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Tarumanagara - 400 AD

Jakarta (DreamLandLibrary) - Tarumanagara or the Kingdom of Taruma is an empire that once ruled in the western region of Java in the 4th century to the 7th century M. Taruma is one of the oldest kingdoms in the archipelago that left historical records. In historical records and artifacts around the royal location, it was seen that at that time the Kingdom of Taruma was a Hindu kingdom winged by Vishnu.

Etymology and Toponymy
The word tarumanagara comes from the words taruma and nagara. Nagara means kingdom or country while taruma comes from the word tarum which is the name of the river that divides West Java, namely Citarum. In the Citarum estuary, extensive bathing is found, namely the Batujaya Baths and the Cibuaya Baths, which are believed to be the legacy of the Taruma Kingdom.

Historical Sources
When looking at historical records or inscriptions, there is no definitive explanation or record of who was the first to establish the Tarumanegara kingdom. The king who was once in power and is very famous in historical records is Purnawarman. In 417 he ordered the excavation of the Gomati and Candrabaga Rivers (Kali Bekasi) along the 6112 spears (about 11 km). After excavation, the prabu held a salvation by offering 1,000 head of cattle to the Brahmins.

Evidence of the existence of the Kingdom of Taruma is known with seven stone inscriptions found. Five in Bogor, one in Jakarta and one in Lebak Banten. From these inscriptions it is known that the kingdom was led by Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman in 358 AD and he ruled until 382 AD The tomb of Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman was around the Gomati river (Bekasi area). Tarumanegara Kingdom is a continuation of the Kingdom of Salakanagara.

The inscription found by Kebon Kopi Inscription, made around 400 AD (H Kern 1917), was found in a coffee plantation owned by Jonathan Rig, Ciampea, Bogor

    The Tugu inscription, found in Batutumbu Village, Tugu Village, Tarumajaya District, Bekasi Regency, is now kept in a museum in Jakarta. The inscription explains the excavation of the Candrabaga River by Rajadirajaguru and the excavation of the Gomati River along the 6112 spears or 12km by Purnawarman in the 22nd year of his reign. The excavation of the river is an idea to avoid natural disasters in the form of floods that often occurred during the Purnawarman administration, and a drought that occurred during the 22nd year of his reign. occur in the dry season.

The Cidanghiyang inscription or Munjul Inscription, found in the Cidanghiang River that flows in Lebak Village, Munjul District, Pandeglang Regency, Banten, contains praise to King Purnawarman.

    Ciaruteun inscription, Ciampea, Bogor
    Inscription Muara Cianten, Ciampea, Bogor
    Inscription Jambu, Nanggung, Bogor
    Inscription Pasir Awi, Citeureup, Bogor

The land where the inscription was found was in the form of a low hill with a flat surface and flanked by three rivers: Cisadane, Cianten and Ciaruteun. Until the 19th century, the place was still reported as the Muara Sand. Previously included part of Ciampea's private land. Now it belongs to the Cibungbulang Subdistrict.

The village of Muara where the inscriptions of Ciaruteun and Telapak Gajah were found, were once a "river port city" whose city was located on the edge of Cisadane's meeting with Cianten. Until the 19th century the river channel was still used for transportation of coffee plantations. Now it is still used by bamboo traders to transport their merchandise downstream.

Inscriptions at this time use the ancient Sundanese script, which was originally a development of the Advanced Pallawa type script, which refers to the Cambodian script model with some characteristics that are still attached. At this time, the script has not yet reached the stage of modification of its distinctive form as used by 16th-century manuscripts.

Sand Estuary Inscription
In Bogor, an inscription was found in Pasir Muara, on the edge of a rice field, not far from the Telapak Gajah inscription from Purnawarman. That inscription is currently not at its original place. The inscription says:

    this is sabdakalanda rakryan interpreter of the panga-mbat i kawihaji panyca pasagi marsa-n the village bar recover haji ha-nda

Translation according to Bosch: This is a sign of Rakryan's reminder in the year (Saka) kawihaji (8) panca (5) pasagi (4), the reign of government was returned to the Sundanese king.

Because the "trumpet" year numbers follow the "vamato gatih" terms (numbers read from the right), the inscription was made in 458 Saka or 536 AD.

Ciaruteun inscription
Ciaruteun inscription was found in the Ci Aruteun flow, one hundred meters from the river's meeting with Ci Sadane; but in 1981 it was lifted and put in a cupola. This inscription is a relic of Purnawarman, written in Palawa, Sanskrit. It contained a four-line poem, which reads:

    vikkrantasyavanipateh shrimatah purnavarmmanah tarumanagararendrasya vishnoriva padadvayam

Vogel's translation: These two (footprints) like Vishnu's (footprints) belong to the valiant king of the world that is famous for Purnawarman, the ruler of Tarumanagara.

In addition, there is also a picture of a pair of "sengala" (soles of the feet), which show signs of power & mdash & function like "signatures" today. The presence of the Purnawarman inscription in the village shows that the area belongs to his territory. According to Reader Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara parwa II, sarga 3, page 161, among the subordinates of Tarumanagara during the reign of Purnawarman there was the name "Rajamandala" (regional king) Pasir Muhara.

