Window of Archipelago

La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Cirebon Sultanate - 1445 AD to 1667 AD

Cirebon (Dreamland Library) - Cirebon Sultanate is a prominent Islamic sultanate in West Java in the 15th and 16th centuries AD, and is an important base in inter-island shipping and trade routes.

Its location on the north coast of Java, which is the border between Central Java and West Java, makes it a port and "bridge" between Javanese and Sundanese culture so as to create a distinctive culture, namely Cirebon culture that is not dominated by Javanese culture or Sundanese culture.

According to Sulendraningrat who based the Sundanese and Babad Tanah Atad manuscripts on the Carita Purwaka Caruban Nagari script, Cirebon was originally a small hamlet built by Ki Gedeng Tapa, which gradually developed into a bustling village and was named Caruban (Sundanese: mixed), because there are mixed immigrants from various ethnic groups, religions, languages, customs, and different livelihoods for residence or trade.

Since in the beginning most of the community's livelihoods were fishermen, work developed to catch fish and rebon (small shrimp) along the coast as well as making shrimp paste, paste, and salt. From the term used in making terasi (belendrang) from shrimp rebon, the term "cai-rebon" (Sundanese Language :, rebon water) developed, which later became Cirebon. 

With the support of a busy port and natural resources from the interior, Cirebon later became a large city and became one of the important ports on the north coast of Java both in shipping and trading activities in the archipelago and with other parts of the world. In addition, Cirebon grew into a forerunner to the center of the spread of Islam in West Java.

Early development
Ki Gedeng Tapa
Ki Gedeng Tapa (also known as Ki Gedeng Jumajan Jati) is a wealthy merchant in the port of Muarajati, Cirebon. He began to clear the weeds and built a hut and a Tajug (Jalagrahan) on 1 Shura 1358 (Javanese year) to coincide with the year 1445 AD. From then on, migrants began to settle down and form a new community in Caruban village.

Ki Gedeng Alang-Alang
Kuwu or the first Caruban village head who was appointed by the new community was Ki Gedeng Alang-alang. As Pangraksabumi or his representative, Raden Wal directsang was appointed, the son of Prabu Siliwangi and Nyi Mas Subanglarang or Subangkranjang, who were none other than the daughter of Ki Gedeng Tapa. After Ki Gedeng Alang-alang died, Wal directsang who also holds the title Ki Cakrabumi was appointed his successor as the second kuwu, with the title Pangeran Cakrabuana.

Cirebon Sultanate (Pakungwati)
Pangeran Cakrabuana (.... –1479)

Pangeran Cakrabuana is a descendant of Pajajaran. Sri Baduga Maharaja's first son Prabu Siliwangi from his second wife was named SubangLarang (daughter of Ki Gedeng Tapa). His first name is Raden Wal directsang, after a teenager known as Kian Santang. He has two brothers and sisters, namely Nyai Lara Santang / Syarifah Mudaim and Raden Sangara.

As the eldest son and son he did not get his rights as the crown prince of Pakuan Pajajaran. This is because he embraced Islam (passed down by Subanglarang - his mother), while at that time (16th century) the majority religious teachings in Pajajaran were Sunda Wiwitan (Sundanese ancestral religion) Hinduism and Buddhism. His position was replaced by his younger brother, Prabu Surawisesa, Prabu Siliwangi's son from his third wife Nyai Cantring Manikmayang.

When his grandfather Ki Gedeng Tapa who ruled the north coast of Java died, Wal directsang did not continue his grandfather's position, but instead established the Pakungwati palace and formed a government in Cirebon. As such, the first founder of the Cirebon Sultanate was considered Wal directsang or Pangeran Cakrabuana. Prince Cakrabuana, after the pilgrimage was later called Hajj Abdullah Iman, appeared as the first Cirebon "king" to rule from the Pakungwati palace and actively spread Islam to the residents of Cirebon.

Sunan Gunung Jati (1479-1568)
In 1479 AD, his position was replaced by his younger brother's son, Nyai Rarasantang from the results of his marriage to Syarif Abdullah of Egypt, Syarif Hidayatullah (1448-1568) who after death was known as Sunan Gunung Jati with the title Tumenggung Syarif Hidayatullah bin Maulana Sultan Muhammad Syarif Abdullah and also holds the title of Ingkang Sinuhun Kangjeng Susuhunan Teak Purba Panetep Panatagama Awlya Allah Kutubid of the Caliphate of the Prophet.

