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Mataram II (Sultanate) - 1582 AD

Main Literacy
Jogja (Dreamland Library) - The center of this kingdom is located in the Kota Gede area (southeast of the city of Yogyakarta). The kingdom of the Sultanate of Mataram was established 1,582 AD led by the dynasty of Ki Ageng Sela and Ki Ageng Archery (who claimed they were still descendants of the Majapahit ruler).

In the golden age of Mataram, the land of Java and surrounding areas had been united, including Madura. This country had fought the VOC in Batavia to prevent the growing power of the VOC trading firm, but ironically it had to accept VOC assistance in the final days before its collapse.

The origin of this kingdom is derived from a duchy under the Sultanate of Pajang (Sultan hadiwijaya), centered on Bumi Mentaok given to Ki Ageng Archery as a reward for his service defeating Arya Penangsang, then Ki Ageng Archery began to build Mataram as a new settlement and rice field.

While its presence in this area and its development efforts have been rejected by local authorities, for example Ki Ageng Giring, Ki Ageng Tembayat and Ki Ageng Mangir.

However, there were also some officials who welcomed, such as Ki Ageng Karanglo, however Ki Ageng Archery continued to carry out development in the area, which was based in Plered, and also prepared a strategy to subdue those who opposed its presence.

Sutawijaya who received assistance from the Kingdom of Pajang, mainly from Sutan Benowo, then moved the government center to the territory of his father, Ki Ageng Pemahan, in Mataram.

Sutawijaya later became the first king of the Sultanate of Mataram with the title Panembahan Senopati I Ngalaga.

In 1,575 AD, Ki Ageng Archery died, and was succeeded by his son named Sutawijaya or Prince Ngabehi Loring Pasar, besides he was determined to continue his father's dream, he also aspired to free himself from Pajang's power.

Therefore the relationship between Mataram and Pajang began to deteriorate until the end of the war. In this war the kingdom of Pajang suffered defeat and Sultan Hadiwijaya died.

Then Sutawijaya appointed himself the first king of the Sultanate of Mataram with the title Panembahan Senopati I Ngalaga, he began to build his kingdom and move the central government to Kotagede.

In 1,590 AD the kingdom of Mataram conquered Madiun, Jipang, Kediri, then proceeded to conquer Pasuruan and Tuban.

As the new king of Islam, he was determined to make Mataram the center of Islamic culture and religion, as the successor to the Sultanate of Demak.

The Islamic Mataram Kingdom at that time adopted the Dewa - Raja system. Which means that the absolute highest power rests with the Sultan.

Sultan Wijaya died and was buried in Kotagede, then his son, Mas Jolang, who was named Prabu Hanyokrowati, was replaced.
At this time there was not much progress, because he was killed in an accident while hunting in the forest of krapyak which was then replaced by his fourth son who was the Duke of Martoputro, but because Duke Martoputro suffered from a neurological illness, the throne turned to Mas Jolang's eldest son named Raden Mas Rangsang, at this time the kingdom of mataram progressed and experienced a golden period.

After conquering Madura he replaced the "panembahan" with "Sesuhunan" (sunan) and then used the title "Susuhunan Hanyakrakusuma" last in 1,640 AD, after from Mecca he assumed the title "Sultan Agung Senopati Ing Alaga Abdurrahman" and he moved the palace's location to "Karta" due to friction in trade domination between Mataram and the VOC centered in Batavia.

After Sultan Agung died, he was replaced by his son "Sesuhunan Amangkurat 1," he moved the palace location to Plered in 1,647 AD not far from "Karta".

In addition, he also no longer used the title of sultan, but Sunan (Sesuhunan or the latter). At this time the kingdom of Mataram was less stable, because of a lot of dissatisfaction, and rebellion,

There was a big rebellion led by a nobleman from Madura named Trunajaya.

Trunajaya finally succeeded in defeating Mataram, Amangkurat 1 escaped, and died in his escape in Tegalarum (1,677 AD), so he was nicknamed Sunan Tegalarum.

Then Amangkurat 1 was replaced by his son Amangkurat II, and joined the VOC to defeat Trunajaya's army and finally succeeded.

During this time Amangkurat II was very obedient to the VOC, causing dissatisfaction among the court, and eventually many rebellions occurred again. During this time the Mataram palace was moved to Kartasura (1,680 AD).

