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Mataram I (Ancient Mataram / Medang) - 732 AD

Jogja (Dreamland Library) - Medang Kingdom (or often also called the Ancient Mataram Kingdom or the Hindu Mataram Kingdom) is the name of a kingdom that stood and was centered in Central Java (now Jogyakarta) estimated to stand in 732 AD (8th Century AD), starting with the Government Raja Sanjaya who is entitled Rakai Mataram the Queen of Sanjaya.

In the 10th century the center of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom then moved to East Java. in the 10th century. These royal kings left a lot of historical evidence in the form of inscriptions scattered in Central and East Java, and built many temples both Hindu and Buddhist in style. The Medang Kingdom finally collapsed in the early 11th century.

Name of the Medang Kingdom
In general, the term Medang Kingdom is only commonly used to refer to the East Java period, whereas based on the inscriptions that have been found, the name Medang has been known since the previous period, namely the Central Java period.

Religion: Hinduism and Buddhism

Language: Sanskrit

During its 178 years of existence, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was led by kings, as follows:
  • Rakai Mataram the Queen of Sanjaya (732-760M)
  • Sri Maharaja Rakai Panangkaran (760-780M)
  • Sri Maharaja Rakai Panunggalan (780-800M)
  • Sri Maharaja Rakai Warak (800-820M)
  • Sri Maharaja Rakai Garung (820-840M)
  • Sri Maharaja Rakai Pikatan (840-863M)
  • Sri Maharaja Rakai Kayuwangi (863-882M)
  • Sri Maharaja Rakai Watuhumalang (882-898M)
  • Sri Maharaja Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung (898-910M)
Sociological and Religious Approaches
The majority of the population adheres to Hinduism and Buddhism, but in reality the community can still live in harmony and mutual tolerance.

This was proven, when they worked together to build Borobudur Temple. Where the Hindu Community actually has no interest in the construction of the Borobudur Temple itself, but because it is still carried out Local Wisdom, where the attitude of tolerance and mutual cooperation are well maintained, so they (Hindu religious communities) voluntarily helped assist the development.

The regularity of the order of social life at the time of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was also evidenced by legal compliance by all parties. This can be seen, when the Legal Rule Created by the Villagers, was apparently also respected and carried out by palace officials. All that can take place, because the implementation of Local Wisdom.

Political Approach
To maintain the territory, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom established a cooperative relationship with neighboring kingdoms, such as; Srivijaya, Siam and India. In addition, Ancient Mataram strongly adheres to Javanese politics, namely by using political marriage diplomacy. As an example; during the reign of Samaratungga who tried to reunite the House of Syailendra and the House of Sanjaya, they married their son named Pramodyawardhani (House of Syailendra) with Rakai Pikatan (House of Sanjaya).

With this Political Marriage Diplomacy, a fabric of religious harmony between the Hindu (Sanjaya dynasty) and Buddha (Syailendra dynasty) was increasingly tightened.

Government system
The kingdom as a system of governance of Ancient Mataram, which was used from since the founding of Ancient Mataram in the 8th century until the collapse in the 11th century

Later this system was known as the dynastic system; or commonly called the Sanjaya Dynasty

Government is held by a king

Ancient Mataram has several levels of the King namely; Datu and Sri Maharaja

From the history of his reign, there are several Kings who have ruled:
  • Sanjaha, founder of the Medang Kingdom ruled from 723M
  • Rakai Panagkaran, the beginning of the reign of Syailendrra 770M
  • Rakai Panunggalan alias Dharanindra
  • Rakai Warak alias Samaragrawira
  • Rakai Garung alias Samaratungga
  • Rakai Pikatan Pramodawardhani's husband, the beginning of the revival of the Sanjaya Dynasty 840M
  • Rakai Kayuwangi aka Dyah Lokapala in power starting from 856 AD - 880 AD
  • Rakai Watuhumalang
  • Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung
  • Mpu Daksa
  • Rakai Layang Dyah Tulodong
  • Rakai Sumba Dyah Waw
Ancient Mataram since the 9th century has been using, and has a currency in the form of gold and silver to carry out trade transactions. Where the money was called Javanese Tahil.

Ancient Mataram Kingdom, famous as a kingdom rich in rice and gold mines

Hindu Buddhist Culture
Ancient Mataram has a very high culture. This can be seen from the many relics in the form of inscriptions and temples. relics from the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, including:
  • Canggal Inscription (732m),
  • Kelurak Inscription (782 AD),
  • Mantyasih Inscription (Kedu).
In addition, Hindu temples were also built, including:
  • Candi Bima,
  • Arjuna Temple,
  • Nakula Temple,
  • Prambanan temple,
  • Sambisari Temple,
  • Ratu Baka Temple,
  • Candi Sukuh.
In addition to Hindu temples, Buddhist temples were also built, including:
  • Borobudur temple,
  • Kalasan Temple,
  • Sewu Temple,
  • Candi Sari,
  • Candi Pawon,
  • Mendut Temple.
Setback and Destruction
The decline of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was caused by among others;
  • Does not have a sea port so it is difficult to connect with the outside world
  • Often hit by natural disasters by the eruption of Mount Merapi
  • Got the threat of attack from the Srivijaya kingdom
Therefore, in 929 AD the capital of Ancient Mataram was moved by Empu Sindok, to East Java (downstream of the Brantas River).

Moving the capital to East Java is considered the best way.

Some reasons, why East Java, among others;

East Java is still the territory of Ancient Mataram, this region is considered more strategic. This refers to the location of the fertile Brantas river, and has access to river shipping to the Java Sea. This kingdom came to be known as the Old Mataram Kingdom in East Java, or called the Medang Kawulan Kingdom.

  • The Dieng Temple Complex in Wonosobo, Central Java, is a relic of a Hindu temple during the Ancient Mataram Kingdom.
  • Plaosan Temple in Klaten, Central Java, one of the relics of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom set in Buddhism.
  • The statue of Raja Airlangga, the last king of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom of East Java, at Candi Belahan. This statue is now kept in the Trowulan Museum.
Sources: From Various Sources
Photo: Special

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