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Sultanate of Aceh - 1496 AD

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam is an Islamic empire that once stood in the province of Aceh, Indonesia. The Sultanate of Aceh is located in the north of the island of Sumatra with the capital city of Kutaraja (Banda Aceh) with its first sultan Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah who was crowned on Sunday, 1 Jumadil beginning 913 H or on 8 September 1507. In its long history (1496 - 1903 ), Aceh has carved out its past with such a magnificent and amazing, especially because of its ability to develop military education patterns and systems, its commitment in opposing European imperialism, a system of orderly and systematic governance, realizing centers of scientific study, to its ability to establish diplomatic relations with other countries. 

Main article: History of Aceh

The beginning
The Sultanate of Aceh was founded by Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah in 1496. Initially this kingdom stood on the territory of the Kingdom of Lamuri, then subdued and united several surrounding kingdoms including Daya, Pedir, Lidie, Nakur. Furthermore, in 1524 the Pasai region had become part of the sovereignty of the Aceh Sultanate followed by Aru.

In 1528, Ali Mughayat Syah was succeeded by his eldest son Salahuddin, who later ruled until 1537. Then Salahuddin was succeeded by Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar who was in power until 1568. [2]

The Sultanate of Aceh experienced a golden period during the leadership of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607 - 1636). During his leadership, Aceh had succeeded in repelling the Portuguese forces from the Malacca Strait. This incident is described in La Grand Encyclopedie that in 1582, the Acehnese had expanded its influence over the Sunda islands (Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan) and on some of the Malay Peninsula land. Besides that, Aceh also had diplomatic relations with all the nations that sailed the Indian Ocean. In 1586, the Aceh sultanate attacked the Portuguese in Melaka with a fleet of 500 warships and 60,000 sea troops. This attack was in an effort to expand the dominance of Aceh over the Straits of Malacca and the Malay peninsula. Although Aceh succeeded in besieging Malacca from all directions, this attack failed due to a conspiracy between the Portuguese and the Pahang sultanate.

In the field of fostering literature and religious knowledge, Aceh has given birth to a number of well-known scholars, whose writing becomes the main reference in their respective fields, such as Hamzah Fansuri in his book Tabyan Fi Ma'rifati al-U Adyan, Syamsuddin al-Sumatrani in his book Mi ' raj al-Muhakikin al-Iman, Nuruddin Al-Raniri in his book Sirat al-Mustaqim, and Sheikh Abdul Rauf Singkili in his book Mi'raj al-Tulabb Fi Fashil

The decline of the Sultanate of Aceh began since the departure of Sultan Iskandar Tsani in 1641. The decline of Aceh was caused by several factors, including the strengthening of Dutch power on the island of Sumatra and the Straits of Malacca, marked by the fall of the Minangkabau, Siak, Tapanuli and Mandailing, Deli and Bengkulu regions into Dutch colonial lap. Another important factor is the struggle for power among the imperial heirs.

The London Treaty signed in 1824 gave the Dutch power to control all British / British territories in Sumatra while the Dutch would surrender all of their trading power in India and also promised not to compete with the British / British to take control of Singapore.

At the end of November 1871, the so-called Sumatran Treaty was born, which stated clearly "Britain must free itself from any demonstrations of extending Dutch power in any part of Sumatra. The restrictions on the London Treaty of 1824 on Aceh were canceled." Since then, efforts to invade Aceh were increasingly widely voiced, both from the Netherlands and Batavia. After fighting for 40 years, the Sultanate of Aceh finally fell and was combined as part of the Dutch East Indies country. In 1942 the Dutch East Indies government fell under Japanese rule. In 1945, Japan was defeated by the Allies, so the leaders of the independence movement in the capital of the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) immediately proclaimed Indonesian independence in 1945, Aceh declared willing to join the Republic of Indonesia at the invitation and persuasion of Sukarno to the Aceh leader Sultan Muhammad Daud Beureueh at that time [citation needed].

The Aceh War
The Aceh war began since the Netherlands declared war on Aceh on March 26, 1873 after carrying out several diplomatic threats, but did not succeed in seizing large areas. The war flared up again in 1883, but again failed, and in 1892 and 1893, the Dutch considered that they had failed to take Aceh.

In 1896 Dr. Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, an Islamic expert from the University of Leiden who had succeeded in gaining the trust of many Acehnese leaders, gave advice to the Dutch to embrace the ulemas, and respect the sultan. This suggestion was successful. In 1898, Governor General Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz was declared the governor of Aceh, got the rank of Tuanku Tijan, and together with his deputy, Hendrikus Colijn, who got the rank of Tuanku Niman to organize Aceh.

In 1903 Sultan Muhammad Daud finally surrendered to the Netherlands after his two wives, children and mother were first captured by the Dutch. The Sultanate of Aceh was finally in the dark in 1904. At that time, almost all of Aceh had been captured by the Dutch.

Sultan of Aceh
The Sultan of Aceh is the ruler / king of the Sultanate of Aceh, not only the sultan, in Aceh there is also a Sultanah / Sultan Wanita. The list of Sultan who has ruled in Aceh can be seen further in the main article from the Sultan of Aceh.

Sultanate tradition

    My lord
    Commander Sagoe


    ^ Sejarah Kerajaan Aceh di
    ^ Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 16th century

Further reading
    LOMBARD, Denys. Kerajaan Aceh: Zaman Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636). Jakarta: Kepustakan Populer Gramedia, 2006. ISBN 979-9100-49-6 ulasan di ulasan di
    REID, Anthony. Asal Usul Konflik Aceh: Dari Perebutan Pantai Timur Sumatra hingga Akhir Kerajaan Aceh Abad ke-19. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2005. ISBN 979-461-534-X
    REID, Anthony. An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese & Other Histories of Sumatra. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2005. ulasan oleh Taufik Abdullah di Kompas

External links
    (Indonesia) Sejarah bertinta emas pernah terukir di Bumi Aceh
    (Indonesia) Sejarah Islam di Indonesia di
    (Indonesia) Sedikit Bercerita tentang Atjeh
    (Indonesia) Sejarah Kerajaan Aceh di
    (Inggris) Bendera-bendera yang digunakan oleh Kesultanan Aceh

Source: Sultanate

Photo: Special

Arabic Culture Turns Inheritance from Christian Religious Culture