After Amangkurat II died, and was replaced by Amangkurat III, the VOC was not happy with Amangkurat III, because he opposed the VOC

The answer to the displeasure of the VOC, the VOC appointed Pakubuwana I as king, as a result Mataram had two kings and this made the internal divisions

Amangkurat III eventually rebelled, but found his defeat, then was captured in Batavia, then exiled to Ceylon, Sri Lanka, and died in 1,734 AD

Political turmoil from time to time was finally resolved during the Pakubuana III, after the Mataram region was divided into two namely the Ngayogyakarta Sultanate and Suarakarta Sunanate on February 13, 1755.

Giyanti Agreement
This division of territory was contained in the Giyanti Agreement, which was an agreement made by the VOC, Mataram (represented by Pakubuwana III), and the Prince Mangkubumi group.

Giyanti's name was taken from the location of the agreement (Dutch spelling, now the place is located in the Kerten hamlet, Jantiharjo Village) in the southeastern city of Karanganyar, Central Java.

This agreement marked the end of the fully independent Mataram kingdom.

Based on this agreement the Mataram region is divided into two;
  • The area to the east of the Opak River was controlled by the heir to the throne of Mataram, Sunan Pakubuwana III, and remained domiciled in Surakarta
  • The area in the west was handed over to Prince Mangkubumi, and at the same time was appointed as Sultan Hamengkubuwono I based in Yogyakarta.
The split occurred again with the emergence of Mangkunegara (RM Said) which was separated from the dominance of Surakarta and Pakualaman (P. Nata Kusuma), and the four Mataram fractions were still continuing their respective dynasties, even those Mataram fractions especially the Yogyakarta Sultanate were still quite large, and were recognized by the public .

