large area on the edge of the Yogyakarta-Solo highway on its southern side, encompassing the entire Prambanan temple complex, including the Lumbung Temple, Bubrah Temple, and Sewu Temple to its north. In 1992 the Government of Indonesia was a state-owned company, Persero PT Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan, and Ratu Boko.

This business entity is tasked with managing an ancient tourist park in Borobudur, Prambanan, Ratu Boko, and the surrounding area. Prambanan is one of the famous tourist attractions in Indonesia which is visited by many domestic and foreign tourists.

Directly across the Opak river a stage complex and Trimurti performance hall are built which routinely hold Ramayana Ballet performances. Trimurti's open stage is directly opposite the temple on the West bank of the Opak river against the backdrop of the Prambanan Temple in the light.

This open stage is only used in the dry season, while in the rainy season, the show is moved on a closed stage. This Ramayana Javanese Wayang dance is a valuable tradition of Javanese court which has hundreds of years old, usually performed in the palace and began to be performed in Prambanan during the full moon since the 1960s. Since then Prambanan has become a major cultural and ancient tourist attraction in Indonesia.

After a major restoration in the 1990s, Prambanan also returned to the center of Hindu worship in Java. The revival of Prambanan's religious value is because there are quite a number of Hindu communities, both migrants from Bali or Javanese who return to Hinduism who reside in Yogyakarta, Klaten and surrounding areas. Every year Hindus from the provinces of Central Java and Yogyakarta gather at the Prambanan temple to hold ceremonies on the holy day of Galungan, Tawur Kesanga and Nyepi.

On May 27, 2006 an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 on the Richter scale (while the United States Geological Survey reported an earthquake magnitude 6.2 on the Richter scale) struck the Bantul and surrounding areas. This earthquake caused severe damage to many buildings and deaths to the surrounding population. The quake was centered on the Opak tectonic fault whose fault corresponds to the Opak river valley near Prambanan.

One of the buildings that was badly damaged was the Prambanan Temple complex, specifically the Brahma Temple. Preliminary photos show that although the building complex remained intact, the damage was quite significant. Large stone fragments, including carved panels, and the top of the pane fell and scattered on the ground.

These temples were once closed from tourist visits until the damage and danger of collapse can be calculated. Yogyakarta Archaeological Center said that it took months to find out the extent of the damage caused by this earthquake.

A few weeks later, in 2006 the site was reopened for tourist visits. In 2008, there were 856,029 Indonesian tourists and 114,951 foreign tourists visiting Prambanan. On January 6, 2009 the restoration of the Nandi temple was completed. In 2009, the space in the main temple was closed to tourist visits for safety reasons.

Temple complex
The entrance to this building complex is located in the four directions of the compass, but the direction facing this building is to the east, so the main entrance of this temple is the east gate. The Prambanan temple complex consists of:

  • 3 Trimurti Temple: Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma temples
  • 3 Candi Wahana: Candi Nandi, Garuda and Goose
  • 2 Apit Temple: located between the line of Trimurti temples and Wahana temples on the north and south sides
  • 4 Candi Kelir: located in 4 directions of the compass just behind the entrance of the inner courtyard or core zone
  • 4 Patok Temple: located in 4 corners of the inner courtyard or core zone
  • 224 Perwara Temple: arranged in 4 concentric rows with the number of temples from the deepest to the outer rows: 44, 52, 60 and 68

Then there are a total of 240 temples in the Prambanan complex.
Originally there were 240 large and small temples in the Prambanan Temple complex. But now only 18 temples remain; namely 8 main temples and 8 small temples in the core zone and 2 ancillary temples. Many ancillary temples have not been restored, out of 224 ancillary temples only 2 have been restored, all that remains is a pile of scattered stones. The Prambanan temple complex consists of three zones; the first is the outer zone, the second is the middle zone consisting of hundreds of temples, the third is the inner zone which is the holiest zone where eight main temples and eight small temples.

