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La Galigo - Similar to the Koran but older than the Koran

Ujungpandang ( Dreamland Library ) - The Bugis in South Sulawesi, adheres to a belief in the Gods of Seuwae (the Only God). "The Bug...

Kalinyamat - 1536 AD to 1546 AD

Jakarta (Dreamland Library) - The kingdom of Kalinyamat originated in Jepara, the walls of the fort spanned across several villages, including Purwogondo, Margoyoso, Kriyan, Bakalan, Robayan and the center of the Palace / Siti Inggil in Kriyan, the Kalinyamat kingdom located in the Kalinyamat area. Kalinyamat Kingdom's authority includes Jepara, Kudus, Pati, Rembang, Mataram. Tanah Pati and Mataram Land were made for the contest for anyone who succeeded in killing Arya Penangsang.

The Origins of the Prince and Queen of Kalinyamat
Ratu Kalinyamat's real name is Retna Kencana, daughter of Trenggana, king of Demak (1521-1546). In his teens he was married to Prince Kalinyamat.

Prince Kalinyamat came from outside Java. There are various versions of its origin. The Jepara people call their real name Win-tang, a Chinese merchant who had an accident at sea. He was stranded on Jepara beach, and then studied with Sunan Kudus.

Another version says, Win-tang came from Aceh. His real name is Prince Toyib, son of Sultan Mughayat Syah king of Aceh (1514-1528). Toyib traveled to China and became the adopted son of a minister named Tjie Hwio Gwan. The name Win-tang is the Javanese spelling for Tjie Bin Thang, which is the new name Toyib.

Win-tang and his foster father then moved to Java. There Win-tang founded the village of Kalinyamat, which is currently in the Kalinyamat District, so that he was known by the name of Prince Kalinyamat. He succeeded in marrying Retna Kencana, the daughter of the regent of Jepara, so that his wife was later nicknamed Ratu Kalinyamat. Since then, Prince Kalinyamat became a member of the Demak Royal family and obtained the title Pangeran Hadiri.

Prince and Queen Kalinyamat rule together in Jepara. Tjie Hwio Gwan, his foster father, was made the governor of the title Sungging Badar Duwung, who also taught carving to the people of Jepara.

Leader of the Kalinyamat Kingdom
    Sultan Hadlirin (1536.-1546)
    Queen of Kalinyamat (1546-1579}
    Pangeran Arya Jepara (1579 -...)

    Former Kraton (Now Named Siti Inggil), in Kriyan
    The Former Market (Now Named Kutha Surgery), in Robayan

Death of Prince Kalinyamat
In 1549 Sunan Prawata the fourth king of Demak was killed by the envoy of Arya Penangsang, his cousin who was the regent of Jipang. Queen Kalinyamat found the kris Kyai Betok belonging to Sunan Kudus stuck in her brother's body. So, the Prince and Queen Kalinyamat went to Kudus asking for an explanation.

Sunan Kudus was a supporter of the Aryan stimulator in the conflict over the throne after the death of the king of Trenggana (1546). Ratu Kalinyamat came to demand justice for her brother's death. Sunan Kudus explained that when he was young Sunan Prawata had killed Prince Sekar Seda Lepen, the father of Arya Penangsang, so it was natural that he was now rewarded in kind.

Ratu Kalinyamat was disappointed with Sunan Kudus's attitude. She and her husband chose to return to Jepara. In the middle of the road, they were beaten by Arya Penangsang's men. Prince Kalinyamat was killed. It is said that he had crawled on the ground with the remnants of energy, so that by the surrounding population, the area where the death of Prince Kalinyamat was called Prambat village.

According to the story. Furthermore, by bringing the body of Prince Kalinyamat, Queen Kalinyamat continued his journey to a river and the blood that came from the body of Prince Kalinyamat made the river water purple, and then the area was known as Kaliwungu. Increasingly west, and in a state of exhaustion, then passes Pringtulis. And because of the pain in walking staggered (ancestors) in a place now known as Mayong. Arriving in Purwogondo, so called because this is where the initial smell came from the body that was brought by Queen Kalinyamat, and then passed through Pecangaan and arrived in Mantingan.

Ratu Kalinyamat is meditating
Ratu Kalinyamat managed to escape from the murder incident. He then imprisoned naked on Mount Danaraja, with an oath not to dress before he was caught by the head of Arya Penangsang. His biggest hope is his brother-in-law, namely Hadiwijaya alias Jaka Tingkir, the regent of Pajang, because only he is equal in his powers to the regent of Jipang.

