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Kanjuruhan - between 500 AD and 599 AD

Malang (Dreamland Library) - Kanjempuan is a Hindu-style kingdom in East Java, whose center is near Malang City now. Kanjempuan is thought to have been established in the 6th century AD (still contemporaneous with the Kingdom of Taruma around Bekasi and Bogor now). Written proof of this kingdom is the Dinoyo Inscription. The famous king is Gajayana. Other relics are the Temple of Badut and Candi Wurung.

Long time ago, when Java was ruled by kings scattered in the regions. Raja Purnawarman ruled in the Tarumanegara Kingdom; Maharani Shima ruled in the Kingdom of Kalingga (or "Holing"); and King Sanjaya ruled in the Kingdom of Ancient Mataram. In East Java there is also a safe and prosperous kingdom. The kingdom is in the Malang area now, between the Brantas River and Metro River, on the plains which are now named Dinoyo, Merjosari, Tlogomas, and Ketawanggede Lowokwaru District. The kingdom was named Kanjempuan.

How can the Kanjempuan Kingdom stand and stand in the valley between the Brantas River and Kali Metro on the eastern slope of Mount Kawi, which is far from the coast or sea trade routes? We certainly remember that the interior of the island of Java is famous for its agrarian regions, and it is in such agrarian regions that centers of community group activity emerge as centers of government. It seems that since the beginning of the BC, Hindu and Buddhist religions spread throughout the western and central islands of Indonesia, around the sixth and seventh centuries AD to the interior of eastern Java, including Malang. It is because of Malang that we find the oldest evidence of Hindu-style royal government activity in eastern Java.

The proof is the Dinoyo inscription written in Saka 682 (or if it is made in the year BC plus 78 years, so it coincides with the year 760 AD). It is said of a king named Dewa Singha, who ruled over his enormous palace which was purified by the fire of Shiva. Raja Dewa Singha has a son named Liswa, who after ruling over his father became king with the title Gajayana. During the reign of King Gajayana, the Kingdom of Kanjempuan developed rapidly, both government, social, economic and cultural arts. With all the dignitaries of the country and all its people, King Gajayana made a shrine of worship which is very good to glorify the Agastya Receipt. The king also ordered the statue of the Sage Agastya to be made from a very beautiful black stone, as a substitute for the statue of the Sage Agastya which was made of wood by King Gajayana's grandmother.

Under the reign of King Gajayana, the people felt safe and protected. Royal power covers the eastern and western slopes of Mount Kawi. North to the Java sea coast. Guaranteed domestic security. There is no war. Robberies and robberies rarely occur, because the king always acts decisively in accordance with applicable law. Thus the people live safely, peacefully, and avoiding disaster.

Raja Gajayana only had a daughter, whom his father gave the name Uttejana. A royal princess heir to the throne of the Kanjuruhan Kingdom. When he grew up, he was set up with a prince from Paradeh named Prince Jananiya. Finally Prince Jananiya, together with Empress Uttejana, ruled the kingdom of her father's inheritance when King Gajayana died. Like their ancestors, they both ruled with justice. The people of Kanjuruhan increasingly loved their king. Thus, for generations the Kingdom of Kanjempuan was ruled by kings descended from King Dewa Singha. All the kings were famous for their wisdom, justice, and generosity.

In about 847 AD, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom in Central Java was ruled by Sri Maharaja Rakai Pikatan Dyah Saladu. This king is famous for being fair and wise. It was under his rule that the Kingdom of Mataram developed rapidly, its power was enormous. He is respected by other kings throughout Java. The desire to expand the territory of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom has always been carried out, both through conquest and friendship. The ancient kingdom of Mataram is famous throughout the archipelago, even to foreign countries. Its territory is large, its power is large, its army is strong, and its population is very large.

The expansion of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom reached the eastern part of Java Island. There is no evidence or evidence that there was a conquest with war between the Kingdom of Old Mataram and the Kingdom of Kanjempuan. When the Old Mataram Kingdom was ruled by Sri Maharaja Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung, the king of Kanjuruhan Kingdom donated a perwara temple temple (accompanist) in the Prambanan temple complex which was built by Sri Maharaja Rakai Pikatan in 856 CE (formerly called "Shiva Greha"). The accompanying temple (perwara) was placed in the east row, precisely in the southeast corner. Such development activities are customary for regional kings to the central government. It means that the relationship between the central and regional kingdoms in the regions is always closely intertwined.

At that time the Kanjuruhan Kingdom was practically under the rule of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. Despite this the Kingdom of Kanjempuan still ruled in his area. Only every year must report to the central government. In the administrative structure of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom of the era of King Balitung, the king of the Kanjuruhan Kingdom was better known as the Rakyekan Kanempuan, meaning "regional ruler" in Kanuruhan. Kanuruh itself seems to change the sound of Kanjempuan. Because as a regional king, the authority of a regional king is not as extensive as when he became an independent kingdom as when it was founded by his ancestors. The power of the regional kings in Kanuruhan can be known at that time was the eastern slope area of ​​Mount Kawi.

Kanjuruhan Rakryan Power
Kanyek Rakryan territory Kanempuan character. Character is a vast territory, which oversees dozens of women (villages). So maybe the character area can be determined almost the same at the district level. Thus the Kanempuan character oversees wanua (villages) which lie as wide as the eastern slope of Mount Kawi to the western slope of the Tengger-Semeru Mountains to the south to the southern coast of Java.

From all the data the names of villages (women) that are in the region (character) Kanempuan according to written sources in the form of inscriptions found around Malang are as follows:
    Balingawan area (now Mangliawan Village, Pakis District),
    Turryan area (now Turen Village, Turen District),
    Tunjungan area (now Tegaron Hamlet, Lesanpuro Village),
    Kabalon area (now Dukuh Kabalon Cemarakandang),
    Panawijyan area (now Palowijen Village, Blimbing District),
  Bunulrejo area (which was not named Bunulrejo Village in the era of the kingdom of Kanempuan), and areas around western Malang such as: Wurandungan (now Dukuh Kelandungan - Landungsari), Karuman, Merjosari, Dinoyo, Ketawanggede, which in several inscriptions are mentioned. as the area where the heavenly clan (temple building) is located in the region / city of Kanuruhan.

These are the regions which are the territory of the Rakyekan Kanempuan. It can be said starting from the Landungsari area (west), Palowijen (north), Pakis (east), Turen (south). This Kanry Rakryan official privilege besides being in charge in his own area, also held important positions in the administration of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom since the time of King Balitung, namely as an official in charge of royal administrative affairs. This position lasted until the time of the Majapahit Kingdom. That was a glimpse of the Kanyek Rakryan. The ruler in the area but can play a role in the government structure of the central kingdom, which was never done by other officials (Rakyan), in the history of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom in the past.


Photo: Special

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