The cross section of the Prambanan temple complex is based on a square consisting of three parts or zones, each of these zones bounded by andesite stone walls. The outermost zone is marked by a square fence, each side along 390 meters, with a Northeast-Southwest orientation. Except for the remaining southern gate, many of the other gates and walls of this temple have been lost. The function of this outer page is not yet known; it is likely the sacred grounds, or the Brahmin boarding complex and his students. Maybe the building that used to stand in the outer yard was made of wood, so it was rotten and not destroyed.

Prambanan Temple is one of the largest Hindu temples in Southeast Asia besides Angkor Wat. The three main temples are called Trimurti and are offered to the three main deities of Trimurti: Shiva the Destroyer, Vishnu the Preserver and Brahma the Creator. In this temple complex Shiva takes precedence and is more glorified than the other two Trimurti gods. Shiva Temple as the main building as well as the largest and highest, soaring as high as 47 meters.

Shiva Temple

The inner courtyard is the holiest of the three complex zones of the temple. The platform is elevated and squared in a caged stone fence with four gates in the four cardinal directions. In this sanded courtyard there are eight main temples; namely the three main temples, called Trimurti temples ("three forms"), were offered to the three highest Hindu gods: Lord Brahma the Creator, Wishnu the Preserver, and Shiva the Annihilation.

Siwa Temple as the main temple is the largest and tallest building in the Rara Jonggrang temple complex, measuring 47 meters high and 34 meters wide. The peak of mastaka or the peak of this temple is crowned with a modification of the shape of the wajra symbolizing diamond or lightning. This form of wajra is a comparable Hindu version of a stupa found at the peak of a Buddhist temple. Shiva Temple surrounded by a corridor decorated with reliefs that tell the story of Ramayana; engraved on the inner wall on the ledge fence. On top of this ledge fence is fenced off the ranks of the peak which is also shaped wajra. To follow the story in its order, visitors must enter from the east side, then do the pradakshina ie spinning around the temple in a clockwise direction. The story of the Ramayana continues to the Brahma Temple.

Shiva Temple in the middle, contains five rooms, one room in each direction of the wind and one garbagriha, the main and largest room located in the center of the temple. The eastern room is connected to the main room where the statue of Shiva Mahadewa (Shiva's embodiment as the Supreme God) resides as high as three meters. This statue has the Lakçana (attribute or symbol) of Shiva, namely chandrakapala (skull above the crescent moon), jatamakuta (crown of majesty), and trinetra (third eye) on its forehead.

This statue has four arms that hold Shiva's attributes, such as aksamala (prayer beads), camara (horse-tailed hair repellent fly), and trident. This statue wore an upawita (caste rope) in the shape of a dragon (cobra). Shiva is described as wearing a loincloth made from tiger skin, depicted with carved heads, claws, and tiger tails on his thighs. Some historians assume that this Shiva statue is an embodiment of the king of Balitung as the god Shiva, as a statue of his posthumous pedharmaan. So that when this king died, his spirit was considered to be reunited with his descendant god Shiva.

This Shiva Mahadewa statue stands on a padma flower pedestal on a square-shaped yoni base on which to the north is engraved with a Nāga snake (cobra).

The other three smaller rooms hold smaller sized statues associated with Shiva. In the south room is Resi Agastya, Ganesh's son of Shiva in the west room, and in the north room there is a sacred statue or Shiva's wife, Durga Mahisasuramardini, describing Durga as the exterminator of Mahisasura, the giant of the Ox that attacks the supermarket. The Durga statue is also referred to as Rara Jonggrang (slender wench) by the local population. This statue is associated with the legendary princess figure Rara Jonggrang.

Brahma Temple and Vishnu Temple
Two other temples are offered to Lord Vishnu, which is on the north side and one is offered to Brahma, which is on the south side. These two temples face east and there is only one room, which is dedicated to these gods. Brahma Temple holds a statue of Brahma and Wishnu Temple holds a statue of Wishnu which is almost 3 meters high. The size of the Brahma and Wishnu temples is the same, that is, 20 meters wide and 33 meters high.