Hadiwijaya was reluctant to face Arya Penangsang directly because they were both members of the Demak family. He also held a contest with prizes in the land of Mataram and Pati. The contest was won by Ki Ageng Panahan and Ki Penjawi. Arya Penangsang was killed at the hands of Sutawijaya's son, Ki Ageng Archery, thanks to Ki Juru Martani's clever strategy.

Queen Kalinyamat's First Attack on the Portuguese
Ratu Kalinyamat is again the regent of Jepara. After the death of Arya Penangsang in 1549, the Demak, Jepara, and Jipang areas became Pajang's subordinates led by king Hadiwijaya. Nevertheless, Hadiwijaya still treated Ratu Kalinyamat as a respected senior figure.

Ratu Kalinyamat, like the previous regent of Jepara (Pati Unus), was anti-Portuguese. In 1550 he sent 4,000 Jepara troops in 40 ships to fulfill the request of the Johor sultan to free Malacca from European rule.

The Jepara forces then joined the Malay Alliance forces until they reached 200 warships. The combined forces attacked from the north and succeeded in capturing a portion of Malacca. But the Portuguese managed to reply. The Malay Alliance troops could be repelled, while Jepara's troops remained defensive.

Only after the leader was killed did Jepara's troops withdraw. Subsequent battles continued on the coast and sea, which killed 2,000 Jepara soldiers. A storm came on and two Jepara ships were stranded back to the coast of Malacca, and fell prey to the Portuguese. Jepara warriors who managed to return to Java no more than half of those who managed to leave Malacca.

Ratu Kalinyamat has never been deterred. In 1565 he fulfilled the demands of the Hituites in Ambon to deal with the interference of the Portuguese and the Hatives.

The Second Attack of the Queen of Kalinyamat on the Portuguese
In 1564, Sultan Ali Riayat Syah of the Sultanate of Aceh asked for help from Demak to attack the Portuguese in Malacca. At that time Demak was led by an easily suspicious regent, named Arya Pangiri, son of Sunan Prawata. He killed the Aceh envoy. Finally, Aceh continued to attack Malacca in 1567 even without Javanese assistance. The attack failed.

In 1573, the Aceh sultan asked Ratu Kalinyamat for help to attack Malacca again. The queen sent 300 ships containing 15,000 Jepara soldiers. The troops, led by Ki Demang Admiral, had only arrived in Malacca in October 1574. Even though at that time the Aceh army had been repelled by the Portuguese.

Jepara troops who arrived late were directly firing at Malacca from the Malacca Strait. The next day, they landed and built a defense. But finally, the defense could be penetrated by the Portuguese. As many as 30 Jepara ships caught fire. Jepara began to press, but still refused peace talks because it was too favorable for the Portuguese. Meanwhile, as many as six supply ships sent by Queen Kalinyamat were captured by the Portuguese. Jepara's party was getting weaker and decided to go home. From the initial amount sent by Ratu Kalinyamat, only about a third arrived in Java.

Despite losing twice, Queen Kalinyamat has shown that she is a brave woman. The Portuguese even recorded it as rainha de Japara, senhora poderosa e rica, de kranige Dame, which means "Queen Jepara is a rich and powerful woman, a brave woman".

In lieu of Queen Kalinyamat
Queen Kalinyamat died around 1579. She was buried near the grave of Prince Kalinyamat in the village of Mantingan.

During his life, Ratu Kalinyamat raised three young men. The first was his younger brother, Pangeran Timur Rangga Jumena, the youngest son of Trenggana, who later became the regent of Madiun. The second was his niece, Arya Pangiri, the son of Sunan Prawata who later became the regent of Demak. While the third is his cousin, Prince Arya Jepara, the son of Ratu Ayu Kirana (Sultan Trenggono's younger brother).

Prince Arya Jepara's father was Maulana Hasanuddin, the first king of Banten. When Maulana Yusuf the second king of Banten died in 1580, his crown son was still a child. Prince Arya Jepara intends to usurp the throne. The battle took place in Banten. Prince Jepara was forced to withdraw after ki Demang Laksamana, his commander, died at the hands of the Mangkubumi Sultanate of Banten.

    Babad Tanah Jawi. 2007. (trans.). Yogyakarta: Narrative
    De Graaf HJ, Pigeaud ThGT. 2001. First Islamic Kingdom in Java. Terj. Jakarta: Graffiti Main Library
    Hayati et al. 2000. The role of Ratu Kalinyamat in Jepara in the XVI Century. Jakarta: National History Awareness Awareness Project Directorate of History and Traditional Values ​​Directorate General of Culture Ministry of National Education.

Source: kingdom_Kalinyamat

Photo: Special

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