Rapid growth and development in the Sultanate of Cirebon began by Syarif Hidayatullah or Sunan Gunung Jati. Sunan Gunung Jati was later believed to be the founder of the dynasties of the kings of the Cirebon and the Banten Sultanates as well as the spreaders of Islam in West Java such as Majalengka, Kuningan, Kawali (Galuh), Sunda Kelapa, and Banten.

Fatahillah (1568-1570)
The vacancy of the power holder was then filled with the inauguration of court officials who during Sunan Gunung Jati carried out the missionary duties, the government was held by Fatahillah or Fadillah Khan. Fatahillah then ascended the throne, and ruled Cirebon officially as king since 1568. Fatahillah occupied the throne of Cirebon only lasted two years because he died in 1570, two years after Sunan Gunung Jati died and was buried next to Sunan Gunung Jati's grave in Gedung Jinem Astana Gunung Sembung. [2]

Panembahan Ratu I (1570-1649)
After the death of Fatahillah, because there were no other candidates worthy of being king, the throne of the kingdom fell to Sunan Gunung Jati's grandchildren, namely the Golden Prince, the eldest son of Prince Dipati Carbon or the great-grandson of Sunan Gunung Jati. The Golden Prince then held the Panembahan Ratu I title and ruled Cirebon for approximately 79 years.

Panembahan Ratu II (1649-1677)
After Panembahan Ratu I died in 1649, the government of the Cirebon Sultanate was continued by his grandson named Prince Rasmi or Prince Karim, because Prince Rasmi's father Prince Seda ing Gayam or Panembahan Adiningkusumah died first. Prince Rasmi then used the name of his late father's title Panembahan Adiningkusuma which was later also known as Panembahan Girilaya or Panembahan Ratu II.

Panembahan Girilaya during his reign was sandwiched between two power powers, namely the Sultanate of Banten and the Sultanate of Mataram. Banten is suspicious because Cirebon is considered closer to Mataram (Amangkurat I is Panembahan Girilaya's father-in-law). Mataram on the other hand felt suspicious that Cirebon did not really get closer, because Panembahan Girilaya and Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa from Banten were both descendants of Pajajaran. This condition culminated with the death of Panembahan Girilaya in Kartasura and the arrest of Prince Martawijaya and Prince Kartawijaya in Mataram.

Panembahan Girilaya was the son-in-law of Sultan Agung Hanyakrakusuma from the Sultanate of Mataram. His tomb is in Jogjakarta, on the Girilaya hill, near the tomb of the king of Mataram in Imogiri, Bantul Regency. According to several sources in Imogiri and Girilaya, the height of Panembahan Girilaya's tomb is parallel to the tomb of Sultan Agung in Imogiri.

The splitting of the Cirebon Sultanate
With the death of Panembahan Girilaya, a ruler emptiness ensued. Prince Wangsakerta, who was in charge of the government in Cirebon as long as his father was not present, was worried about the fate of his two brothers. Then he went to Banten to ask for the help of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (son of Prince Abu Maali who was killed in the Pagarage War), he agreed to the request because he saw an opportunity to improve Banten-Cirebon diplomatic relations. With the help of the Trunojoyo Rebels who were supported by Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, the two Princes were saved. But apparently, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa saw other advantages from his assistance to his relatives in Cirebon, so he appointed the two Princes he saved as Sultan, Prince Mertawijaya as Sultan Kasepuhan & Prince Kertawijaya as Sultan Kanoman, while Prince Wangsakerta had worked hard for 10 more years were only given a small position, this split tactic was carried out to prevent Cirebon from alliances with Mataram.

Split I (1677)
The first division of the Cirebon Sultanate, thus occurred during the coronation of three sons of Panembahan Girilaya, namely Sultan Sepuh, Sultan Anom, and Panembahan Cirebon in 1677. This was a new chapter for the Cirebon palace, where the sultanate was divided into three and each had power. and sent down the next sultans. Thus, the rulers of the next Cirebon Sultanate were:

Sultan of Kasepuhan Palace, Pangeran Martawijaya, with the title of Sultan Sepuh Abil Makarimi Muhammad Samsudin (1677-1703)
Sultan Kanoman, Pangeran Kartawijaya, with the title Sultan Anom Abil Makarimi Muhammad Badrudin (1677-1723)
Prince Wangsakerta, as Panembahan Cirebon with the title Pangeran Abdul Kamil Muhammad Nasarudin or Panembahan Tohpati (1677-1713).