Candi Wahana
Right in front of the Trimurti temple there are three smaller temples than the Brahma and Vishnu temples offered to the vehicles or vehicles of these gods; the ox, the Nandi, the vehicle of Shiva, the swan, the vehicle of Brahma, and the Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu.

These temple temples are located right in front of the rider's god. In front of the Shiva temple there is the Nandi temple, inside which is the statue of Nandi's bull. On the wall behind this statue Nandi on the left and right flank the statue of Chandra the moon god and Surya the sun god. Chandra is depicted standing on a carriage drawn by 10 horses, while Surya stands on a carriage drawn by 7 horses.

Right in front of the Brahma temple is the Goose temple. This temple is empty and there is no Goose statue in it. Perhaps the Geese statue once lived as a Brahma vehicle in it. In front of the Vishnu temple there is a temple dedicated to Garuda, but just like the Goose temple, there is no Garuda statue found in this temple. Maybe there was a Garuda statue in this temple. Until now Garuda has become an important symbol in Indonesia, namely as a symbol of the state of Garuda Pancasila.

Apit Temple, Kelir Temple, and Patok Temple
Among the sixth row of the main temples is the Apit Temple. The size of Apit Temple is almost the same as the size of perwara temple, which is 14 meters high with a 6 x 6 meter floor plan. Besides these 8 main temples, there is a small temple in the form of a small temple that may function like a pelinggihan in the Balinese Hindu Temple where the canang or offerings are placed, as well as a facade in front of the entrance. These small temples namely; 4 Candi Kelir in the four cardinal directions in front of the entrance, and 4 Candi Patok in each corner. Kelir Temple and Patok Temple are miniature temples without stairs with a height of about 2 meters.

Perwara Temple
Two rectangular walls that enclose the two inner pages, arranged in orientation according to the four cardinal points. The second wall is 225 meters long on each side. Between these two walls is the second courtyard or the second zone. The second zone consists of 224 ancillary temples arranged in four concentric lines.

These temples are built on four steps of terraces that are getting to the middle a little higher. Four rows of these temples are smaller than the main temple. These temples are called "Perwara Temples", namely guard temples or complementary temples. Perwara temples are arranged in four concentric rows, the deepest rows consisting of 44 temples, the second row of 52 temples, the third row of 60 temples, and the fourth row and the outer row consisting of 68 temples.

Each of these ancillary temples is 14 meters high with a 6 x 6 meter floor plan, and the total number of ancillary temples on this page is 224 temples. All of these ancillary temples have one stairway and the entrance is in the direction of the main face, except for the 16 temples in the corner which have two stairs and the entrance faces two outside directions. [15] If most of the temple roofs in the courtyard in the core zone are wajra-shaped, then the perwara temple roof is in the form of a ratna symbolizing the jewel.

Originally there are many temples on this page, but only a few have been restored. The form of this ancillary temple is designed uniformly. Historians suspect that these temples were funded and built by the regional authorities as a sign of devotion and offerings to the king. While there is an opinion that links the four lines of the ancillary temple symbolizing the four castes, and only those members of the caste may enter and worship in it; the deepest line is only entered by the Brahmin caste, next up to the outer row is the row of temples for Ksatriya, Vaishya and Sudra. While other parties consider there is no connection between the ancillary temple and the four castes. Rows of perwara temples may be used for worship, or a place of meditation (meditation) for priests and their people.

Prambanan temple architecture is guided by Hindu architectural traditions based on Wastu Sastra. Temple plans follow the mandala pattern, while the towering shape of the temple is a hallmark of Hindu temples. Prambanan has the original name Siwagrha and is designed to resemble the house of Shiva, which follows the shape of the sacred mountain Mahameru, where the gods reside. All parts of the temple complex follow the model of the universe according to the concept of Hindu cosmology, which is divided into several layers of the realm, nature or Loka.

Like Borobudur, Prambanan also has levels of temple zones, ranging from the less sacred to the most sacred zones. Despite their different names, each of these Hindu concepts has a counterpart in the Buddhist concept which is essentially the same. Both horizontal and vertical floor plans are divided into three zones:

Bhurloka (in Buddhism: Kamadhatu), is the lowest realm of mortal beings; humans, animals, also spirits and demons. In this realm, humans are still bound by the passions, desires, and ways that are not holy. The yard and the foot of the temple symbolize the realm of Bhurloka.

