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Sultanate of Banten - 1526 AD

Tanjung Lesung (Dreamland Library) - Banten Sultanate is an Islamic empire that once stood in Banten Province, Indonesia. It began around 1526, when the Demak Kingdom expanded its influence to the west coast of Java Island, by conquering several port areas and later making it a military base and area trading.

Maulana Hasanuddin, son of Sunan Gunung Jati played a role in the conquest. After the conquest, Maulana Hasanuddin established a fortress called Surosowan, which later became the center of government after Banten became a stand-alone sultanate.

For almost 3 centuries the Sultanate of Banten was able to survive and even achieve extraordinary glory, which at the same time invaders from Europe had arrived and instilled its influence. Civil war, and competition with global forces over resources and trade, and dependence on weapons has weakened the hegemony of the Sultanate of Banten over its territory. The political power of the Sultanate of Banten finally collapsed in 1813 after the Surosowan Palace as a symbol of power in the City of Diamond was destroyed, and in the final period of its reign, the Banten sultans were no more than subordinate kings of the colonial government in the Dutch East Indies.

Initial Formation
Initially the Banten region, also known as the Girang Banten, was part of the Sunda Kingdom. The arrival of Demak Kingdom troops under the leadership of Maulana Hasanuddin to the region in addition to expanding the region also at the same time spreading Islamic da'wah. Then triggered by the Sunda-Portugal cooperation in the economic and political fields, this was considered to endanger the position of the Kingdom of Demak after their defeat expelled Portugal from Melaka in 1513. On the orders of Trenggana, together with Fatahillah carried out the attack and conquest of the Coconut Port around 1527, which at that time it was still the main port of the Sunda Kingdom. 

Besides starting to build a stronghold in Banten, Maulana Hasanuddin also continued expanding power to pepper-producing areas in Lampung. He was instrumental in spreading Islam in the region, besides that he also had trade contacts with the king of Malangkabu (Minangkabau, Inderapura Kingdom), Sultan Munawar Syah and was awarded a kris by the king. 

Along with the decline of Demak especially after the death of Trenggana, [6] Banten which was previously vazal from the Demak Kingdom, began to break away and become an independent kingdom. Maulana Yusuf, son of Maulana Hasanuddin, ascended the throne in 1570 [7] continued the expansion of Banten into the Sundanese interior by conquering Pakuan Pajajaran in 1579. Then he was succeeded by his son Maulana Muhammad, who tried to conquer Palembang in 1596 as part of Banten's efforts in narrowing the Banten movement Portugal in the archipelago, but failed because he died in the conquest.

During the time of Prince Ratu, son of Maulana Muhammad, he became the first king on Java to take the title "Sultan" in 1638 with the Arabic name Abu al-Mafakhir Mahmud Abdulkadir. During this time the Sultan of Banten had begun to intensively engage in diplomatic relations with other forces at the time, one of the letters known to the Sultan of Banten to the King of England, James I in 1605 and in 1629 to Charles I.

The peak of glory
The Sultanate of Banten is a maritime kingdom and relies on trade to support its economy. The monopoly over the pepper trade in Lampung placed Banten rulers at the same time as intermediaries and the Sultanate of Banten developed rapidly, becoming one of the important trading centers at that time. [9] Sea trade expanded throughout the archipelago, Banten becoming a multi-ethnic region. Assisted by British, Danish and Chinese, Banten traded with Persians, Indians, Siamese, Vietnamese, Filipinos, Chinese and Japanese. 

The era of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (enthroned 1651-1682) was seen as the heyday of Banten. Under him, Banten had an impressive fleet, built on the European example, and also had hired Europeans to work in the Sultanate of Banten. In securing its shipping lane Banten also sent its fleet to Sukadana or the Kingdom of Tanjungpura (present-day West Kalimantan) and conquered it in 1661. During this time Banten also tried to escape the pressure imposed by the VOC, which had previously carried out a blockade of merchant ships bound for Banten.

Civil War
Around 1680 a dispute arose in the Sultanate of Banten, due to the struggle for power and conflict between Sultan Ageng and his son Sultan Haji. This division was exploited by Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) who provided support to Sultan Haji, so that a civil war was inevitable. While in strengthening his position, Sultan Haji or Sultan Abu Nashar Abdul Qahar also had sent 2 of his envoys, to meet the King of England in London in 1682 to get support and weapons assistance. [1] In this war Sultan Ageng was forced to retreat from his palace and move to an area called Tirtayasa, but on December 28, 1682 this area was also controlled by Sultan Haji along with the VOC. Sultan Ageng along with his other sons Prince Purbaya and Sheikh Yusuf from Makassar retreated south inland Sunda. But on March 14, 1683 Sultan Ageng was captured and then detained in Batavia.