The title change from Panembahan to Sultan for the two eldest sons of Prince Girilaya was carried out by Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, because both of them were appointed to be the Sultan of Cirebon in the capital of Banten. As sultans, they had full territory, people and their respective palaces. Prince Wangsakerta was not appointed sultan but only Panembahan. It does not have its own territory or palace, but stands as kaprabonan (paguron), which is a place of learning for the palace's intellectuals. In the imperial tradition in Cirebon, the succession of power since 1677 took place in accordance with the tradition of the palace, where a sultan would give his throne to the eldest son of his empress. If no, grandchildren or great-grandchildren will be sought. If forced, then someone else who can assume that position as a temporary officer.

Split II (1807)
The subsequent succession of the sultans generally proceeded smoothly, until the reign of Sultan Anom IV (1798-1803), where a split occurred because one of his sons, Prince Raja Kanoman, wanted to separate himself from building his own sultanate by the name of Kacirebonan Sultanate.

The will of Prince Raja Kanoman was supported by the Dutch colonial government with the issuance of a letter (Dutch: decree) The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies who appointed Prince Raja Kanoman to become Carbon Sultan Kacirebonan in 1807 with the limitation that his son and successors were not entitled to the title of sultan, enough with the title of prince. Since then in the Sultanate of Cirebon increased one more ruler, namely Kacirebonan Sultanate, a fraction of the Sultanate of Kanoman. While Sultan Kanoman V's throne fell on the son of another Sultan Anom IV named Sultan Anom Abusoleh Imamuddin (1803-1811).

Colonial period and independence
After the incident, the Dutch Colonial government also increasingly intervened in regulating Cirebon, so that the role of the Sultanate palaces of Cirebon in the areas of its control had diminished. The climax occurred in 1906 and 1926, in which the power of the Cirebon Sultanate was officially abolished by the legalization of Gemeente Cheirebon (Cirebon City), which covered an area of ​​1,100 hectares, with a population of about 20,000 people (Stlb. 1906 No. 122 and Stlb. 1926 No. 1926 No. 370). In 1942 Cirebon City was expanded again to 2,450 hectares.

During independence, the Sultanate of Cirebon region became an inseparable part of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. In general, the area of ​​the Sultanate of Cirebon is covered by the City of Cirebon and the Regency of Cirebon, which are administratively led by an Indonesian government official namely the mayor and regent.

Latest developments
After the period of Indonesian independence, the Cirebon Sultanate was no longer the center of government and the development of the Islamic religion. Even so, the existing palaces still carry out their role as the cultural center of the community, especially in the Cirebon and surrounding areas. The Cirebon Sultanate participated in various traditional ceremonies and celebrations of the community and had taken part in the Keraton Nusantara Festival (FKN) several times.

Generally, Kasepuhan Palace as the palace of Sultan Sepuh is considered the most important because it is the oldest palace that was established in 1529, while the Kanoman Palace as the palace of Sultan Anom was established in 1622, and the latter is the Kacirebonan Palace and the Kaprabonan Palace.

In early March 2003, there was an internal conflict in the Kanoman palace, between Prince Raja Muhammad Emirudin and Prince Elang Muhammad Saladin, for the appointment of Sultan Kanoman XII's throne. The inauguration of the two sultans is expected to cause divisions among the relatives of the palace.

    ^ (Indonesia) Muljana, Slamet (2005). Runtuhnya kerajaan Hindu-Jawa dan timbulnya negara-negara Islam di Nusantara. PT LKiS Pelangi Aksara. hlm. 72. ISBN 9798451163.ISBN 9789798451164

    Wildan, H.Dadan, Dr. M.Hum, Cirebon, Masa Lalu dan Kini, Pikiran Rakyat, Edisi Selasa, 8 Juni 2004 [1]
    Permana, Aan Merdeka, Surutnya Kekuasaan Kesultanan Cirebon, Pikiran Rakyat, Edisi Kamis 17 Juni 2004 [2]

Source: Sultanate_Cirebon#Panembahan_Ratu_II_.281649-1677.29
Photo: Special

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture