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Sumedang Larang - 900 AD

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Sumedang Larang Kingdom is one of the Islamic kingdoms which is estimated to have been established since the 16th century AD in West Java, Indonesia. The popularity of this kingdom is not as great as the popularity of the kingdoms of Demak, Mataram, Banten and Cirebon in the historical literature of Islamic empires in Indonesia. But, the existence of this kingdom is a very strong historical evidence of its influence in the spread of Islam in West Java, as did the Cirebon and Banten kingdoms.

The Sumedang Larang Kingdom (now Sumedang Regency) is one of the various Sundanese kingdoms in the province of West Java, Indonesia. There are other Sundanese kingdoms such as the Pajajaran Kingdom which is also still closely related to the previous kingdom namely (Sunda-Galuh Kingdom), but the existence of the Pajajaran Kingdom ended in the Pakuan region, Bogor, due to an alliance attack of the Cirebon, Banten and Demak (Central Java) kingdoms. Since then, Sumedang Larang is considered to be the successor of Pajajaran and has become a kingdom that has wide autonomy to determine its own destiny.

The origin of the name
The Sumedang Larang Kingdom originated from a fragment of the Hindu Sunda-Galuh kingdom, which was founded by Prabu Aji Putih by order of Prabu Suryadewata before the Galuh Palace was moved to Pajajaran, Bogor. Along with the changing times and leadership, the name Sumedang underwent several changes. The first is the Great Tembong Kingdom (Tembong means visible and Agung means noble) led by Prabu Guru Aji Putih in the XII century. Then in the days of Prabu Tajimalela, changed to Himbar Buana, which means to illuminate nature, Prabu Tajimalela once said "Insun medal; Inflammatory gnats. " It means I was born; I illuminate. The word Sumedang is taken from the word Insun Madangan which changes its pronunciation to Sun Madang which then becomes Sumedang. There is also a opinion that comes from the word Insun Medal which changes its pronunciation to Sumedang and Larang means something that is unmatched.

Sovereign Government
The names of the Kings of the Sumedang Larang Kingdom

aPrabu Guru Aji Putih900

bPrabu Agung Resi Cakrabuana / Prabu Taji Malela950

cPrabu Gajah Agung980

dSunan Guling1000

eSunan Tuakan1200

fNyi Mas Ratu Patuakan1450

gRatu Pucuk Umun / Nyi Mas Ratu Dewi Inten Dewata1530 - 1578

hPrabu Geusan Ulun / Pangeran Angkawijaya1578 - 1601
The name of the Regent of Wedana during the reign of Mataram II

aR. Suriadiwangsa / Pangeran Rangga Gempol I1601 - 1625

bPangeran Rangga Gede1625 - 1633

cPangeran Rangga Gempol II1633 - 1656

dPangeran Panembahan / Pangeran Rangga Gempol III1656 - 1706
The name of the Regent of Wedana during the reign of the VOC, England, the Netherlands and Japan