Elephant Palm Inscription
Inscription Elephant Palm illustrated a pair of elephantiasis which is given a description in the form of a poem reads:

    jayavi s halasya tarumendrsaya hastinah airavatabhasya vibhatidam padadavayam

Translation: Both footprints are bright elephant footprints like Airawata belongs to the ruler of Tarumanagara who is victorious and powerful.

According to Hindu mythology, Airawata is the name of the Batara Indra mount elephant, the god of war and the penguawa Guntur. According to the Literature of Parawatwan i Bhumi Jawadwipa parwa I, sarga 1, the Purnawarman war elephant was given the name Airawata as the name of the mount mount Indra. In fact, it was also reported that the Tarumanagara Kingdom flag was painted with a lotus flower arrangement on an elephant's head. Likewise, the crown worn by Purnawarman carved a pair of bees.

The carved flag and pair of bees were clearly inscribed on the inscription of Ciaruteun which had provoked an exciting debate among historians about the meaning and value of its symbolism. The carving of a lotus crowned elephant head by experts is suspected as a "curly letter" which has not been solved until now. Likewise about the carving of a pair of signs in front of the soles of the feet there are those who think of it as a symbol of spiders, twin suns or a combination of solar-candra (sun and moon). Literature statement from Cirebon about the Taruma flag and the carving of a pair of "bhramara" (bees) as a stamp on the crown of Purnawarman in all their "youth" values ​​as historical sources must be recognized for their compatibility with the paintings contained in the Ciaruteun inscription.

Guava Inscription
In the Bogor area, there is another inscription, the Tarumanagara relic stone inscription which is located on the top of Koleangkak Hill, Pasir Gintung Village, Leuwiliang District. On this hill, Cikasungka (river) flows. Even this inscription carved on a pair of soles of the feet and is given information in the form of two lines of poetry:

    shriman data kertajnyo narapatir - asamo yah pura tarumayam name shri purnnavarmma pracurarupucara fedyavikyatavammo tasyedam - padavimbadavyam arnagarotsadane nitya-dksham bhaktanam who is dripanam - bhavati sukhahakaram shalyabhutam.

Translation according to Vogel: The most famous and loyal to his task was the unrivaled king named Sri Purnawarman who ruled Taruma and his armor could not be penetrated by the arrows of his enemies; belongs to these two footprints, which always succeed in destroying the enemy's stronghold, which always presents a feast of honor (to those who are loyal to him), but are thorns for their enemies.

News sources from abroad
Foreign sources all come from Chinese news.

    The Fa Hien News, 414M in his book Fa Fa Kao Chi tells us that in Ye-po-ti ("Jawadwipa") only few Buddhists were found, many of whom were Hindus and "dirty". (meaning animism). Ye Po Ti has often been considered the term Fa Hien for Jawadwipa, but there are other opinions that propose that Ye-Po-Ti is the Way of White in Lampung, in the area of ​​the flow of way seputih (white river) this is found evidence of ancient royal heritage in the form of punden terraces and others that are now located in the ancient park of Pugung Raharjo, although currently Pugung Raharjo is located tens of kilometers from the coast but not far from the site found rocks that indicate the area was once a coastal area exactly the speech of the Fa Faen [citation needed? ]

    News of the Sui Dynasty, tells that in 528 and 535 emissaries from the To-lo-mo ("Taruma"), located in the south had arrived.

    News of the Tang Dynasty, also tells that the years 666 and 669 have come a messenger from To-lo-mo.

From the three reports above the experts [who?] Conclude that the term To-lo-mo phonetically adjusts its words to the same as Tarumanegara.

So based on the sources that have been explained before, it can be seen several aspects of life about Taruma.

Tarumanegara Kingdom is estimated to have evolved between 400-600 AD. Based on these inscriptions, it is known that the king who ruled at that time was Purnawarman. The territory of Purnawarman, according to the Tugu inscription, covers almost all of West Java that stretches from Banten, Jakarta, Bogor and Cirebon.

The Antiquities of the Tarumanagara Period
No.Nama SitusArtepakKeterangan
1Kampung MuaraMenhir (3)

Batu dakon (2)

Arca batu tidak berkepala

Struktur Batu kali

Kuburan (tua)
2CiampeaArca gajah (batu)Rusak berat
3Gunung CibodasArcaTerbuat dari batu kapur

3 arca duduk

arca raksasa

arca (?)Fragmen

Arca dewa

Arca dwarapala

Arca brahmaDuduk diatas angsa
(Wahana Hamsa)
dilengkapi padmasana

Arca (berdiri)Fragmen kaki dan lapik


Arca singa (perunggu)
4Tanjung BaratArca siwa (duduk)
5TanjungpriokArca Durga-Kali Batu granitMus.Nas. no.296a
6Tidak diketahuiArca
7Cilincingsejumlah besar pecahansettlement pattern
8Buniperhiasan emas dalam periuksettlement pattern



