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Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

Dieng Temple - 780 AD


Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Dieng Temple is a collection of temples located at the foot of the Dieng mountains, Wonosobo, Central Java. Dieng Temple area occupies a plain at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level, extending north-south direction around 1900 m with a width of 800 m.

This collection of Hindu temples of Shiva which is estimated to have been built between the end of the 8th century and the beginning of the 9th century is thought to be the oldest temple in Java. Until now no written information has been found about the history of Dieng Temple, but experts estimate that this temple collection was built by order of the kings of the Sanjaya Dynasty.

In this Dieng region, an inscription dating to the year 808 AD was found, which is the oldest inscription bearing the ancient Javanese letter, which still exists today. A Syiwa statue found in this area is now stored in the National Museum in Jakarta.

The construction of the Dieng Temple is estimated to take place in two stages. The first phase, which took place between the end of the 7th century to the first quarter of the 8th century, included the construction of Arjuna Temple, Semar Temple, Srikandi Temple and Gatutkaca Temple. The second phase is a continuation of the first stage, which took place until around 780 AD

Dieng Temple was first rediscovered in 1814. At that time a British soldier who was traveling to the Dieng area saw a group of temples submerged in a pool of lake water. In 1956, Van Kinsbergen led the effort to drain the lake where the collection of temples was located. Clean-up efforts were continued by the Dutch East Indies government in 1864, followed by recording and shooting by Van Kinsbergen.

The overall area of ​​the Dieng Temple complex reaches around 1.8 x 0.8 km2. The temples in the Dieng Temple area are divided into 3 groups and 1 stand-alone temple named after the name of a character in a puppet story adopted from the Mahabarata Book. The three temple groups are the Arjuna Group, the Gatutkaca Group, the Dwarawati Group and one stand-alone temple is the Bima Temple.

a. Arjuna group
The Arjuna group is located in the middle of the Dieng Temple area, consisting of 4 temples lined up extending north-south. Arjuna Temple is at the southern end, then successively heading north is Srikandi Temple, Sembadra Temple and Puntadewa Temple. Right in front of Arjuna Temple, there is Semar Temple. The four temples in this complex face west, except Semar Temple which faces Arjuna Temple. This temple group can be said to be the most intact compared to other temple groups in the Dieng region.

Arjuna Temple. This temple is similar to the temples in the Gedong Sanga complex. Square base with an area of ​​about 4 m2. The body of the temple stands on a shelf as high as about 1 m. On the west side there are stairs to the entrance to the small room in the body of the temple. The door of the temple is equipped with a kind of viewer room that jutted out about 1 m from the body of the temple. Above the doorway is decorated with Kalamakara carvings.

On the outer walls of the north, south and west sides there is a stone structure that protrudes out of the wall, forming the frame of a niche where the statue is. The front of the recesses are decorated with sticky paper patterns. The lower part of the frame is decorated with a pair of dragon heads with open mouths. At the top of the frame is a kalamakara ornament without a lower jaw. On the walls to the left and right of the north building's doorway there is a niche where the statue is placed. At present the two niches are empty.

On the walls on the south, west and north sides there are niches where statues are placed. The threshold of the niche is given a frame with a decorative pattern of sticky paper and Kalamakara on it. Frame legs decorated with carved dragon's head with his mouth gaping. Right in the middle of the wall below the niche there is a jaladwara (water channel).

The roof of the temple is in the form of a cube, stacking, getting smaller and smaller. The top and top of the roof have been destroyed. On each side of each cube there are niches and in each corner there is a decoration shaped like a rounded pointed crown. Most of the decoration has been damaged.

In the middle of the room in the body of the temple there is what looks like a yoni. In the outer corner, attached to the back wall of the temple there is a statue that has been damaged.

Semar Temple. This temple is located opposite the Arjuna Temple. The basic plan is a rectangular shape stretching north-south. Batur temple as high as about 50 cm, plain without decoration. The stairs leading to the entrance to the inner chamber of the temple are on the east side. The entrance is not equipped with a viewer booth. The doorway was given a frame with a pattern of sticky paper and dragon's head on the base. Above the doorway there is a Kalamakara without a lower jaw.

On the walls to the left and right of the door there is a small window opening. On the north and south walls of the temple's body there are, respectively, two holes that function as windows, while on the west wall (back) of the temple there are 3 holes. The room in the body of the temple is empty. Limasan-shaped temple roof without decoration. The top of the roof is gone, so its original form is no longer known. It is said that Semar Temple was used as a warehouse to store weapons and worship equipment.

Srikandi Temple. This temple is located in the north of Arjuna Temple. Batur temple is about 50 cm high with a cube-shaped base plan. On the east side there is a ladder with a viewer booth.

On the north wall there is a sculpture depicting Vishnu, on the east wall depicting Shiva and on the south wall depicting Brahma. Most of the sculpture has been damaged. The roof of the temple has been damaged so that it does not see its original shape anymore.