While the VOC continued to pursue and break the resistance of followers of Sultan Ageng who was still in the leadership of Prince Purbaya and Sheikh Yusuf. On 5 May 1683, the VOC sent Untung Surapati, who was a lieutenant and his Balinese troops, to join forces led by Lieutenant Johannes Maurits van Happel to subdue the Pamotan and Dayeuh Luhur areas, where on 14 December 1683 they succeeded in capturing Sheikh Yusuf. [14] Meanwhile, after being pressed, Prince Purbaya finally gave himself up. Then Untung Surapati was ordered by Captain Johan Ruisj to fetch Prince Purbaya, and on their way to bring Prince Purbaya to Batavia, they met with VOC troops led by Willem Kuffeler, but a dispute broke out between them, the peak was on January 28, 1684, the Willem Kuffeler army post destroyed, and next Untung Surapati and his followers became a VOC fugitive. While Prince Purbaya himself only arrived on 7 February 1684 in Batavia.

VOC assistance and support to Sultan Haji must be paid by giving compensation to the VOC among them on March 12, 1682, the Lampung region was handed over to the VOC, as stated in Sultan Haji's letter to Major Issac de Saint Martin, Admiral VOC ship in Batavia which was anchored in Banten . The letter was later corroborated by an agreement letter dated August 22, 1682 which made the VOC obtain the monopoly rights to the pepper trade in Lampung.  Besides that, based on the agreement dated April 17, 1684, Sultan Haji also had to compensate the losses caused by the war to the VOC. 

After the death of Sultan Haji in 1687, the VOC began to seize its influence in the Sultanate of Banten, so that the appointment of the Banten sultans had to obtain the approval of the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in Batavia. Sultan Abu Fadhl Muhammad Yahya was appointed to replace Sultan Haji but only reigned for about three years, subsequently replaced by his brother Prince Adipati with the title Sultan Abul Mahasin Muhammad Zainul Abidin and later also known as Kang Sinuhun ing Nagari Banten.

The civil war that took place in Banten left behind the instability of the next government. Conflict between the descendants of the Banten authorities [18] as well as the Banten people's dissatisfaction turmoil, over the intervention of the VOC in Banten affairs. Popular resistance peaked again at the end of the reign of Sultan Abul Fathi Muhammad Syifa Zainul Arifin, including the resistance of Ratu Bagus Buang and Kyai Tapa. As a result of the prolonged conflict the Sultan of Banten again asked the VOC for help in reducing some of the resistance of his people so that since 1752 Banten had become a Vassal of the VOC.

Abolition of the empire
In 1808 Herman Willem Daendels, Governor General of the Dutch East Indies 1808-1810, ordered the construction of the Post Road to defend the island of Java from British invasion. [19] Daendels ordered the Sultan of Banten to move his capital to Anyer and provide manpower to build a port that was planned to be built in Ujung Kulon. The Sultan refused Daendels orders, in response Daendels ordered the attack on Banten and the destruction of Surosowan Palace. The Sultan and his family were held in Puri Intan (Surosowan Palace) and then imprisoned in Fort Speelwijk. Sultan Abul Nashar Muhammad Ishaq Zainulmutaqin was then exiled and exiled to Batavia. On November 22, 1808, Daendels announced from his headquarters in Serang that the territory of the Sultanate of Banten had been absorbed into the territory of the Dutch East Indies. 

The Banten Sultanate was officially abolished in 1813 by the British colonial government. In that year, Sultan Muhammad bin Muhammad Muhyiddin Zainussalihin was stripped of and forced to abdicate by Thomas Stamford Raffles. This event was the final blow which ended the history of the Sultanate of Banten.

Based on archaeological data, the early days of the Banten people were influenced by several kingdoms carrying Hindu-Buddhist beliefs, such as Tarumanagara, Srivijaya and the Sunda Kingdom.

In the Banten Chronicle tells how Sunan Gunung Jati together with Maulana Hasanuddin, carried out an intensive spread of Islam to the Banten Girang ruler and his inhabitants. Some mystical stories also accompany the process of islamization in Banten, including when during Maulana Yusuf began to spread propaganda to the inhabitants of the Sundanese interior, which was marked by the conquest of Pakuan Pajajaran.

Islam became the pillar of the establishment of the Sultanate of Banten, the Sultan of Banten was referred to as having a genealogy to the Prophet Muhammad, and placing the ulamas to have a great influence in the lives of their people, as well as the tarekat and Sufism also developed in Banten. While the culture of society absorbs Islam as an inseparable part. Some traditions are influenced by the development of Islam in society, as seen in Debus's martial arts.

Kadi played an important role in the government of the Sultanate of Banten, in addition to being responsible for settling people's disputes in religious courts, as well as in upholding Islamic law such as hudud. 

Religious tolerance in Banten has developed well. Although dominated by Muslims, certain communities were allowed to build their worship facilities, where around 1673 there were already a number of temples in the area around the port of Banten.

The progress of the Sultanate of Banten was supported by a large population and multi-ethnicity. Starting from Java, Sundanese and Malay. While other ethnic groups in the archipelago with a significant number include Makassar, Bugis and Bali.

From several European sources mentioned around 1672, in Banten there are estimated to be between 100 000 to 200 000 men who are ready to fight, other sources say, that in Banten can be recruited as many as 10 000 people who are ready to bear arms. But from the most reliable source, the Dagh Register- (16.1.1673) mentions from the VOC census conducted in 1673, it is estimated that residents in the city of Banten capable of using spears or rifles number around 55 000 people. If the entire population is counted, whatever their nationality, it is estimated that there are around 150 000 residents, including women, children and the elderly.