aDalem Tumenggung Tanumaja1706 - 1709

bPangeran Karuhun1709 - 1744

cDalem Istri Rajaningrat1744 - 1759

dDalem Anom1759 - 1761

eDalem Adipati Surianagara1761 - 1765

fDalem Adipati Surialaga1765 - 1773

gDalem Adipati Tanubaja (Parakan Muncang)1773 - 1775

hDalem Adipati Patrakusumah (Parakan Muncang)1775 - 1789

iDalem Aria Sacapati1789 - 1791

jPangeran Kornel / Pangeran Kusumahdinata1791 - 1800

kBupati Republik Batavia Nederland1800 - 1810

lBupati Kerajaan Nederland, dibawah Lodewijk, Adik Napoleon Bonaparte1805 - 1810

mBupati Kerajaan Nederland, dibawah Kaisar Napoleon Bonaparte1810 - 1811

nBupati Masa Pemerintahan Inggris1811 - 1815

oBupati Kerajaan Nederland1815 - 1828

pDalem Adipati Kusumahyuda / Dalem Ageung1828 - 1833

qDalem Adipati Kusumahdinata / Dalem Alit1833 - 1834

rDalem Tumenggung Suriadilaga / Dalem Sindangraja1834 - 1836

sPangeran Suria Kusumah Adinata / Pangeran Soegih1836 - 1882

tPangeran Aria Suria Atmaja / Pangeran Mekkah1882 - 1919

uDalem Adipati Aria Kusumahdilaga / Dalem Bintang1919 - 1937

vDalem Tumenggung Aria Suria Kusumah Adinata / Dalem Aria Sumantri1937 - 1942

wBupati Masa Pemerintahan Jepang1942 - 1945

xBupati Masa Peralihan Republik Indonesia1945 - 1946
Bupati Masa Pemerintahan Republik Indonesia

aRaden Hasan Suria Sacakusumah1946 - 1947
Bupati Masa Pemerintahan Belanda / Indonesia

aRaden Tumenggung M. Singer1947 - 1949
Bupati Masa Pemerintahan Negara Pasundan

aRaden Hasan Suria Sacakusumah1949 - 1950
Bupati Masa Pemerintahan Republik Indonesia

aRadi (Sentral Organisasi Buruh Republik Indonesia)1950

bRaden Abdurachman Kartadipura1950 - 1951

cSulaeman Suwita Kusumah1951 - 1958

dAntan Sastradipura1958 - 1960

eMuhammad Hafil1960 - 1966

fAdang Kartaman1966 - 1970

gDrs. Supian Iskandar1970 - 1972

hDrs. Supian Iskandar1972 - 1977

iDrs. Kustandi Abdurahman1977 - 1983

jDrs. Sutarja1983 - 1988

kDrs. Sutarja1988 - 1993

lDrs. H. Moch. Husein Jachja Saputra1993 - 1998

mDrs. H. Misbach1998 - 2003

nH. Don Murdono,SH. Msi2003 - 2008

oH. Don Murdono,SH. Msi2008 - 2013

Prabu Agung Resi Cakrabuana (950 M)
Prabu Agung Resi Cakrabuana, or better known as Prabu Tajimalela, is considered the principal of the establishment of the Sumedang Kingdom. In the beginning stood the Kingdom of Great Tembong with the capital at Leuwihideung (now Darmaraja District). He has three sons, namely Prabu Lembu Agung, Prabu Gajah Agung, and Sunan Geusan Ulun.

Based on Layang Darmaraja, Prabu Tajimalela gave orders to his two sons (Prabu Lembu Agung and Prabu Gajah Agung), one became the king and the other became his deputy (patih). But both of them are not willing to be king. Therefore, Prabu Tajimalela gave a test to his two sons if they lost they had to become king. His two sons were ordered to go to Mount Nurmala (now Mount Sangkanjaya). Both were given orders to guard a sword and young coconut (duwegan / degan). However, Prabu Gajah Agung because of his thirst for splitting and drinking young coconut water so that he was declared defeated and had to become king of the Sumedang Larang Kingdom but the capital region had to search for himself. Whereas Prabu Lembu Agung remained in Leuwihideung, becoming a temporary king who was also called Prabu Lembeng Peteng Aji to simply fulfill Prabu Tajimalela's will. After that the Kingdom of Sumedang Larang was handed over to Prabu Gajah Agung and Prabu Lembu Agung to become receipts. Prabu Lembu Agung and his descendants remain in Darmaraja. While Sunan Geusan Ulun and his descendants are scattered in Limbangan, Karawang, and Brebes.