Sembadra Temple. Batur temple as high as about 50 cm with a square plan. In the middle of the south, east and north sides there are parts that jut out, forming niches like a viewer booth. The entrance is located on the west side and, equipped with a viewing booth. The appearance of the viewer booth on the west side and the recesses on the other three sides make the temple's body shape look like a polygon. In the yard there is a stone arranged as a path to the door.

At first glance the Sembadra Temple looks like a multi-storey building, because its roof is in the shape of a cube that is almost the same size as its size. The top of the roof has been destroyed, so it does not see its original shape anymore. On all four sides of the roof there are also small niches such as places to put statues.

Puntadewa Temple. Like other temples, the size of the Puntadewa Temple is not too big, but this temple looks taller. The body of the temple stands on a stacking structure about 2.5 m high. The stairs leading to the entrance to the inner chamber of the temple are complemented by temple cheeks and made in two tiers, according to the temple batur.

The roof of the temple is similar to the roof of the Sembadra Temple, in the form of a large cube. The top of the roof has also been destroyed, so the original form is no longer visible. On all four sides of the roof there are also small niches such as places to put statues. The door is equipped with a viewer booth and is given a frame decorated with sticky paper motifs.

The space in the temple's body is narrow and empty. On the other three sides there is a window whose frame is decorated similar to the one on the door. About half a meter outside the foot of the temple there is a stone arranged around the foot of the temple. In front of the temple there are stones arranged around a square-shaped room. In the middle of the room there are two piles of two round stones with a pointed peak.

In the north of the temple there are stones arranged around a rectangular room. In the middle of the room there are two stone shaped like a large crock.

b. Gatutkaca group
Gatutkaca group also consists of 5 temples, namely Gatutkaca Temple, Setyaki Temple, Nakula Temple, Sadewa Temple, Petruk Temple and Gareng Temple, but currently only buildings that can be seen are Gatutkaca Temple. The remaining four temples are left only the ruins.

Gatutkaca Temple. Batur temple as high as about 1 m was made in two layers with a basic square plan. In the middle of the south, east and north sides there are parts that jut out, forming niches like a viewer booth. The entrance is located on the west side and, equipped with a viewing booth. The steps in Batur are protected inside the viewer booth.

At a glance the Gatutkaca Temple also looks like a multi-storey building, because the shape of the roof is made the same as the body shape of the temple. The top of the roof has been destroyed, so it does not see its original shape anymore. On all four sides of the roof there are also small niches such as places to put statues. About half a meter outside the foot of the temple there is a stone arranged around the foot of the temple. In the courtyard of the Gatutkaca Temple Complex there are piles of stone ruins of the other four temples that have not been able to be rearranged.

c. Dwarawati Group
The Dwarawati group consists of 4 temples, namely Dwarawati Temple, Abiyasa Temple, Pandu Temple, and Margasari Temple. However, at the moment there is only one temple that is relatively intact, namely Dwarawati Temple.
Dwarawati Temple. The shape of the Dwarawati Temple is similar to that of the Gatutkaca Temple, which has a rectangular base with a viewer on all four sides. The body of the temple stands on a shelf about 50 cm high. Stairs and entrances, which are located on the west side, are currently in a plain, carved state.

In the middle of the temple's body wall on the north, east and south sides there is a kind of viewer room that jutted out to form a niche where the statue is placed. The top of the niche is curved and tapered at its peak. The niche is decorated with simple floral motifs. Likewise, the upper side of the wall of the viewer cubicle. The three niches on the temple's body wall are currently empty without statues.

At first glance this temple also looks like a multi-storey building, because the shape of the roof is made the same as the body shape of the temple. On all four sides of the roof there are niches where statues are placed. At present, these niches are also empty. The top of the roof is no longer left so that its original form is unknown. In the front yard of the temple there is a stone structure that resembles a phallus and yoni.

d. Candi Bima
Bima Temple is located alone on a hill. This temple is the largest building among the Dieng Temple collection. The shape is different from the temples in Central Java in general. The foot of the temple has a square floor plan, but because on each side there is a viewer that sticks out a bit, so it's as if the floor plan of the Bima Temple is octagonal.

The viewer on the front protrudes about 1.5 m, functioning as the viewer chamber leading to the main chamber in the body of the temple. Viewers on the other three sides form a niche where the statue is placed. At present everything is empty. Not a single statue remains.

The shape of the roof of the temple consists of 5 levels, each level follows the curve of its body shape, getting smaller and smaller. Each level is decorated with double padma seams and kudu niches. Kudu is a half-body statue that looks as if it is looking out. This kind of decoration is also found in Kalasan Temple. The top of the roof has been destroyed so that its original shape is unknown.

Source: http://candi.pnri.go.id/jawa_tengah_yogyakarta/dieng/dieng.htm

Photo: Special

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