Around 1676 thousands of Chinese people sought asylum and worked in Banten. This wave of migration was the result of the war in Fujian and in other parts of South China. These communities generally build settlements around the coast and rivers and have a significant proportion compared to Indian and Arab communities. While in Banten several European community groups such as Britain, the Netherlands, France, Denmark and Portugal have also built accommodations and warehouses around Ci Banten.

In laying the foundation of Banten's economic development, in addition to trade for the coastal areas, inland areas the opening of rice fields was introduced. This assumption developed because at that time in some remote areas such as Lebak, the economy of the community was supported by cultivation activities, as interpreted from the karhian scriptures sanghyang narrating the terms pahuma (cultivators), summoners (hunters) and panyadap (tappers). These three terms are clearly more about the field system, as well as the name of the equipment such as cleaver, patik, baliung, kored and tapping.

During the time of Sultan Ageng between 1663 and 1667 large irrigation works were carried out to develop agriculture. Between 30 and 40 km new canals were built using 16,000 people. Along the canal, between 30 and 40 000 thousand hectares of new rice fields and thousands of hectares of coconut plantations were planted. 30 000 farmers were placed on the land, including Bugis and Makasarese. Sugar cane plantations, which were imported by Chinese merchants in the 1620s, were developed. Under Sultan Ageng, the development of Banten's population increased significantly. 

It cannot be denied until 1678, Banten had become a metropolitan city, with its population and wealth making Banten one of the largest cities in the world at that time. 

After Banten emerged as an independent kingdom, its rulers used the title Sultan, while in the palace circle there were the titles Pangeran Ratu, Pangeran Adipati, Pangeran Gusti, and Prince Anom who were carried by the heirs. In the Banten government there was someone with the titles Mangkubumi, Kadi, Patih and Syahbandar who had a role in government administration. While in Banten there is a group of nobles who are dubbed with tubagus (Ratu Bagus), queen or sayyid, and other special groups who get a special position are composed of scholars, civil servants, and champions.

The center of Banten government is between two rivers namely Ci Banten and Ci Karangantu. In the area a market, a square and Surosowan Palace were once surrounded by walls and a moat, while in the north of the palace the Banten Grand Mosque was built with a lighthouse-shaped tower which probably also functioned as a watchtower to see the arrival of ships in Banten.

Based on the History of Banten, the location of the main market in Banten is between the Great Mosque of Banten and Ci Banten, and is known by the name Kapalembangan. While in the area of ​​the square there is a paseban used by the Sultan of Banten as a place to convey information to his people. Overall the design of the city of Banten is rectangular which is influenced by the Hindu-Buddhist concept or representation known as the mandala. Besides that in the city area there are several villages that represent certain ethnicities, such as Kampong Pekojan (Persia) and Kampong Chinatown.

The Sultanate of Banten has imposed excise tax on ships that go to Banten, the excise tax collection was carried out by Syahbandar who was in an area called Customs. One famous syahbandar at the time of Sultan Ageng was named Syahbandar Kaytsu.

List of Banten rulers
Maulana Hasanuddin or Pangeran Sabakingkin 1552-1570
    Maulana Yusuf or Pangeran Pasareyan 1570 - 1585
    Maulana Muhammad or Pangeran Tengahrana 1585 - 1596
    Sultan Abu al-Mafakhir Mahmud Abdulkadir or Prince Ratu 1596 - 1647
    Sultan Abu al-Ma'ali Ahmad 1647 - 1651
    Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa or Sultan Abu al-Fath Abdul Fattah 1651-1682
    Sultan Haji or Sultan Abu Nashar Abdul Qahar 1683 - 1687
    Sultan Abu Fadhl Muhammad Yahya 1687 - 1690
    Sultan Abul Mahasin Muhammad Zainul Abidin 1690 - 1733
    Sultan Abul Fathi Muhammad Syifa Zainul Arifin 1733-1747
    Ratu Syarifah Fatimah 1747 - 1750
    Sultan Arif Zainul Asyiqin al-Qadiri 1753 - 1773
    Sultan Abul Mafakhir Muhammad Aliuddin 1773 - 1799
    Sultan Abul Fath Muhammad Muhyiddin Zainussalihin 1799 - 1803
    Sultan Abul Nashar Muhammad Ishaq Zainulmutaqin 1803 - 1808
    Sultan Muhammad bin Muhammad Muhyiddin Zainussalihin 1809-1813

Historical heritage
After the abolition of the Sultanate of Banten, the Banten region became part of the colonization zone. During the Dutch East Indies government, in 1817 Banten was made a residency, and since 1926 the area has been part of the West Java Province. The triumph of the past of the Sultanate of Banten inspired its people to turn the area of ​​Banten back into an autonomous region, the reform of the Indonesian government played a role in pushing the Banten region as a separate province which was then determined through Law Number 23 of 2000.

In addition, the Banten community has become a separate ethnic group that is colored by the inter-ethnic mix that had existed during the heyday of the Sultanate of Banten, and this diversity has made the Banten community as one of the dominant forces in the archipelago.

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