Bhuwarloka (in Buddhism: Rupadhatu), is a realm of nature, a place of saints, sages, ascetics and lowly deities. In nature, people begin to see the light of truth. The central courtyard and the body of the temple symbolize the realm of bhuwarloka.
Swarloka (in Buddhism: Arupadhatu), is the highest and holiest realm where the gods reside, also called swargaloka. The inner courtyard and roof of the temple symbolize the realm of swarloka.

The roof of the temples in the Prambanan complex is decorated with a mastaka peak in the form of ratna (sanskrit: jewel), the shape of Prambanan ratna is a modification of the shape of the wajra symbolizing diamond or lightning. In ancient Javanese Hindu architecture, Ratna is a Hindu counterpart to a Buddhist stupa, which functions as a temple or mastaka.

At the time of restoration, just below the Shiva statue below the main room of the Shiva temple there is a well at the bottom there is a pripih (stone box). This well is 5.75 meters deep and the pripih stone coffin was found on a pile of wood charcoal, soil and bones of a victim animal.

In this pripih there are sacred objects such as gold sheets with letters that read Waruna (sea god) and Parwata (mountain god). In this stone chest there are copper sheets mixed with charcoal, ash, and earth, 20 pieces of ancient money, some gems, glass, gold pieces, and silver sheets, shells, and 12 gold sheets (5 of which are in the shape of turtles, snakes (cobra), lotus, altar and egg).

Ramayana and Krishnayana

This temple is decorated with narrative reliefs that tell Hindu epics; Ramayana and Krishnayana. The relative story is carved into the inner wall of the ledge along the gallery hall that surrounds the three main temples. This relief is read from right to left in a clockwise motion around the temple. This is in accordance with the pradaksina ritual, which is a ritual around the sacred building clockwise by pilgrims. The story of the Ramayana begins on the east side of the Shiva temple and continues to the Brahma temple. On the railing of the temple of Vishnu there is a narrative relief of Krishnayana which tells of Krishna's life as one of Awnu's Vishnu.

Relief Ramayana describes how Shinta, Rama's wife, was abducted by Rahwana. Commander of the wanara (ape) nation, Hanuman, came to Alengka to help Rama find Shinta. This story is also featured in the Ramayana Ballet, a Javanese puppet performance that is staged routinely on the Trimurti open stage every night of the full moon. Trimurti stage background is a magnificent view of three main temples illuminated by lights.

Lokapala, Brahmin, and the Gods
Across the narrative relief panels, the temple's body walls along the gallery are decorated with statues and reliefs depicting gods and brahman receipts. The statue of the gods of the Lokapala, the heavenly deity guarding the wind can be found in the Shiva temple. While the statues of the brahman compilers of the Vedas are in the Brahma temple. In Vishnu temple there is a statue of the gods flanked by two apsara or heavenly nymphs.

Prambanan Panels: Lion and Kalpataru
On the outer wall below the temple is decorated by a row of niches (niches) that hold a statue of a lion flanked by two panels depicting the life of the Kalpataru tree. This sacred tree in Hindu-Buddhist mythology is considered a tree that can meet human hopes and needs. At the foot of the Kalpataru tree, it is flanked by a pair of kinnara-kinnari (magical animals with human-headed birds), or other pairs of animals, such as birds, deer, sheep, monkeys, horses, elephants, and others. The lion pattern flanked by kalpataru is a typical pattern found only in Prambanan, because that is called the "Prambanan Panil".

Prambanan Museum
Inside the Prambanan temple complex, there is a museum which stores various ancient historical objects. The museum is located on the north side of the Prambanan Temple, between the Prambanan temple and the Lumbung temple. The museum was built in traditional Javanese architecture, in the form of a joglo house. Collections stored in this museum are various temple stones and various statues found around the Prambanan temple site; for example the statue of the ox Nandi, the receipt of Agastya, Shiva, Vishnu, Garuda, and the Durga Mahisasuramardini statue, including the Lingga Siwa stone, as a symbol of fertility.

