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Sultanate of Demak - 1478 AD

Demak (Dreamland Library) - The Sultanate of Demak or the Kingdom of Demak is the first and largest Islamic kingdom on the north coast of Java ("Pasisir"). According to Javanese tradition, Demak was previously a duchy of the Majapahit kingdom, then emerged as a new force inheriting the legitimacy of Majapahit's greatness.

This kingdom was recorded as a pioneer in the spread of Islam on the island of Java and Indonesia in general. Although not long-lived and immediately setback because there was a struggle for power among the royal relatives. In 1568, Demak's power shifted to the Pajang Kingdom founded by Jaka Tingkir. One of the historical relics of the Demak Kingdom is the Great Mosque of Demak, which according to tradition was founded by Walisongo.

The location of the Demak palace, which at that time was by the sea, was in the Bintara village (read "Bintoro" in Javanese), now it has become the city of Demak in Central Java. The term kingdom in the period when the capital there was known as Demak Bintara. During the 4th king the capital was moved to Prawata (pronounced "Prawoto") and for this period the kingdom was called Demak Prawata.

Early period
Towards the end of the 15th century, along with the decline of Majapahit, practically some of his domains began to separate. Even the regions scattered over the duchy attacked each other, claiming each other as heirs to the Majapahit throne.

While Demak, located in the north coast of Java, emerged as an independent area. In Javanese tradition it is described that Demak is a direct replacement for Majapahit, while Raja Demak (Raden Patah) is considered the last Majapahit's son. The kingdom of Demak was founded by a likely Chinese Muslim named Cek Ko-po. Most likely his son was a person whom Tomé Pires in his Suma Oriental nicknamed "Pate Rodim", probably meant "Badruddin" or "Kamaruddin" and died around 1504. Rodim's son or sister, named Trenggana reigned from 1505 to 1518, then from 1521 to 1546. Between these two periods the throne was his brother-in-law, Raja Yunus (Pati Unus) of Jepara. While in the Trenggana period around 1527 the military expansion of the Demak Kingdom succeeded in defeating Majapahit.

Golden age
At the beginning of the 16th century, the Demak Kingdom had become a powerful kingdom on the island of Java, none of the other kingdoms on Java were able to match this royal effort in expanding its power by subduing several port and interior areas in the archipelago.

Under Pati Unus
The main article for this section is: Demak Invasion into Malacca
Demak under Pati Unus is Demak with an insight into the archipelago. His big vision was to make Demak a large maritime kingdom. During his leadership, Demak felt threatened by the Portuguese occupation of Malacca. Then several times he sent his fleet to attack the Portuguese in Malacca.

Under Trenggana
Trenggana has contributed to the spread of Islam in East and Central Java. Underneath, Demak began to control other Javanese areas such as seizing Sunda Kelapa from Pajajaran and driving out Portuguese troops who would land there (1527), Tuban (1527), Madiun (1529), Surabaya and Pasuruan (1527), Malang (1545) ), and Blambangan, the last Hindu kingdom at the eastern end of Java (1527, 1546). Trenggana died in 1546 in a battle to conquer Pasuruan, and was later replaced by Sunan Prawoto. One of the Demak warlords at that time was Fatahillah, a young man from Pasai (Sumatra), who was also the son-in-law of the Trenggana king. Meanwhile Maulana Hasanuddin, son of Sunan Gunung Jati, was ordered by Trenggana to subdue Banten Girang. Later the descendants of Maulana Hasanudin made Banten an independent kingdom. Whereas Sunan Kudus was the imam at the Demak Mosque and was also the main leader in the conquest of Majapahit before moving to Kudus.

Succession to the hands of Sunan Prawoto did not take place smoothly. His appointment as sunan was opposed by Trenggana's younger brother, Prince Sekar Seda Lepen. In the suppression of the rebellion, Prince Sekar Seda Lepen was finally killed. However, in 1561 Sunan Prawoto and his family were killed by Arya Penangsang, the son of Prince Sekar Seda Lepen. Arya Penangsang then became the ruler of the throne of Demak. Arya Penangsang's order also killed Prince Hadiri, Duke of Jepara, and this caused the dukes under Demak to antagonize Arya Penangsang, one of whom was Duke of Pengging.

Arya Penangsang was finally killed in the war by Sutawijaya, Joko Tingkir's adopted son. Joko Tingkir moved the government center to Pajang, where he founded the Pajang Kingdom.

    ^ a b c Ricklefs, M., (2002), A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1200, Stanford University Press, ISBN 9780804744805.
    ^ M. C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1200, halaman 38
    ^ Cortesão, Armando, (1944), The Suma Oriental of Tomé Pires, London: Hakluyt Society, 2 vols
    ^ Uka Tjandrasasmita, (2009), Arkeologi Islam Nusantara, Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia, ISBN 979-9102-12-X.
External links
M. Faliqul Isbah, Revealing Hindu-Javanese History, Book Review of the Collapse of the Hindu-Javanese Kingdom and the Emergence of Islamic Countries in the Archipelago, written by Slamet Muljana.

Source: Sultanate_Demak
Photo: Special

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