After King Agung Agung became king then the kingdom was moved to Ciguling. He was buried in Cicanting, Darmaraja District. He has two sons, the first is Ratu Rajamantri's wife, married Prabu Siliwangi and followed her husband to move to Pakuan Pajajaran. Secondly Sunan Guling, who continued to be king in the Sumedang Larang Kingdom. After Sunan Guling died then continued by his only son, Sunan Tuakan. After that the kingdom was led by his daughter, Nyi Mas Ratu Patuakan. Nyi Mas Ratu Patuakan has a husband namely Sunan Corenda, son of Sunan Parung, grandson of Prabu Siliwangi (Prabu Ratu Dewata). Nyi Mas Ratu Patuakan had a daughter named Nyi Mas Ratu Inten Dewata (1530-1578), who after he died succeeded her in becoming queen with the title of Queen of the Umbrellas.

Ratu Pucuk Umun was married to Prince Kusumahdinata, the son of Pangeran Pamalekaran (Dipati Teterung), the son of Aria Damar Sultan Palembang of Majapahit descent. Her mother Ratu Martasari / Nyi Mas Ranggawulung, descended from Sunan Gunung Jati from Cirebon. Prince Kusumahdinata is better known by the nickname Prince Santri because of his origin from the pesantren and his very pious behavior. With this marriage the Hindu kingdom at Sumedang Larang ended. Since then the spread of Islam began in the Sumedang Larang region.

Ratu Pucuk Umun and Pangeran Santri
In the mid-16th century, began the Islamic style of coloring the development of Sumedang Larang. Ratu Pucuk Umun, a woman descended from ancient Sumedang Larang kings who was a Sundanese Muslim woman; married Prince Santri (1505-1579 AD) who held the title Ki Gedeng Sumedang and ruled Sumedang Larang together and spread the teachings of Islam in the region. Prince Santri was the grandson of Sheikh Maulana Abdurahman (Sunan Panjunan) and great-grandson of Sheikh Datuk Kahfi, an ulama of the Arabian Hadramaut descent who came from Mecca and spread Islam in various parts of the Sunda kingdom. The marriage of Prince Santri and Ratu Pucuk Umun gave birth to King Geusan Ulun, also known as King Angkawijaya. During Ratu Pucuk Umun, the capital of the Sumedang Larang Kingdom was moved from Ciguling to Kutamaya.

From Ratu Pucuk Umun's marriage to Prince Santri, he has six children, namely:
  • Pangeran Angkawijaya (famous for the title Prabu Geusan Ulun)
  • Kiyai Rangga Haji, who defeated Aria Kuda Panjalu ti Narimbang, in order to convert to Islam.
  • Kiyai Demang Watang at Walakung.
  • Santowaan Wirakusumah, whose descendants are in Pagaden and Pamanukan, Subang.
  • Santowaan Cikeruh.
  • Santowaan Awiluar.
Ratu Pucuk Umun is buried in Mount Ciung Pasarean Gede in Sumedang City.

King Geusan Ulun
Prabu Geusan Ulun (1580-1608 AD) was named to replace the power of his father, Prince Santri. He established Kutamaya as the capital of the Sumedang Larang kingdom, located in the western part of the city. His territories include Kuningan, Bandung, Garut, Tasik, Sukabumi (Priangan) except Galuh (Ciamis). The kingdom of Sumedang Larang during Prabu Geusan Ulun experienced rapid progress in the social, cultural, religious, military and political fields of government. After his death in 1608, his adopted son, Pangeran Dipati Rangga Gempol Kusumadinata or Rangga Gempol I, known as Raden Aria Suradiwangsa succeeded him.

During the early reign of King Geusan Ulun, Pajajaran Galuh Pakuan Kingdom was in its ruin because it was attacked by the Banten Kingdom led by Sultan Maulana Yusuf in order to spread Islam. Because of the attack the Pajajaran Kingdom was destroyed. During the defeat of the Kingdom of Pajajaran, Prabu Siliwangi before leaving the Palace he sent four soldiers chosen by Prabu Siliwangi to go to the Sumedang Larang Kingdom with the people of Pajajaran to seek refuge called Kandaga Lante. Kandaga Lante handed over the golden crown symbol of King Pajajaran's power, two and three-tiered necklaces, and other jewelry such as benten, siger, tampekan, and lightning shoulder (the heirloom is still stored in the Prabu Geusan Ulun Museum in Sumedang). Kandaga Lante handed over four people, namely Sanghyang Hawu or Grandpa Jayaperkosa, Batara Dipati Wiradijaya or Grandparent N Subscription, Sanghyang Kondanghapa, and Batara Pancar Buana or Grandparent Eggplant Peot.