The gold treasure replica of the famous Wonoboyo, in the form of a Ramayana carved bowl, dipper, bag, money and gold jewelry, was also exhibited at this museum.

The original Wonoboyo findings are now kept at the Indonesian National Museum in Jakarta. Architectural models of several temples such as Prambanan, Borobudur and Plaosan are also exhibited at this museum. This museum can be entered free of charge by visitors to the Prambanan archaeological park because the park entrance ticket includes this museum. An audio visual performance about the Prambanan temple is also displayed here.

Other temples around Prambanan
The Kewu Plain or Prambanan Plain is a fertile plain that stretches between the southern slopes of the Merapi volcano in the north and the Sewu limestone mountains in the south, near the border of Yogyakarta and Klaten, Central Java. In addition to Prambanan temples, the valleys and plains around Prambanan are rich in the archaeological remains of the earliest Buddhist temples in Indonesian history, as well as Hindu temples. Prambanan Temple is surrounded by Buddhist temples. Still in the ancient tourist park complex, not far to the north of Prambanan temple there are ruins of the Lumbung temple and the Bubrah temple.

Further north is Sewu Temple, the second largest Buddhist temple after Borobudur. Further east there is the Plaosan temple. In the west of Prambanan there are Kalasan temple and Sari temple. While in the south there is the Sojiwan temple, the Ratu Baka Site which is located above the hills, as well as the Banyunibo temple, the Barong temple, and the Ijo temple.

With the discovery of so many historical relics in the form of temples which are only a few hundred meters away from each other, showing that the area around Prambanan in ancient times was an important area. Regions that have important values ​​in terms of religion, politics, economy and culture.

It is suspected that the center of the Medang Mataram kingdom is located somewhere on this plain. The wealth of archeological sites, as well as the sophistication and beauty of the temples make the Prambanan Plain not inferior to other well-known historic areas in Southeast Asia, such as the archeological sites of the ancient cities of Angkor, Bagan and Ayutthaya.

    ^ Prambanan Temple Compounds – UNESCO World Heritage Centre
    ^ Prambanan Temple
    ^ Prasasti Siwagrha, Museum Nasional Indonesia
    ^ Soetarno, Drs. R. second edition (2002). "Aneka Candi Kuno di Indonesia" (Ancient Temples in Indonesia), pp. 16. Dahara Prize. Semarang. ISBN 979-501-098-0.
    ^ Mengenal Candi Siwa dan Parambanan Dari Dekat, Penerbit Kanisius
    ^ Nyepi di Prambanan
    ^'vidico' Nyepi di Candi Prambanan
    ^ IOL (2006). "World famous temple complex damaged in quake". Diakses pada 28 Mei 2006.
    ^ Di sản thế giới tại Indonesia bị động đất huỷ hoại (Bahasa Vietnam)
    ^ Yogyakarta Online Candi Nandi Selesai Dipugar
    ^ Ariswara; English translation by Lenah Matius. third edition (1993). "Prambanan", pp. 8. Intermasa. Jakarta. ISBN 979-8114-57-4.
    ^ Ariswara; English translation by Lenah Matius. third edition (1993). "Prambanan", pp. 11–12. Intermasa. Jakarta. ISBN 979-8114-57-4.
    ^ Ariswara; English translation by Lenah Matius. third edition (1993). "Prambanan", pp. 26. Intermasa. Jakarta. ISBN 979-8114-57-4.
    ^ "Prambanan: A Brief Architectural Summary" (dalam bahasa English). Borobudur TV. Diakses pada 31 Oktober 2011.
    ^ Konservasi Borobudur (in Indonesian)
    ^ Candi Lara Jonggrang

External links

  • (Inggris) Prambanan Temple Compounds di situs UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  • (Inggris) Situs resmi Candi Prambanan
  • Panduan Pariwisata Yogyakarta dan sekitarnya
Photo: Special

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