Logam perunggu

Logam besi

Gelang kaca

Manik-manik batu dan kaca

Tulang belulang manusia

Sejumlah besar gerabah bentuk wadah
9Batujaya (Karawang)Unur (hunyur) sruktur bataPercandian

Segaran I

Segaran II

Segaran III

Segaran IV

Segaran V

Segaran VI

Talagajaya I

Talagajaya II

Talagajaya III

Talagajaya IV

Talagajaya V

Talagajaya VI

Talagajaya VII
10CibuayaArca Wisnu I

Arca Wisnu II

Arca Wisnu III

Lmah Duwur WadonCandi I

Lmah Duwur LanangCandi II

Pipisan batu

Wangsakerta Manuscript
An explanation of Tarumanagara is quite clear in the Wangsakerta Manuscript. Unfortunately, this manuscript invites polemic and many historians doubt that these texts can be used as historical references.

In the Wangsakerta Text from Cirebon, Tarumanegara was founded by Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman in 358, which was later replaced by his son, Dharmayawarman (382-395). Jayasingawarman was depraved on the banks of the Gomati River, while his son was on the banks of the River Candrabaga.

Maharaja Purnawarman was the third Tarumanagara king (395-434 AD). He built a new royal capital in 397 which was located closer to the coast. The city was named Sundapura - the first time the name "Sunda" was used.

The Sand Muara inscription which mentions the return of the government to the King of Sunda was made in 536 AD In that year the ruler of Tarumanagara was Suryawarman (535 - 561 AD) the 7th King Tarumanagara. Reader Jawadwipa, parwa I, sarga 1 (pages 80 and 81) provide information that during the reign of Candrawarman (515-535 AD), Suryawarman's father, many regional rulers who regained governmental authority over their region as a reward for their loyalty to Tarumanagara. From this point of view, Suryawarman did the same thing as his father's political continuation.

Rakeyan Penguru Pengambat written in the Pasir Muara inscription is very likely a high-ranking official of Tarumanagara who had previously been the king's deputy as head of government in the area. What is not clear is why the inscription regarding the return of government to the King of Sunda was there? Is the area the center of the Sunda Kingdom or is it only an important place that belongs to the Sunda Kingdom?

Both inscription sources and Cirebon sources provide information that Purnawarman succeeded in defeating his enemies. The Munjul inscription in Pandeglang shows that his territory also covered the Sunda Strait coast. Pustaka Nusantara, parwa II sarga 3 (pages 159 - 162) states that under Purnawarman's rule there were 48 regional kings that stretched from Salakanagara or Rajatapura (in the Lada Pandeglang Bay area) to Purwalingga (now Purbolinggo) in Central Java. Traditionally Cipamali (Kali Brebes) was indeed considered the power limit of the kings of the rulers of West Java in the past.

The presence of the Purnawarman Inscription in Pasir Muara, which preached the King of Sunda in 536 AD, was a symptom that the capital of Sundapura had changed its status to become a regional kingdom. This means, the center of the Tarumanagara government has shifted to another place. A similar example can be seen from the status of Rajatapura or Salakanagara (the city of Perak), called Argyre by Ptolemy in 150 AD This city until 362 became the seat of the government of Dewawarman Kings (from Dewawarman I - VIII).

When the central government moved from Rajatapura to Tarumangara, Salakanagara changed its status to become a regional kingdom. Jayasingawarman, founder of Tarumanagara, was the son-in-law of King Dewawarman VIII. He himself was a Maharesi from Salankayana in India who fled to the archipelago because his area was attacked and conquered by Maharaja Samudragupta from the Kingdom of Magada.

Suryawarman not only continued his father's political policies which gave more credibility to the regional king to take care of his own government, but also turned his attention to the eastern regions. In 526 AD, for example, Manikmaya, Suryawarman's son-in-law, established a new kingdom in Kendan, Nagreg area between Bandung and Limbangan, Garut. The son of the Manikmaya figure lived with his grandfather in the capital Tarumangara and later became Commander of the Tarumanagara Army. The development of the eastern region became more developed when the great-grandson Manikmaya founded the Galuh Kingdom in 612 AD

Tarumanagara itself only experienced the reign of 12 kings. In 669, Linggawarman, the last Tarumanagara king, was succeeded by his son-in-law, Tarusbawa. Linggawarman himself had two daughters, the eldest named Manasih became Tarusbawa's wife from Sunda and the second named Sobakancana became the wife of Dapuntahyang Sri Jayanasa, founder of the Sriwijaya Kingdom. Automatically, the throne of Tarumanagara's power fell to his son-in-law from his eldest daughter, Tarusbawa.

The power of Tarumanagara ended with the transfer of the throne to Tarusbawa, because Tarusbawa personally wanted to return to his own kingdom, namely Sunda which was previously in the power of Tarumanagara. Upon this transfer of power to Sunda, only Galuh disagreed and decided to separate from Sunda who inherited the Tarumanagara region.

The kings of Tarumanagara according to the Wangsakerta Manuscript

Kings of Tarumanegara
NoRajaMasa pemerintahan

Source: royal_Taruma

Photo: Special

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