Although at that time the king's coronation was taken by the Banten forces (wadyabala Banten) but the royal crown was saved. By giving the crown to King Geusan Ulun, it can be assumed that the Kingdom of Pajajaran Galuh Pakuan became part of the Sumedang Larang Kingdom, so that the territory of the Sumedang Larang Kingdom became extensive. The western boundary of the Cisadane River, the eastern boundary of the Cipamali River (except Cirebon and Jayakarta), the northern boundary of the Java Sea, and the southern border of the Indian Ocean.

Politically the Sumedang Larang Kingdom was urged by three enemies: the Banten Kingdom who felt humiliated and did not accept the appointment of King Geusan Ulun as a replacement for King Siliwangi; VOC troops in Jayakarta which always disturb the people; and the Sultanate of Cirebon who were feared to have joined the Sultanate of Banten. At that time the Sultanate of Mataram was in its heyday, many small kingdoms in the archipelago who claimed to join Mataram. With political objectives also finally King Geusan Ulun declared joining the Sultanate of Mataram and he went to Demak with the aim to explore Islam with four loyal soldiers (Kandaga Lante). After boarding school in Demak, before returning to Sumedang Larang he stopped by Cirebon to meet with Panembahan Ratu the ruler of Cirebon, and was welcomed with joy because they were both descendants of Sunan Gunung Jati.

With his attitude and behavior are very good and his beautiful face, Prabu Geusan Ulun is favored by residents in Cirebon. Empress Panembahan Ratu, named Ratu Harisbaya, fell in love with King Geusan Ulun. When on the way home it turned out that without his knowledge, Ratu Harisbaya joined the group, and because Ratu Harisbaya threatened to commit suicide was finally brought home to Sumedang Larang. Because of that incident, Panembahan Ratu was furious and sent troops to retake Ratu Harisbaya, resulting in a war between Cirebon and Sumedang Larang.

Finally Sultan Agung of Mataram asked Panembahan Ratu to make peace and divorce Ratu Harisbaya, originally from Pajang-Demak, and was married by Sultan Agung to Panembahan Ratu. Panembahan Ratu was prepared on condition that Sumedang Larang surrender the area west of the Cilutung River (now Majalengka) to become the Cirebon region. Because of the war the capital was also moved to Mount Rengganis, which is now called Dayeuh Luhur.

Prabu Geusan Ulun had three wives: the first was Nyi Mas Cukang Gedeng Waru, daughter of Sunan Pada; the second is Ratu Harisbaya from Cirebon, and the third is Nyi Mas Pasarean. Of these three wives he had fifteen children:
  • Prince Rangga Gede, who was the forerunner of the Sumedang regent
  • Raden Aria Wirareja, at Lemahbeureum, Darmawangi
  • Kiyai Kadu Rangga Gede
  • Kiyai Rangga Patra Kalasa, in Cundukkayu
  • Raden Aria Rangga Pati, in Haurkuning
  • Raden Ngabehi Watang
  • Nyi Mas Demang Cipaku
  • Raden Ngabehi Martayuda, in Ciawi
  • Rd. Rangga Wiratama, at Cibeureum
  • Rd. Rangga Nitinagara, in Pagaden and Pamanukan
  • Nyi Mas Rangga Pamade
  • Nyi Mas Dipati Ukur, in Bandung
  • Rd. Suriadiwangsa, the son of Ratu Harisbaya from Panembahan Ratu
  • Pangeran Tumenggung Tegalkalong
  • Rd. Kiyai Demang Cipaku, in Dayeuh Luhur.
Prabu Geusan Ulun was the last king of the Sumedang Larang Kingdom, because it later became part of Mataram and the rank of king was reduced to duke (regent).