Important phenomenon
  • 1.558 AD - Ki Ageng Archery was awarded the Mataram region by Sultan Pajang Adiwijaya for his services defeating Arya Penangsang.
  • 1.577 AD - Ki Ageng Archery built his palace in Pasargede or Kotagede.
  • 1,584 AD - Ki Ageng Archery died. Sultan Pajang appointed Sutawijaya, the son of Ki Ageng Pemahan as the new ruler in Mataram, who was previously the adopted son of Sultan Pajang with the title "Mas Ngabehi Loring Pasar" (because his house is north of the market). He got the title "Senapati in Ngalaga" (because it is still considered as the Main Senapati Pajang under Sultan Pajang).
  •     1587 - Pajang Sultanate troops who will invade Mataram are ravaged by the eruption of Mount Merapi. Sutawijaya and his troops survived.
  • 1,588 AD - Mataram became a kingdom with Sutawijaya as Sultan, having the title "Senapati Ingalaga Sayidin Panatagama" meaning Warlord and Religious Life Regulatory Scholars.
  • 1,601 AD - Panembahan Senopati died and was replaced by his son, Mas Jolang who had the title Panembahan Hanyakrawati and later became known as "Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak" due to his death while hunting (Javanese: krapyak).
  • 1.613 AD - Mas Jolang died, then was succeeded by his son Prince Aryo Martoputro. Because often sick, then replaced by his brother Raden Mas Rangsang. The first title used was Panembahan Hanyakrakusuma or "Prabu Pandita Hanyakrakusuma". After Conquering Madura he used the title "Susuhunan Hanyakrakusuma". Finally after the 1640s he used the title "Sultan Agung Senapati Ingalaga Abdurrahman"
  • 1,645 AD - Sultan Agung died and was succeeded by his son Susuhunan Amangkurat I.
  • 1,645 AD - 1,677 CE - Disagreements and divisions within the Mataram royal family, which were utilized by the VOC.
  • 1,677 AD - Trunajaya surges towards the Capital of Pleret. Susuhunan Amangkurat I died. The Crown Prince was appointed as Susuhunan Amangkurat II in exile. Prince Puger who was in charge of the capital Pleret began to rule with the title Susuhunan Ing Ngalaga.
  • 1,680 AD - Susuhunan Amangkurat II moved the capital to Kartasura.
  • 1,681 AD - Prince Puger is descended from Plered's throne.
  • 1703 AD - Susuhunan Amangkurat III died. The crown prince was appointed Susuhunan Amangkurat III.
  • 1704 AD - With the help of VOC Prince Puger was crowned Susuhunan Paku Buwono I. Beginning of the First Throne War (1704-1708). Susuhunan Amangkurat III formed a government of exile.
  • 1,708 AD - Susuhunan Amangkurat III is captured and exiled to Sri Lanka until his death in 1734.
  • 1,719 M - Susuhunan Paku Buwono I died and was replaced by the crown prince with the title Susuhunan Amangkurat IV or Prabu Mangkurat Jawa. Beginning of the Second Javanese Throne War (1719-1723).
  • 1,726 AD - Susuhunan Amangkurat IV died and was replaced by the Crown Prince who was entitled Susuhunan Paku Buwono II.
  • 1,742 AD - The capital of Kartasura is controlled by rebels. Susuhunan Paku Buwana II is in exile.
  • 1,743 M - With the help of the VOC, the capital of Kartasura was captured from the hands of the rebels with a devastating state. A very heavy agreement (mortgaging Mataram sovereignty to the VOC as long as it was unable to pay off the warfare debt) for Mataram made by Susuhunan Paku Buwono II in return for VOC assistance.
  • 1,745 AD - Susuhunan Paku Buwana II built a new capital in the village of Sala on the banks of the Bengawan Beton.
  • 1,746 AD - Susuhunan Paku Buwana II officially occupies a new capital city named Surakarta. Palace conflict caused Susuhunan's brother, Prince Mangkubumi, to leave the palace.
  • 1746 - 1757 The Third Javanese Throne War broke out which lasted more than 10 years, and made the Kingdom of Mataram into two major kingdoms, and one small kingdom.
  • 1,749 AD - December 11, Susuhunan Paku Buwono II signed the transfer of Mataram sovereignty to the VOC. But de facto Mataram could only be completely subdued in 1830.
  • 1,749 AD - December 12, In Yogyakarta, Pangeran Mangkubumi was proclaimed Susuhunan Paku Buwono by his followers.
  • 1,749 AD - December 15, van Hohendorff announced the Crown Prince as Susuhunan Paku Buwono III.
  • 1,752 AD - Mangkubumi successfully stirred uprisings in the provinces of Pasisiran (the Java pantura area) from Banten to Madura. Split Mangkubumi - RM Said.
  • 1,754 AD - September 23, Nicolas Hartingh calls for a ceasefire and peace.
  • 1,754 AD - November 4, Mangkubumi - Hartingh Memorandum of Understanding. Paku Buwono III ratified the memorandum of understanding. Batavia despite objections had no choice but to ratify the same memorandum.
  • 1,755 AD - February 13, The peak of the split occurred, marked by the Giyanti Agreement which divided the Kingdom of Mataram into two, namely Surakarta and Yogyakarta Sultanate. Prince Mangkubumi became Sultan of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta with the title "Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senopati Ing-Ngalaga Ngabdurakhman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah" or more popular with the title Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I.
  • 1775 AD - Disunity again struck Mataram. The Salatiga Agreement, an agreement that further divided the Sultanate of Mataram region which had been divided, was signed on 17 March 1,757 AD in the City of Salatiga between Raden Mas Said (Mankunegaran I) with Sunan Paku Buwono III, VOC and Sultan Hamengku Buwono I. Raden Mas Said was appointed as the ruler of a prince, Praja Mangkunegaran who was released from Surakarta's Occupation with the title "Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya Mangku Nagara Senopati Ing Ayudha".
  • 1,788 AD - Susuhunan Paku Buwono III dies.
  • 1,792 AD - Sultan Hamengku Buwono I dies.
  • 1,795 AD - KGPAA Mangku Nagara I died.
  • 1,799 M - VOC was dissolved
  • 1,813 AD - Disunity again struck Mataram. Prince. Nata Kusuma was appointed as the ruler of a principality, the Duchy of Paku Alaman who was separated from the Sultanate of Yogyakarta with the title "Kangjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Paku Alam".
  • 1830 AD - End of the Diponegoro war. The whole area of ​​Yogyakarta and Surakarta was captured by the Dutch.
  • 1,830 M - 27 September, the Klaten Agreement determines a permanent poultice between Surakarta and Yogyakarta, and permanently divides the Kingdom of Mataram signed by Sasradiningrat, Pepatih Dalem Surakarta, and Danurejo, Pepatih Dalem Yogyakarta. Mataram was de facto and de yure controlled by the Dutch East Indies.
Main Literacy

Sources: From Various Sources
Photo: Special

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