Window of Archipelago

Borobudur Temple - 800 AD

Borobudur Temple (337 - 422 AD) already existed when F-Huan came to the Land of Java Jakarta ( DreamLandLibrary ) - Borobudur is ...

Kalingga - between 500 AD and 599 AD

Semarang (Dreamland Library) - Kalingga or Ho-ling (called from Chinese sources) is a Hindu-style kingdom that emerged in Central Java around the 6th century AD. The location of the center of this kingdom is not yet clear, it is likely to be somewhere between Pekalongan Regency and Jepara Regency now.

The historical sources of this kingdom are still unclear and vague, mostly obtained from Chinese records, local story traditions, and Carita Parahyangan manuscripts compiled centuries later in the 16th century briefly allude to Queen Shima and its relation to the Kingdom of Galuh. Kalingga existed in the 6th century AD and its whereabouts are known from Chinese sources. The kingdom was once ruled by Queen Shima, who was known to have rules on who stole, her hands would be cut off.

Notes from local sources
Local story
There is a story that developed in northern Central Java about a legendary Maharani who upholds the principles of justice and truth aloud indiscriminately. This legend tells the story of Queen Shima who educates his people to always be honest and crack down on theft crimes. He applies a harsh punishment that is cutting off the hands of anyone who steals. Once upon a time a king from across the sea heard about the fame of the people of the Kalingga kingdom who was known to be honest and law-abiding. To test it he put a bag of gold at a crossroads near the market. No one Kalingga people dare to touch let alone take things that do not belong to him. Up to three years later, the crown prince was touched by his crown prince. Queen Shima, in order to uphold the law sentenced her son to death, the council of ministers begged the queen to forgive the mistakes of his son. Because the prince's feet touched items that did not belong to him, the prince was sentenced to be cut off his leg.

Carita Parahyangan
Based on the 16th-century Carita Parahyangan text, Maharani Shima's daughter, Parwati, married the crown prince of Galuh Kingdom named Mandiminyak, who later became the second king of the Galuh Kingdom. Maharani Shima has a grandson named Sanaha who is married to the third king of the Galuh Kingdom, namely Brantasenawa. Sanaha and Bratasenawa had a son named Sanjaya who would later become the king of the Sundanese and Galuh Kingdoms (723-732 AD).

After Maharani Shima died in 732 AD, Sanjaya replaced his great-grandfather and became the king of the North Kalingga Kingdom which was later called Bumi Mataram, and then founded the Sanjaya Dynasty / Dynasty in the Ancient Mataram Kingdom.

He gave power to West Java to his son from Tejakencana, Tamperan Barmawijaya alias Rakeyan Panaraban. Then Raja Sanjaya married Sudiwara daughter of Dewasinga, Raja Kalingga Selatan or Bumi Sambara, and had a son, Rakai Panangkaran.

In the 5th century the Kingdom of Ho-ling (or Kalingga) emerged, thought to be located in the north of Central Java. Information about the Kingdom of Ho-ling was obtained from inscriptions and records from China. In 752, the Kingdom of Ho-ling was conquered by Srivijaya because it became part of the Hindu trade network, together with Malayu and Tarumanagara which had previously been conquered by Srivijaya. The three kingdoms are strong competitors of the Sriwijaya-Buddhist trade network.

Chinese news
News of Ho-ling's whereabouts can also be obtained from news from the Tang Dynasty and I-Tsing records.

Records from the Tang Dynasty
The Chinese story of the Tang Dynasty (618 AD - 906 AD) gives Ho-ling's information as follows.

    Ho-ling or called Java is located in the South Ocean. To its north lies Ta Hen La (Cambodia), to the east lies Po-Li (Bali Island) and to the west lies Sumatra Island.
    The capital city of Ho-ling is surrounded by walls made of wooden stakes.
    The king lives in a large multistory building, roofed with palm leaves, and his throne is made of ivory.
    Residents of the Kingdom of Ho-ling are already good at making liquor from coconut flowers
    The Ho-ling region produces turtle skin, gold, silver, rhino horn and elephant ivory.

This Chinese news account also mentions that since 674, the people of Ho-ling were ruled by Queen Hsi-mo (Shima). She is a queen who is very just and wise. During his reign the Kingdom of Ho-ling was very safe and secure.

Note I-Tsing
Note I-Tsing (664/665 AD) states that in the 7th century the land of Java had become one of the centers of knowledge of Hinayana Buddhism. In Ho-ling there was a Chinese priest named Hwining, who translated one of the Buddhist books into Chinese. He collaborated with a Javanese priest named Janabadra. The translated book includes stories about Nirvana, but this story is different from Nirvana in Hinayana Buddhism.

Inscription
The relics of the Kingdom of Ho-ling are the Tukmas Inscriptions. This inscription was found on found on the western slope of Mount Merapi, precisely in the Dakawu Hamlet, Lebak Village, Grabag District, Magelang in Central Java. The inscription reads Pallawa letters in Sanskrit. The inscription mentions clean and clear springs. The river that flows from the water source is likened to the Ganges River in India. In the inscription there are images such as trident, jug, ax, class, chakra and lotus flower which is a symbol of the closeness of human relations with Hindu gods.

While in Sojomerto Village, Reban District, Batang Regency, Central Java, Sojomerto Inscription was found. This inscription is written in Kawi and in Old Malay and dates from around the 7th century AD. This inscription is Shiva religious. The inscription contains the family of the main character, Dapunta Selendra, his father named Santanu, his mother's name is Bhadrawati, while his wife's name is Sampula. Prof. Drs. Boechari is of the opinion that the figure named Dapunta Selendra is the forerunner of the descendents of the Sailendra Dynasty who ruled the Hindu Mataram Kingdom.

Both of these inscriptions show that the north coast of Central Java had once developed a Hindu Shiva style kingdom. These records indicate the possibility of a connection with the Sailendra Dynasty or the Medang kingdom that developed later in Central Java South.

Reference
    ^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973 edisi cetak ulang ke-5 1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed.. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. hlm. 37.
    ^ Munoz, Paul Michel (21 Oktober 2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. hlm. pages 171. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
    ^ IPS Terpadu Kelas VII SMP/MTs, Penerbit Galaxy Puspa Mega:Tim IPS SMP/MTs.

Source:  http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerajaan_Kalingga
Photo: Special

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