Government under Mataram
Dipati Rangga Gempol
When Rangga Gempol took the leadership, in 1620 AD Sumedang Larang was made the territory of the Kingdom of Mataram under Sultan Agung, and changed its status as 'kingdom' to 'regency wedana'. This was done as an effort to make the Sumedang region as a defense area of ​​Mataram from the attacks of the Kingdom of Banten and the Netherlands, which was in conflict with Mataram. Sultan Agung then gave orders to Rangga Gempol and his troops to lead the attack on Sampang, Madura. While the government was temporarily handed over to his younger brother, Dipati Rangga Gede.

Dipati Rangga Gede
When half the military power of the Sumedang Larang duchy was ordered to go to Madura at the behest of Sultan Agung, came from the Banten Kingdom troops to invade. Because Rangga Gede was unable to withstand the Banten attack, he finally escaped. This defeat angered Sultan Agung so he detained Dipati Rangga Gede, and the subsequent administration was handed over to Dipati Ukur.

Dipati Measure
On July 12, 1628, a Mataram delegation came to Timbanganten (Tatar Ukur). Bringing a letter of assignment from Sultan Agung, to order the Duke of Wangsanata or also called Wangsataruna aka Dipati Ukur, to lead his army and invade the VOC in Batavia to help troops from Java. It was October 1628. In the letter there was a kind of agreement that the Sundanese troops had to wait for the Javanese troops in Karawang before they would jointly attack Batavia. But, after a week of waiting it turned out that the troops from Java had not yet arrived while the logistics were running low. Because logistics was running low and afraid that the soldier's mentality was going down, Dipati Ukur decided to first go to Batavia to storm the VOC while waiting for the help of troops from Java.

After only two days the Sundanese Troops led by Dipati Ukur fought against the VOC, Javanese troops came to Karawang and found that the Sundanese Army was not there. Offended because they felt unappreciated, instead of helping the Sundanese troops who were desperately attacking the Javanese VOC, they were instead hostile to the Sunda Army.

In the midst of the turmoil, a messenger from Dayeuh Ukur came with a letter from Enden Saribanon who was the wife of Dipati Ukur who reported that the girls, the wives of warriors and even himself were almost raped by the Mataram emissary commander and his troops. The Commander of Mataram himself was in Dayeuh Ukur in order to deliver a letter from Sultan Agung and upon hearing that Dipati Ukur ignored the message of the Sultan Agung to wait for Javanese troops in Karawang, these commanders then vent their anger by raping the girls and also seizing the treasure their objects.

Hearing the news, Dipati Ukur who was at war decided to stop the war and return to Pabuntelan (Paseurdayeuh Tatar Ukur, or Baleendah - Dayeuhkolot now). Dipati Ukur who was angry with the behavior of the Mataram envoys when he arrived at Pabuntelan immediately finished off the Mataram envoys. Unfortunately, of all the envoys there was one person who escaped death and then reported to Sultan Agung about what Dipati Ukur had done to his friends.

In 'Negara Kerta Bhumi', it is stated that one of the characteristics of Sultan Agung is that if it is not to fail to give tasks to his subordinates. If it fails then it is certain that the person concerned will be sentenced to death. So, the Mataram commander who escaped was also to avoid the death sentence he made up about why the Mataram army could fail to conquer the VOC. All errors were inflicted on the shoulders of Dipati Ukur. Sultan Agung was angry because after all the withdrawal Dipati Ukur from the battlefield was a big loss for Mataram. In essence, the cause of the defeat of Mataram was due to the withdrawal of Dipati Ukur. Therefore, Dipati Ukur was labeled a traitor and wanted to rebel against Mataram. So, because Dipati Ukur was considered rebellious, even Sultan Dipati Ukur deserved death sentence. Finally Sultan Agung ordered Cirebon to catch Dipati Ukur, whether he lived or died. The crushing of Dipati Ukur was led directly by Tumenggung Narapaksa from Mataram.

From that reality, Dipati Ukur then realized that he must now face Mataram. Strength was stacked. Dipati Ukur began lobbying several regents to also fight Mataram and become an independent district. This invitation raises the pros and cons. Some agreed such as the Karawang Regent, Ciasem, Sagalaherang, Taraju, Sumedang, Pamanukan, Limbangan, Malangbong and so on. And some of the songs don't agree. Among those who disagreed were Ki Somahita from Sindangkasih, Ki Astamanggala from Cihaurbeuti, and Ki Wirawangsa from Sukakerta.

Dipati Ukur has not yet succeeded in realizing his dream to establish an independent district that is free from the power of Mataram. Suddenly Bagus Sutapura, one of the powerful young men mandraguna (son of the regent of Kawasen, Galuh region) who is an executioner who was asked to help by Tumenggung Narapaksa hurried to come to arrest him . There was a fierce battle between the two (reportedly up to 40 days 40 nights). After all energy is drained, finally Dipati Ukur can be arrested and then taken to Cirebon to be handed over to Mataram. Dipati Ukur was finally sentenced to death in Mataram square by beheaded. After the death of Dipati Ukur died, the power of Mataram in the Sunda tatar became even stronger. Even in the north coast, many Mataram troops did not return to Mataram and preferred to marry local residents. To fulfill the necessities of life of these warriors, many who opened up paddy fields, especially in the Karawang area, were different from the habits of the Sundanese people at that time who generally gardened. Perhaps, this is what eventually until now Karawang is famous for its rice fields and has become one of the rice barns in West Java.

Division of royal territory
After his sentence was over, Dipati Rangga Gede was given power back to govern in Sumedang. Whereas the Priangan area outside Sumedang and Galuh (Ciamis), by Mataram is divided into three parts:
  • Sukapura Regency, led by Ki Wirawangsa Umbul Sukakerta, title Tumenggung Wiradegdaha / R. Wirawangsa
  • Bandung Regency, led by Ki Astamanggala Umbul Cihaurbeuti, with the title Tumenggung Wirangun-angun,
  • Parakanmuncang Regency, led by Ki Somahita Umbul Sindangkasih, title Tumenggung Tanubaya.
  • All of these regions b
  • erada dibawah pengawasan Rangga Gede (atau Rangga Gempol II), yang sekaligus ditunjuk Mataram sebagai Wedana Bupati (kepala para bupati) Priangan.
Cultural heritage
Until now, Sumedang is still a regency, as a remnant from the political conflicts that were mostly intervened by the Kingdom of Mataram at that time. The historical artifacts in the form of war heirlooms, royal attributes, equipment of the kings and the ancient manuscripts of the Sumedang Larang Kingdom can still be seen in general at the Prabu Geusan Ulun Museum, Sumedang is located just south of the Sumedang town square, united with the Srimanganti Building and government buildings the local area.

    ^ a b Kartadibrata, R.M. Abdullah. 1989. Museum Prabu Geusan Ulun Sumedang, Brosur. Yayasan Pangeran Sumedang, Museum Prabu Geusan Ulun. Cetakan ke-2.
    ^ Edi S. Ekajati (Carita Dipati Ukur Karya Sastra Sejarah Sunda)
    ^ Emuch Herman Sumantri (Sejarah Sukapura, Sebuah Telaah Filologis) dan hasil penelitian dari Atja, Saleh Danasasmita dan Ayat Rohaedi dari Naskah Pangeran Wangsakerta (Nagara Kerta Bumi 1.5)
    ^ Anonim. Tanpa tahun. Sajarah Sukapura. Pemegang naskah R. Sulaeman Anggapradja. Kota Kulon, Garut Kota.
External links
    Manuscript Ancient-Sajarah Sukapura, from the Garut Regency Government Tourism Site Online

Source: court_Sumedang_Larang

Photo: Special

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